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August Strindberg Part 1


A collection of biographical, historical, and analytical information on August Strindberg.

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August strindberg essay

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boys dont cry essay Cast: Hilary Swank, Chloë Sevigny, Peter Sarsgaard, Brendan Sexton, Alison Folland, Alicia Goranson, Jeanetta Arnette, Matt McGrath, Rob Campbell. Writers: Kimberly Peirce Andy Bienen. Music: Nathan Larson. Cinematographer: Jim Denault. Producers: John Hart, Eva Kolodner, Jeff Sharp, Christine Vachon.

Director: Kimberly Peirce. hen they tell you that Boys Don't Cry is strindberg essay about homophobia, you may be tempted to think that it's just another movie-of-the-week brought to the big screen, two hours full of boilerplate platitudes and greg climate canned morality. When you hear that Boys Don't Cry is based on a true story about strindberg essay a young woman who lived as a man in write brittany the Heartland and who was murdered when her secret was discovered, you may wonder why you even need to see the movie. You know how it ends; you know what the message is going to be. It might seem like the cinematic equivalent of a hunk of spinach–good for you, plenty of fiber, but not particularly appealing. Nothing could be further from the truth. While other Fall 1999 movies like American Beauty and august strindberg Fight Club monopolize public and critical attention, Boys Don't Cry slips through the cracks and blindsides you with raw, unvarnished power. Write Brittany! As good as American Beauty is, some of the august glib observations and plot conveniences ring false. Essay About! American Beauty is strindberg just a movie, after all. But Boys Don't Cry isn't just a movie. And it most certainly isn't about any single abstract concept–homophobia or anything else. Boys Don't Cry is a real life drama, and a reminder that real life dramas are often more moving and complex than any concocted script.

Boys Don't Cry is the story of brittany a group of august strindberg essay young people in Falls City, Nebraska, where a flammable combination of personalities and events ignited in late December, 1993. About Slaughterhouse-five! But director Kimberly Peirce doesn't care about the sensationalistic events as much as she does about the people at the heart of the story. How did these particular people wind up as tabloid fodder? Who were they? What inspired them, and what frightened them? What did they seek, and what did they find?

Peirce immerses us in the world of 20-year-old Teena Brandon, who lived as Brandon Teena, a man, and loved a teenager named Lana Tisdel. Actually, we never really meet Teena, because she doesn't exist. There is only Brandon. It's not just that Brandon cultivates a masculine appearance, with his hair cut short and his breasts strapped down. Every gesture, every expression, every turn of phrase suggests hat he is a man. When people look at Brandon, it doesn't even occur to essay them that he might be a woman. Most of the time, it doesn't occur even to Brandon that he is a woman. Greg Thesis Climate Change! In fact, when you watch Brandon and strindberg essay Lana's intimate moments, you may yourself forget that you are watching–oh my!–two women. Brandon is not cross-dressing by choice. He is cheat cross-dressing because he is a man trapped in a woman's body, and must alter his outward appearance to match his inner self. August Strindberg! Brandon is also a petty criminal.

He shoplifts and steals cars so he can afford to hang out in bars and go out on dates. In trouble with the law and known to bowling plan be female in Lincoln, Nebraska, Brandon moves to Falls City, where he befriends a couple of carousing ex-cons, John Lotter (Peter Sarsgaard) and Thomas Nissen (Brendan Sexton), and moves in with a flirtatious single mother named Candace (Alicia Goranson, from Roseanne ). Romance between Brandon and Candace does not develop, however, and august strindberg essay Brandon soon takes an interest in young Lana Tisdale (Chloë Sevigny) instead. Although Lana is initially cool to Brandon's advances, she soon finds him irresistible. Accepted as a man by exemplification an entire community and with a woman who loves him, everything is finally going right for Brandon. But you know that it's only august, a matter of time before somebody finds out about Brandon's secret. And then there's the matter of the outstanding warrant for essay about slaughterhouse-five Brandon's arrest. As Brandon, Hilary Swank is august stunning. How Peirce found Hilary Swank, heretofore just another pretty face with an undistinguisted career that featured a brief stint on Beverly Hills 90210 , is method doubt a mystery. Who knew that the erstwhile Next Karate Kid had this kind of a performance inside her. In fact, it's not even a performance. Swank is Brandon, period.

Not Teena Brandon, but Brandon Teena. August! Asked to write brittany watson do exactly what the real Brandon did–transform herself into a man–Swank succeeds on every level. Her transformation is note-perfect. Most of the time you believe you are actually watching a man. Not only a man, but a penniless young man from the Great Plains. There is no trace of Hilary Swank the Southern California bleach blonde. It's as if she, like Teena Brandon, never existed. As Lana, Chloë Sevigny ( The Last Days of Disco, Palmetto ) is the august essay most recognizable name in the cast.

She does a remarkable job of greg climate change portraying a frustrated teenager with a dead-end job in a tiny town. A teenager who has never been treated with sensitivity and respect. Who has never experienced real intimacy. When Lana gets a taste of these things, she hungers for them so much that she's willing to delude herself of almost anything. She knows there's something funny about Brandon. August Strindberg Essay! It doesn't matter.

She has never met anyone with Brandon's joie de vivre before. She has never been truly loved before. Brandon re-connects Lana to the beauty and magic of the greg hunt change world around her. For the first time, Lana's future is wide open with possibilities. August Strindberg! As John, Peter Sarsgaard ( The Man in the Iron Mask ) gives one of those rare, extraordinary performances that gives evil a human face. Charismatic and gregarious, John is the coursework cheat guy everybody wants to hang out with at the bar or the pool hall. Sure, he's an ex-con, but everybody knows he's not a bad dude. August Strindberg! It's a chilling moment when you first realize that all is not entirely well with John Lotter. Having no family of his own, John has grafted himself onto Lana's family.

The ultimate control freak who has never had anything to control, John is extremely possessive of Lana and her family–to say the least. Essay! He is dating Lana's mother even though he is august strindberg essay only a couple years older than Brandon, and his relationship to coursework cheat Lana herself is unclear. There is something sexual between Lana and John, a sinister undercurrent flowing through the whole story, tugging at strindberg, everything. It's not just that John is jealous of Brandon. Method! He is initially quite accepting of Brandon, but he grows suspicious of the rapidly developing passion between the two lovers. Not only is it something he hasn't experienced with Lana, it's something that he's never experienced at all. August Strindberg! John's suspicion turns to rage when he discovers Brandon is essay female, not just because he's been lied to, not just because homosexuality is sick, but because the perfect man for Lana is not a man.

It's an insult to John's manliness; it's an affront to august strindberg his sense of right and cheat wrong, and it contradicts everything he knows. When a guy like John has the foundation of his world shaken, he is august strindberg going to cheat do something drastic. Peirce's most impressive achievement is bringing these characters and this small town to august strindberg life. This Columbia University-educated director displays none of the condescension towards low-income small-town Americans found so often in the movies. Peirce may have a political or social agenda here, but she doesn't turn John or his buddy Thomas into critical essay about slaughterhouse-five, poster children for prejudice and bigotry. Never once does Peirce lecture you. Brandon's questioning by the local sheriff (near the end) is the one scene that may seem a little heavy-handed, but as it happens, that scene precisely tracks the actual transcripts of the interrogation. There is also a bit of symbolism sprinkled in august strindberg (Brandon runs past a rest room sign that says women and points in a different direction, for example), but for the most part, Peirce strives for pure, unadulterated realism. She does an admirable job of letting the story speak for itself.

It does so eloquently. Boys Don't Cry is an American tragedy. Like in those ancient Greek plays, all the characters are fatally flawed, and they drive the greg hunt climate change story inexorably to essay its inevitable conclusion. There is no sense that the essay about slaughterhouse-five outcome can be avoided. August! The characters cannot help behaving according to how it is in bowling their nature to behave.

All you can do is watch helplessly as events unfold, and mourn when the film is over. And remember that there once was a young man named Brandon Teena. Review November 1999 by strindberg AboutFilm.Com and the author. My Thesis Brittany! Images 1999 Fox Searchlight Pictures and its related entities. Essay! All rights reserved.

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Minority Group and Multiculturalism. This research was commissioned by the Transatlantic Council on strindberg essay Migration, an initiative of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI), for its seventh plenary meeting, held November 2011 in Berlin. The meeting’s theme was “National Identity, Immigration, and Social Cohesion: (Re)building Community in an Ever-Globalizing World” and this paper was one of the reports that informed the Council’s discussions. The Council, an MPI initiative undertaken in cooperation with its policy partner the Bertelsmann Stiftung, is a unique deliberative body that examines. We will write a custom essay sample. on Minority Group and Multiculturalism or any similar. topic specifically for you. vital policy issues and descartes method doubt, informs migration policymaking processes in North America and Europe. August Essay! The Council’s work is generously supported by descartes doubt essay, the following foundations and governments: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Open Society Foundations, Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Barrow Cadbury Trust (UK Policy Partner), the august, Luso-American Development Foundation, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, and the governments of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. For more on coursework the Transatlantic Council on Migration, please visit: www. migrationpolicy. org/transatlantic. Strindberg Essay! © 2012 Migration Policy Institute. All Rights Reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in exemplification any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the Migration Policy Institute. A full-text PDF of this document is available for free download from essay, www. migrationpolicy. org. Permission for reproducing excerpts from this report should be directed to: Permissions Department, Migration Policy Institute, 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036, or by contacting [emailprotected] Page 2 Minority Group and Multiculturalism Essay. 28 About the thesis change, Author…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Executive Summary Ideas about the august strindberg, legal and political accommodation of write brittany, ethnic diversity — commonly termed “multiculturalism” — emerged in the West as a vehicle for replacing older forms of ethnic and racial hierarchy with new relations of democratic citizenship.Despite substantial evidence that these policies are making progress toward that goal, a chorus of political leaders has declared them a failure and heralded the death of august strindberg essay, multiculturalism.

This popular master narrative is problematic because it mischaracterizes the essay, nature of the experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and misidentifies not only the genuine difficulties and august strindberg, limitations they have encountered but the options for addressing these problems. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for exemplification essay, Western democracies. This report challenges four powerful myths about multiculturalism. ?? First, it disputes the caricature of multiculturalism as the uncritical celebration of diversity at the expense of addressing grave societal problems such as unemployment and social isolation. Instead it offers an account of multiculturalism as the pursuit of new relations of democratic citizenship, inspired and constrained by human-rights ideals. ?? Second, it contests the idea that multiculturalism has been in wholesale retreat, and offers instead evidence that multiculturalism policies (MCPs) have persisted, and have even grown stronger, over the past ten years. ?? Third, it challenges the idea that multiculturalism has failed, and offers instead evidence that MCPs have had positive effects. ?? Fourth, it disputes the essay, idea that the method essay, spread of civic integration policies has displaced multiculturalism or rendered it obsolete. The report instead offers evidence that MCPs are fully consistent with certain forms of civic integration policies, and that indeed the combination of multiculturalism with an “enabling” form of civic integration is both normatively desirable and empirically effective in at least some cases. Strindberg! To help address these issues, this paper draws upon hunt climate change the Multiculturalism Policy Index. This index 1) identifies eight concrete policy areas where liberal-democratic states — faced with a choice — decided to develop more multicultural forms of citizenship in relation to immigrant groups and 2) measures the extent to which countries have espoused some or all of these policies over time. While there have been some high-profile cases of retreat from MCPs, such as the Netherlands, the general pattern from 1980 to 2010 has been one of modest strengthening.

Ironically, some countries that have been vociferous about multiculturalism’s “failure” (e. g. , Germany) have not actually practiced an active multicultural strategy. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. However, not all attempts to adopt new models of multicultural citizenship have taken root or succeeded in achieving their intended effects. There are several factors that can either facilitate or impede the successful implementation of multiculturalism: Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 1 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE ?? Desecuritization of ethnic relations. Multiculturalism works best if relations between the. state and minorities are seen as an issue of social policy, not as an issue of state security. If the state perceives immigrants to be a security threat (such as Arabs and strindberg, Muslims after 9/11), support for multiculturalism will drop and the space for minorities to even voice multicultural claims will diminish. ?? Human rights. Support for multiculturalism rests on the assumption that there is a shared commitment to human rights across ethnic and religious lines.

If states perceive certain groups as unable or unwilling to respect human-rights norms, they are unlikely to accord them multicultural rights or resources. Much of the backlash against multiculturalism is descartes method doubt fundamentally driven by anxieties about Muslims, in particular, and their perceived unwillingness to embrace liberal-democratic norms. ?? Border control. Strindberg! Multiculturalism is method doubt essay more controversial when citizens fear they lack control over their borders — for instance when countries are faced with large numbers (or unexpected surges) of unauthorized immigrants or asylum seekers — than when citizens feel the borders are secure. ?? Diversity of august, immigrant groups. Doubt Essay! Multiculturalism works best when it is genuinely. multicultural — that is, when immigrants come from many source countries rather than coming overwhelmingly from strindberg, just one (which is more likely to lead to polarized relations with the majority). ?? Economic contributions. Critical Essay About! Support for multiculturalism depends on the perception that immigrants are holding up their end of the bargain and making a good-faith effort to strindberg contribute to society — particularly economically. When these facilitating conditions are present, multiculturalism can be seen as a low-risk option, and indeed seems to have worked well in such cases. Multiculturalism tends to lose support in high-risk situations where immigrants are seen as predominantly illegal, as potential carriers of illiberal practices or movements, or as net burdens on the welfare state. However, one could argue that rejecting immigrant multiculturalism under these circumstances is in fact the higher-risk move.

It is precisely when immigrants are perceived as illegitimate, illiberal, and burdensome that multiculturalism may be most needed. I. Essay! Introduction Ideas about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity have been in a state of strindberg, flux around the business plan, world for the past 40 years. One hears much about the “rise and strindberg essay, fall of multiculturalism. ” Indeed, this has become a kind of cheat, master narrative, widely invoked by scholars, journalists, and policymakers alike to explain the evolution of contemporary debates about diversity. Although people disagree about essay what comes after multiculturalism, there is a surprising consensus that we are in a post-multicultural era. Doubt Essay! This report contends that this master narrative obscures as much as it reveals, and essay, that we need an alternative framework for thinking about the coursework cheat, choices we face. Multiculturalism’s successes and failures, as well as its level of public acceptance, have depended on the nature of the issues at stake and the countries involved, and we need to understand these variations if we are to identify a more sustainable model for accommodating diversity. This paper will argue that the master narrative 1) mischaracterizes the nature of the experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, 2) exaggerates the extent to strindberg essay which they have been abandoned, and 3) misidentifies the genuine difficulties and exemplification, limitations they have encountered and the options for addressing these problems. 2 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and strindberg essay, the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Before we can decide whether to celebrate or lament the fall of multiculturalism, we need first to make sure we know what multiculturalism has meant both in theory and in practice, where it has succeeded or failed to meet its objectives, and under what conditions it is likely to thrive in descartes doubt the future. The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism The master narrative of the “rise and fall of multiculturalism” helpfully captures important features of our current debates.

Yet in some respects it is misleading, and may obscure the real challenges and opportunities we face. In its simplest form, the master narrative goes like this:1 Since the mid-1990s … we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism. Strindberg! From the 1970s to mid-1990s, there was a clear trend across Western democracies toward the increased recognition and accommodation of diversity through a range of multiculturalism policies (MCPs) and minority rights. These policies were endorsed both at the domestic level in some states and by international organizations, and involved a rejection of earlier ideas of unitary and write, homogeneous nationhood. Strindberg Essay! Since the mid-1990s, however, we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism, and a reassertion of ideas of business, nation building, common values and identity, and unitary citizenship — even a call for august strindberg essay, the “return of assimilation. ” This retreat is partly driven by fears among the majority group that the critical, accommodation of diversity has “gone too far” and is threatening their way of life. This fear often expresses itself in the rise of nativist and populist right-wing political movements, such as the Danish People’s Party, defending old ideas of “Denmark for the Danish. ” But the retreat also reflects a belief among the center-left that multiculturalism has failed to help the intended beneficiaries — namely, minorities themselves — because it has failed to address the underlying sources of august essay, their social, economic, and political exclusion and may have unintentionally contributed to their social isolation. As a result, even the greg hunt change, center-left political movements that initially championed multiculturalism, such as the social democratic parties in Europe, have backed 1 For influential academic statements of this “rise and fall” narrative, claiming that it applies across the Western democracies, see Rogers Brubaker, “The Return of Assimilation? ” Ethnic and august strindberg, Racial Studies 24, no.

4 (2001): 531–48; and Christian Joppke, “The Retreat of bowling, Multiculturalism in the Liberal State: Theory and Policy,” British Journal of essay, Sociology 55, no. 2 (2004): 237–57. There are also many accounts of the “decline,” “retreat,” or “crisis” of multiculturalism in particular countries. For the Netherlands, see Han Entzinger, “The Rise and coursework cheat, Fall of Multiculturalism in essay the Netherlands,” in Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in plan Liberal Nation-States, eds. Christian Joppke and Ewa Morawska (London: Palgrave, 2003) and Ruud Koopmans, “Trade-Offs between Equality and august, Difference: The Crisis of Dutch Multiculturalism in Cross-National Perspective” (Brief, Danish Institute for coursework cheat, International Studies, Copenhagen, December 2006).

For Britain, see Randall Hansen, “Diversity, Integration and strindberg essay, the Turn from Multiculturalism in the United Kingdom,” in Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada, eds. Keith G. Banting, Thomas J. Courchene, and F. Leslie Seidle (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2007); Les Back, Michael Keith, Azra Khan, Kalbir Shukra, and John Solomos, “New Labour’s White Heart: Politics, Multiculturalism and the Return of Assimilation,” Political Quarterly 73, No. 4 (2002): 445–54; Steven Vertovec, “Towards post-multiculturalism? Changing communities, conditions and contexts of essay, diversity,” International Social Science Journal 61 (2010): 83–95. August Strindberg Essay! For Australia, see Ien Ang and John Stratton, “Multiculturalism in Crisis: The New Politics of Race and National Identity in Australia,” in On Not Speaking Chinese: Living Between Asia and the West, ed. I. Ang (London: Routledge, 2001). Bowling Business Plan! For Canada, see Lloyd Wong, Joseph Garcea, and Anna Kirova, An Analysis of the ‘Anti- and Post-Multiculturalism’ Discourses: The Fragmentation Position (Alberta: Prairie Centre for Excellence in Research on Immigration and Integration, 2005), http://pmc.

metropolis. net/Virtual%20Library/FinalReports/Post-multi%20FINAL%20REPORT%20for%20PCERII%20_2_. pdf. For a good overview of the strindberg essay, backlash discourse in various countries, see Steven Vertovec and bowling, Susan Wessendorf, eds. , The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (London: Routledge, 2010). Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 3 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE away from it and shifted to essay a discourse that emphasizes “civic integration,” “social cohesion,” “common values,” and “shared citizenship. ”2 The social-democratic discourse of greg hunt climate, civic integration differs from the radical-right discourse in emphasizing the need to develop a more inclusive national identity and to fight racism and discrimination, but it nonetheless distances itself from the rhetoric and august, policies of multiculturalism. The term postmulticulturalism has often been invoked to signal this new approach, which seeks to overcome the limits of a naive or misguided multiculturalism while avoiding the oppressive reassertion of homogenizing nationalist ideologies.

3 II. What Is Multiculturalism? A. Misleading Model In much of the post-multiculturalist literature, multiculturalism is greg thesis climate characterized as a feel-good celebration of ethnocultural diversity, encouraging citizens to acknowledge and embrace the panoply of august strindberg essay, customs, traditions, music, and cuisine that exist in cheat a multiethnic society. Yasmin Alibhai-Brown calls this the august strindberg essay, “3S” model of multiculturalism in Britain — saris, samosas, and steeldrums. 4. Multiculturalism takes these familiar cultural markers of ethnic groups — clothing, cuisine, and music — and treats them as authentic practices to be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. Under the banner of multiculturalism they are taught in school, performed in festivals, displayed in media and museums, and write my thesis, so on. August Strindberg Essay! This celebratory model of multiculturalism has been the focus of many critiques, including the following: ?? It ignores issues of economic and political inequality. Even if all Britons come to enjoy Jamaican steeldrum music or Indian samosas, this would do nothing to address the real problems facing Caribbean and South Asian communities in Britain — problems of unemployment, poor educational outcomes, residential segregation, poor English language skills, and political marginalization. These economic and political issues cannot be solved simply by celebrating cultural differences. ?? Even with respect to exemplification essay the (legitimate) goal of promoting greater understanding of cultural. differences, the focus on celebrating “authentic” cultural practices that are “unique” to each group is strindberg essay potentially dangerous.

First, not all customs that may be traditionally practiced within a particular group are worthy of being celebrated, or even of being legally tolerated, such as forced marriage. Business! To avoid stirring up controversy, there’s a tendency to choose as the focus of multicultural celebrations safely inoffensive practices — such as cuisine or music — that can be enjoyably consumed by members of the larger society. But this runs the opposite risk 2. For an strindberg essay overview of the attitudes of European social democratic parties to these issues, see Rene Cuperus, Karl Duffek, and Johannes Kandel, eds. , The Challenge of bowling business plan, Diversity: European Social Democracy Facing Migration, Integration and Multiculturalism (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2003). August Essay! For references to “post-multiculturalism” by progressive intellectuals, who distinguish it from the radical right’s “antimulticulturalism,” see, regarding the United Kingdom, Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2000), and “Beyond Multiculturalism,” Canadian Diversity/Diversite Canadienne 3, no. 2 (2004): 51–4; regarding Australia, James Jupp, From White Australia to Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); and regarding the United States, Desmond King, The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), and David A. Hollinger, Post-ethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, revised edition (New York: Basic Books, 2006). Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism. 3 4 4 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE of the trivialization or Disneyfication of cultural differences,5 ignoring the real challenges that differences in cultural and religious values can raise. ?? Third, the 3S model of multiculturalism can encourage a conception of groups as hermetically sealed and static, each reproducing its own distinct practices. Multiculturalism may be intended to encourage people to share their customs, but the greg, assumption that each group has its own distinctive customs ignores processes of cultural adaptation, mixing, and melange, as well as emerging cultural commonalities, thereby potentially reinforcing perceptions of minorities as eternally “other. ” This in turn can lead to august strindberg essay the strengthening of prejudice and stereotyping, and more generally to the polarization of my thesis brittany watson, ethnic relations. ?? Fourth, this model can end up reinforcing power inequalities and cultural restrictions within. minority groups.

In deciding which traditions are “authentic,” and how to essay interpret and display them, the state generally consults the traditional elites within the group — typically older males — while ignoring the way these traditional practices (and traditional elites) are often challenged by internal reformers, who have different views about how, say, a “good Muslim” should act. It can therefore imprison people in about slaughterhouse-five “cultural scripts” that they are not allowed to question or dispute. According to essay post-multiculturalists, the growing recognition of these flaws underlies the retreat from multiculturalism and signals the search for new models of citizenship that emphasize 1) political participation and economic opportunities over the symbolic politics of cultural recognition, 2) human rights and individual freedom over respect for cultural traditions, 3) the building of inclusive national identities over the recognition of ancestral cultural identities, and 4) cultural change and cultural mixing over the reification of static cultural differences. This narrative about the hunt thesis climate change, rise and fall of 3S multiculturalism will no doubt be familiar to essay many readers. Slaughterhouse-five! In my view, however, it is inaccurate.

Not only is it a caricature of the reality of multiculturalism as it has developed over essay the past 40 years in the Western democracies, but it is a distraction from the real issues that we need to face. The 3S model captures something important about natural human tendencies to simplify ethnic differences, and about the plan, logic of global capitalism to sell cosmopolitan cultural products, but it does not capture the nature of post-1960s government MCPs, which have had more complex historical sources and august strindberg, political goals. B. Multiculturalism in Context It is important to put multiculturalism in its historical context. In one sense, it is as old as humanity — different cultures have always found ways of coexisting, and exemplification essay, respect for diversity was a familiar feature of essay, many historic empires, such as the Ottoman Empire. But the sort of multiculturalism that is said to have had a “rise and fall” is a more specific historic phenomenon, emerging first in the Western democracies in the late 1960s. This timing is bowling business important, for essay, it helps us situate multiculturalism in relation to larger social transformations of the postwar era. More specifically, multiculturalism is part of a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and racial diversity. Prior to brittany World War II, ethnocultural and religious diversity in the West was characterized by a range of august, illiberal and undemocratic relationships of hierarchy,6 justified by racialist ideologies that explicitly propounded the superiority of some peoples and cultures and their right to rule over others.

These ideologies were widely accepted throughout the Western world and underpinned both domestic laws (e. g. , racially biased immigration and citizenship policies) and foreign policies (e. Business! g. August! , in relation to overseas colonies). 5 6 Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions: The Cult of cheat, Multiculturalism in Canada. (Toronto: Penguin, 1994). August Strindberg Essay! Including relations of conqueror and conquered, colonizer and colonized, master and slave, settler and indigenous, racialized and unmarked, normalized and deviant, orthodox and heretic, civilized and primitive, and ally and doubt essay, enemy. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and august strindberg, the Future 5 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE After World War II, however, the world recoiled against Hitler’s fanatical and murderous use of such ideologies, and the United Nations decisively repudiated them in descartes method doubt essay favor of a new ideology of the essay, equality of races and peoples. And this new assumption of human equality generated a series of political movements designed to contest the lingering presence or enduring effects of business plan, older hierarchies.

We can distinguish three “waves” of such movements: 1) the struggle for decolonization, concentrated in the period 1948–65; 2) the struggle against racial segregation and discrimination, initiated and exemplified by the AfricanAmerican civil-rights movement from essay, 1955 to 1965; and 3) the struggle for multiculturalism and minority rights, which emerged in the late 1960s. Multiculturalism is essay part of august strindberg, a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and racial diversity. Each of cheat, these movements draws upon the human-rights revolution, and its foundational ideology of the equality of races and peoples, to challenge the legacies of earlier ethnic and racial hierarchies. Indeed, the human-rights revolution plays a double role here, not just as the inspiration for a struggle, but also as a constraint on the permissible goals and means of that struggle. Insofar as historically excluded or stigmatized groups struggle against earlier hierarchies in the name of equality, they too have to august renounce their own traditions of bowling business plan, exclusion or oppression in the treatment of, say, women, gays, people of mixed race, religious dissenters, and so on. Human rights, and liberal-democratic constitutionalism more generally, provide the overarching framework within which these struggles are debated and essay, addressed.

Each of these movements, therefore, can be seen as contributing to a process of democratic “citizenization” — that is, turning the earlier catalog of hierarchical relations into relationships of liberaldemocratic citizenship. This entails transforming both the vertical relationships between minorities and coursework, the state and the horizontal relationships among the members of different groups. In the past, it was often assumed that the only way to engage in this process of citizenization was to impose a single undifferentiated model of citizenship on all individuals. But the ideas and policies of multiculturalism that emerged from the august essay, 1960s start from the bowling, assumption that this complex history inevitably and appropriately generates group-differentiated ethnopolitical claims. The key to citizenization is not to august strindberg essay suppress these differential claims but to filter them through and frame them within the exemplification, language of human rights, civil liberties, and democratic accountability. And this is what multiculturalist movements have aimed to do. The precise character of the resulting multicultural reforms varies from group to group, as befits the distinctive history that each has faced. They all start from the antidiscrimination principle that underpinned the august, second wave but go beyond it to challenge other forms of exclusion or stigmatization. In most Western countries, explicit state-sponsored discrimination against ethnic, racial, or religious minorities had largely ceased by the 1960s and 1970s, under the influence of the second wave of humanrights struggles. Yet ethnic and racial hierarchies persist in many societies, whether measured in terms of economic inequalities, political underrepresentation, social stigmatization, or cultural invisibility. Various forms of essay about slaughterhouse-five, multiculturalism have been developed to help overcome these lingering inequalities.

The focus in this report is on multiculturalism as it pertains to (permanently settled) immigrant groups,7 7 There was briefly in some European countries a form of “multiculturalism” that was not aimed at the inclusion of permanent immigrants, but rather at ensuring that temporary migrants would return to their country of origin. For example, mothertongue education in Germany was not initially introduced “as a minority right but in august strindberg order to enable guest worker children to reintegrate in greg change their countries of august strindberg, origin” (Karen Schonwalder, “Germany: Integration Policy and Pluralism in a Self-Conscious Country of Immigration,” in The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices, eds. Steven Vertovec and essay, Susanne Wessendorf [London: Routledge, 2010], 160). Needless to say, this sort of “returnist” multiculturalism — premised on the idea that migrants are foreigners who should return to essay their real home — has nothing to brittany do with multiculturalism policies (MCPs) premised on the idea that immigrants belong in their host countries, and which aim to make immigrants 6 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE but it is worth noting that struggles for multicultural citizenship have also emerged in essay relation to historic minorities and indigenous peoples. 8 C. The Evolution of cheat, Multiculturalism Policies. The case of immigrant multiculturalism is august strindberg just one aspect of a larger “ethnic revival” across the Western democracies,9 in which different types of minorities have struggled for new forms of multicultural citizenship that combine both antidiscrimination measures and positive forms of recognition and accommodation. Greg Thesis Climate! Multicultural citizenship for immigrant groups clearly does not involve the same types of claims as for august strindberg, indigenous peoples or national minorities: immigrant groups do not typically seek land rights, territorial autonomy, or official language status. What then is the substance of multicultural citizenship in relation to immigrant groups? The Multiculturalism Policy Index is critical essay about slaughterhouse-five one attempt to measure the evolution of august strindberg essay, MCPs in a standardized format that enables comparative research. Critical About! 10 The index takes the following eight policies as the most common or emblematic forms of immigrant MCPs:11 ?? Constitutional, legislative, or parliamentary affirmation of multiculturalism, at the central and/ or regional and essay, municipal levels ??

The adoption of multiculturalism in school curricula ?? The inclusion of write, ethnic representation/sensitivity in the mandate of public media or media licensing ?? Exemptions from dress codes, either by statute or by court cases ?? Allowing of strindberg essay, dual citizenship ?? The funding of ethnic group organizations to support cultural activities ?? The funding of bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction ?? Affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups12 feel more at home where they are. The focus of this paper is on the latter type of greg hunt change, multiculturalism, which is centrally concerned with constructing new relations of citizenship. 8 In relation to indigenous peoples, for example — such as the Maori in New Zealand, Aboriginal peoples in august strindberg essay Canada and Australia, American Indians, the Sami in plan Scandinavia, and the Inuit of Greenland — new models of multicultural citizenship have emerged since the late 1960s that include policies such as land rights, self-government rights, recognition of customary laws, and guarantees of political consultation. And in relation to substate national groups — such as the august, Basques and Catalans in Spain, Flemish and Walloons in Belgium, Scots and Welsh in essay Britain, Quebecois in Canada, Germans in South Tyrol, Swedish in Finland — we see new models of multicultural citizenship that include policies such as federal or quasi-federal territorial autonomy; official language status, either in the region or nationally; and guarantees of august strindberg essay, representation in the central government or on descartes method doubt essay constitutional courts. Strindberg! 9 Anthony Smith, The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). 10 Keith Banting and I developed this index, first published in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, eds. , Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and descartes method doubt essay, Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). Many of the ideas discussed in essay this paper are the descartes method doubt essay, result of our collaboration. 11 As with all cross-national indices, there is a trade-off between standardization and sensitivity to local nuances.

There is no universally accepted definition of multiculturalism policies and no hard and fast line that would sharply distinguish MCPs from closely related policy fields, such as antidis.

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4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay. Essay. To keep things simple and easy to organize always plan on writing a 4 paragraph essay. By following this same formula, you will be able to plan your essay quickly and easily for any question. Here is the simple 4 paragraph structure: Introduction. This will be a short paragraph of only 2 3 sentences. It should clearly introduce the critical about, topic and claim made in the Task question. And it should clearly state your opinion and general answer to the call-to-action part of the Task question. See How to Analyze the Essay Question and How to write introductions quickly for IELTS Task 2. August Strindberg Essay. First Main Idea. Here you provide your first main reason of support for your opinion. Bowling. Add supporting details and examples. Second Main Idea.

Here you provide your second main reason of support for your opinion. Add supporting details and examples. Conclusion . August Strindberg Essay. Simply restate your opinion. Descartes Doubt. Let#8217;s look at an example of an august, Agree/Disagree question: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in their free time to help the local community. They believe this would benefit both the individual teenager and society as a whole. Do you agree or disagree? Here#8217;s how I would structure my essay: Introduction. I paraphrase the critical about slaughterhouse-five, first sentence about requiring teenagers to strindberg essay, volunteer in the community. I state my opinion that I agree because it benefits both the teenager and the community. First main reason why I agree it benefits the thesis climate change, individual teenager.

Explain how it benefits them and august essay, give examples opens their eyes to bowling, the problems of others, instills discipline and commitment, helps their communication skills as they have to work with others, etc. Second main reason why I agree it benefits society as a whole. Strindberg. Explain how it benefits society and give examples helps create stronger bonds within communities if teenagers are involved, communities always need helping hands in various projects clean ups, setting up free events, providing services for elderly, sick or poor, etc. Conclusion restate that I believe that community volunteering is exemplification essay important to both teenagers as individuals and to society as a whole. I#8217;ll be writing more examples of august essay other question types, so check back! I'm an bowling, English teacher specializing in IELTS preparation - especially writing and reading.

If you have any questions, please ask! You can also sign up for weekly tips and lessons for strindberg essay, IELTS and English! 10 comments on “ 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay ” liked your written stlye. Thanks Punita! Do you have any questions or is there anything I can help you with? hi teacher, i do not understand why which style of writting for this kind of question? I should write 2 paragraphs agree and 1 paragraphs disagree and or i write 2 agree ? If you agree with the statement, write 2 paragraphs of essay reasons you agree (1 main reason w/ support in each paragraph). If you disagree with the statement, then write 2 paragraphs of august essay reasons you disagree. See further examples in my blog for agree/disagree essays. Hope that helps, Thanks teacher a lot. Essay. Your helps will be useful for august strindberg essay, my test. ^_^ Could you explain to me more about examples?Should it be a concrete example from the write my thesis watson, past or anything else?How it looks like in an essay? Could you give a sample where the main idea was supported by examples ? Hello..

Im slowly learning to write an essay and I started by august writing a correct introduction. Essay. Could you please check my work. Thanks in advance. People have different views about august strindberg, requiring all the youth do voluntary works in their spare time to help both themselves and coursework, the society as a whole. However, I personally disagree on strindberg essay, forcing them to do unpaid works. Grammatically correct (notice changes in bold ): People have different views about hunt thesis change, requiring all youth to do voluntary work in their spare time to help both themselves and society as a whole. However, I personally disagree with forcing them to do unpaid work . Take care with singular/plural (work); article use (the/no article); prepositions disagree (with) If you#8217;d like me to check a whole essay with more feedback and suggestions, check out august strindberg essay my essay correction service Good luck with your studies! Mam please give me format of #8216; discuss both views #8216; type task 2. Here are some useful posts to read: Hope those help. Good luck with your studies! 8 Pings#47;Trackbacks for 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay [#8230;] previously wrote about sticking to the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure.

Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about sticking to the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure. Business. Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] 5. August Strindberg. Organizing my 4 paragraphs for my essay: [#8230;] [#8230;] minutes: Organize and plan your 4-paragraph essay. Business Plan. Identify your main 2 paragraph points jot down supporting details or examples. August Essay. Write a rough [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about the basic 4-paragraph structure for your Task 2 essay.

It is no different for this type of [#8230;] [#8230;] There are several different types of Task 2 questions that can all be answered using the 4-paragraph structure. Descartes. [#8230;] [#8230;] 3. Strindberg Essay. Organize ideas in 4 paragraphs: [#8230;] [#8230;] the steps I#8217;ve written about before: Analyzing the Task Question and descartes method, the 4-Paragraph Structure, here is how you can approach the Opinion [#8230;]

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