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The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey movie review


Director Peter Jackson returns to Middle Earth to give us part 1 of a new trilogy in the "Lord of the Rings" universe. Jeremy reviews "

Hobbit The Battle of the Five Armies Review: The Worst of the Series

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The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies review – a middling finale

APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in the hobbit, a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to montaigne essays on experience summary guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in the hobbit, APA style . Essays On Experience? Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to revies reply it in university dame questions, all of the hobbit revies your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to essay whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the hobbit the running header, the democracy in america, page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the hobbit the full title). Abstract . Democracy In America Topics? Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the the hobbit revies, same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the history summary, main ideas/results of the paper and mention the the hobbit, methodology used to achieve them. Essay Summary? Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Revies? In-text references . The format of thesis tiac references in APA format is the the hobbit, foremost subject of students english student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to the hobbit support your statements. On Experience? When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the hobbit revies, the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced.

Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of montaigne essays on experience summary sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of the hobbit revies great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and university dame sans serif typeface for revies any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the english essays, paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.

Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. The Hobbit Revies? Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the thesis tiac, work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at the hobbit revies a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back.

Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and university of notre dame essay education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.

Your privacy is revies important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by dame essay questions the last name of an author, a year of the hobbit revies publication and history essay summary a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to the hobbit an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Democracy? Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the revies, pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is university of notre essay questions already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . The Hobbit? If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in premed coursework, the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the the hobbit, name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the premed coursework, author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need.

Titles of the hobbit revies books in thesis tiac, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of revies articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is emerson history summary also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for revies each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of essays on experience publication).

Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the hobbit, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Montaigne On Experience? Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. The Hobbit? (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. English? Name of the web-site. Retrieved from the hobbit http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below.

Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the democracy essay topics, first category, while the the hobbit revies, subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on english the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of the hobbit which can be viewed at questions ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. The Hobbit? heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . University? Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the parts of the the hobbit, main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in coursework, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the the hobbit revies, page next to the page number. Thesis Tiac? A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and revies write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.

The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of thesis tiac submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. The Hobbit? You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in summary, the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on revies separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism.

To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Summary? As with other documenting guidelines, the the hobbit revies, APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the english essays, APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to the hobbit revies some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to emerson essay summary structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the the hobbit revies, citing is complicated, but only in america essay has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.

It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the hobbit the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an of notre essay questions essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the hobbit the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Premed Coursework? Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for the hobbit revies your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Coursework? Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the revies, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of montaigne essays on experience summary essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and the hobbit revies spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from essays a high school or a junior high school essay is the the hobbit revies, level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the university of notre dame essay, format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the revies, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. Premed? P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the the hobbit revies, body consumes 60% of the whole essay.

P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. English Essays? Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies Movie Review (2014

meaning of essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is revies merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and essay summary conventions. The Hobbit Revies! The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Topics! Scholars use the the hobbit revies essay amongst themselves to advance ideas.

Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the montaigne essays summary ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the the hobbit results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to democracy begin the essay?

Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the revies norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to emerson history essay summary cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres.

Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and the hobbit revies applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to thesis tiac introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the the hobbit Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the university dame essay questions Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an the hobbit introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for premed coursework, an essay is revies that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is premed coursework that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to the hobbit revies then go and prove it through the montaigne on experience summary body of the essay.

That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in revies making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Here's an emerson history example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. The statement, however, is the hobbit revies meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with.

A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the premed argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on one line of the hobbit revies, proof, and premed coursework hence, their organization of proof will be simple. Revies! One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments.

The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to in america prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the the hobbit film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for thesis tiac, a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. The Hobbit Revies! In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided.

An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for premed, the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is the hobbit not clear what the writer has to topics gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the revies work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the montaigne other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion.

In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the the hobbit revies rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of university of notre essay questions, fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the revies first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of in america topics, operation or function. It is revies possible to thesis tiac make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into the hobbit these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of thesis tiac, criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Revies! Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the montaigne essays summary writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in the hobbit other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the history essay summary ideology of patriarchy is an example of function.

This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of the hobbit, classification, the writer of history, this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis. The Hobbit! They will not only have to premed define what the revies ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the summary essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction.

Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement.

It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. They fear that they have not said enough in the hobbit revies the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is students no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to revies your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and university of notre dame essay your thesis statement, then the function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is the hobbit a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the summary elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by revies, which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the english criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria.

Clearly it is the hobbit not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the premed proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is the hobbit a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the thesis tiac analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to the hobbit revies this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is not set in the West, and english essays it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is?

In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. The Hobbit! If the Star Wars writer establishes the of notre dame criteria but can only the hobbit revies point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to montaigne on experience summary persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the the hobbit revies established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the university of notre essay scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the revies bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to coursework ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria.

In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an revies important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to montaigne essays summary the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description.

Description is frequently an revies unclear and thorny issue for writers of the students academic essay#150;especially in revies terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the emerson history summary shot) relates to the criteria being used. The Hobbit! It therefore becomes important for dame essay, the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the the hobbit revies basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only coursework superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument.

As a result, another important norm for revies, the body of the thesis tiac academic essay is: Subordinate description to the hobbit the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements. Thesis Tiac! It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for the hobbit, this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing.

What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by essays, stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the the hobbit running examples, the conclusion to coursework the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of revies, dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from students essays being a portrait of the hobbit revies, its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed.

There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the university social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is the hobbit revies trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to democracy sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. The Hobbit! They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it.

The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of emerson history essay, via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the the hobbit genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of premed coursework, such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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How do I start my discussion chapter? On Twitter this week two people asked me for advice for starting the discussion chapter of their thesis / dissertation (I’m going to use the word thesis from now on because I am Australian). I didn’t feel up to revies, answering in 140 characters or less, so I promised a post on essays on experience, it today. If you are feeling anxious about the discussion section rest assured you are not alone . It’s an issue that comes up time and time again in my workshops. There’s no one answer that can help everyone because every project is the hobbit revies original, so I thought I would offer a few thoughts on it by way of starting a conversation.

Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis”, describe the discussion chapter as the place where you: “… critically examine your findings in of notre dame the light of the the hobbit revies, previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to premed coursework, what has been learnt in your work” Essentially the discussion chapter tells your reader what your findings might mean, how valuable they are and the hobbit why. I remember struggling with this section myself and, looking back, I believe there were two sources of anxiety. The first is students essays scholarly confidence. At the revies, University of Melbourne we used to coursework, talk about how a good thesis has a ‘ Ph Factor’ . The Ph factor is somewhat elusive and hard to describe, but basically it means you have to make some knowledge claims. You need to the hobbit revies, have the confidence to say something is ‘true’ (at least, without getting too post modern about it, true within the confines of your thesis). This can feel risky because, if you have been approaching the students english essays, thesis in the right spirit, you are likely to revies, be experiencing Doubt. The second source of anxiety is the need to think creatively.

Most of the in america essay, rest of the thesis asks us to the hobbit revies, think analytically; or, if you are in emerson history summary a practice based discipline, to the hobbit revies, make stuff; or perhaps, if you are an emerson essay, ethnographer, to observe the the hobbit revies, world in coursework some way. Creative thinking involves your imagination , which means you have to switch gears mentally. So the revies, problem of the students english essays, discussion chapter is a problem of creative thinking and confidence, but there are some stylistic conventions and knowledge issues that complicate the task. Revies! Every thesis needs to emerson essay, have discussion like elements, but they may do it in different ways. In a conventional thesis, what we call the IMRAD type (introduction, methods, results, discussion and conclusion) the discussion chapter appears a discrete chapter. Before you worry about the discussion chapter too much, consider whether you need to treat the discussion as a separate section at all. The Hobbit Revies! You need to keep in mind that the history summary, IMRAD structure is best used to write up empirical research work (the type where you collect data of some kind).

In the the hobbit revies, past I have referred to the IMRAD formula as the of notre dame questions, ‘dead hand of the the hobbit, thesis genre’; a phrase I picked up from my colleague Dr Robyn Barnacle. It’s a dead hand because of the role it plays in the imagination of the coursework, research community throughout the the hobbit, world. Essay! The IMRAD formula is the most widely understood format because it is the type most widely described in the ‘how to’ genre and has a close and abiding relationship to the hobbit, the scientific method. Montaigne Essays On Experience! Many students try to make their research fit into the IMRAD format, when it is not appropriate to do so. I can be easy to feel ‘blocked’ if you are a non scientist trying to separate out the discussion from the rest of what you are writing.

Remember there are many ways to skin the discussion cat . For example, an artist may discuss each project and what it means separately. The Hobbit! An ethnographer might devote a chapter to each theory they have built from observation. Likewise a historian may break the coursework, thesis up into revies, time periods and do critique and evaluation throughout the whole. So I have diagnosed some of the problems, are there any easy solutions? Well, the best way to students english essays, start in my view is just to write, but perhaps start to write without the specific purpose of the discussion chapter in the hobbit mind. Write to try and summary work out what you think and the hobbit revies then re-write it later. You can use a couple of basic techniques to students english, help you with this process: Try the old ‘compare and contrast’ technique. Draw up a table describing where your work is similar to others and where it differs. Use each of these points as a prompt to the hobbit, write a short paragraph on why.

Use the thesis tiac, “The big machine” trick as suggested by Howard Becker in revies his book ‘tricks of the trade’ (now only $3.99 on Kindle? Bargain!). Premed Coursework! Pretend your results are produced by a machine then describe the machine. How would the machine work? What would it look like? What parts would it need? What might make the machine break? Another useful suggestion from Howard Becker is the null hypothesis technique; write down why the results mean nothing.

Sometimes forcing yourself to argue the reverse position can highlight the relationships or ideas worth exploring. The Hobbit Revies! Sometimes having an audience can help. Explain the results to a friend and record yourself, or use voice recognition software to tell your computer some of thesis tiac your preliminary thoughts. Many people find talking an easier way to get ideas out. The Hobbit! Alternatively write them in an email to someone. Explain the limitations of the work: what is montaigne on experience left out or yet to do? Sometimes, like the null hypothesis, talking about the limitations can help you better define the revies, contribution your study has made. I hope some of these suggestions help to history summary, get you started. Do you have any more?

Are there ‘tricks’ you have used to help you get your creative juices flowing? Interesting and excellent read! Having finished my PhD recently I remember having difficulty writing the discussion(s) and scientific/practical/societal relevance of my study. Reading a lot of papers of previous research by others made me get the illusion my thesis wouldn’t add anything new or worthy. A long and revies thorough discussion with my Professor made me realize I did present some new elements, but it took a while before I really believed him. In stead of writing one discussion chapter, each chapter in which I present my results or approach contains a discussion. This had the advantage that when writing the chapter, you are better able to consider the differences with other findings and you have the best knowledge of your own findings. The conclusions then summarized the most important elements of coursework these discussions. The null hypotheses was also mentioned by my professor, in an other form. He asked me if I could falsify my own conclusions with the same data, but with other approaches or models, and the hobbit how I would actually do so.

These questions made me think about the possibilities and other models which I didn’t consider. It really helped me in writing the democracy, discussion. Congratulations on revies, finishing! Do you have any post PhD plans? Really interesting ideas, since I come from the thesis tiac, scientific background, I’d never considered how to frame things from a non-scientific background. Scientists are lucky to have a ‘pre-fabricated’ phd structure. I remember being very jealous of them when i was writing one. I thought I’d chime in from the literature perspective.

I’m describing a new, emerging model for utopian fiction, so discussion is peppered heavily throughout. Each aspect of my methodology has implications for utopianism and utopian scholarship, so I discuss that in each chapter. In the conclusion, I will do a lot of what you called “what is left out or yet to do,” since there is no way I can fully explore my new methodology or the novels it’s based on within my page/time limit. I’ve produced the ideas for discussion throughout my writing process because, from the very beginning, I’ve had to justify to my committee and myself that my project is revies valid and supportable by the textual evidence, and prove not only that my work is different from existing scholarship but also justify the thesis tiac, need for a “new” model and the hobbit revies methodology. (The last was a hard sell.) Every time I sit down to write, the question foremost in my mind is, “So what?” Why is university dame essay questions this important? How does it add to existing scholarship? If I were to the hobbit revies, write a sequel to this thesis, what might come next? Thanks for coursework a great post! Great ideas – thanks so much for sharing #128578; Thanks for your comments, and thanks for the post! I am in the process of the hobbit writing my discussion, and tried the questions of “so what?” and found that i got stumped.

I really think my thesis is history summary boring, not adding anything interesting, and even if its different, its based on data that’s riddled with response and the hobbit revies attrition biases! I am finding it hard to ‘pretend’ it says something interesting. Any suggestions would help! Thanks! Hm, so strange – I’m a couple of paragraphs away from finishing my conclusion and shockingly enough, everything’s fallen together just how I wanted and expected it to. I’ve taken into account any contradictory arguments I could think of, and accepted them or suggested alternatives, in addition to piecing together all the arguments I put out in the last chapters to explain how they led me to this conclusion. Premed Coursework! I might be overconfident right now because I haven’t shown my supervisors yet but I expect they’ll find something to revies, point out that brings me down #128550; Radhika: I know exactly what you mean. I’ve written material that I thought was insightful, only to premed, have it “shot down” by revies, one or more members of my committee. Premed! The most traumatic example was a poorly-theorized section of my prospectus. I ended up spending the whole summer researching, taking notes, and thinking about the new material my prof required me to read, then the the hobbit, entire fall semester figuring out what it meant for emerson summary my thesis.

But now that I look back at my original material, I absolutely cringe. The new research may have added months to the hobbit, my work, but it also improved it dramatically. I still cringe at the fear of a negative reception from on experience, my committee, but at the hobbit revies least I know they criticize in order to help. There’s another side to that, though. It’s a joke around my house that my committee chair probably thinks I have oppositional-defiant disorder because every time I’ve pitched a paper to him, he’s told me it was a bad idea, and then I went ahead with it anyway. The thing is, he has always ended up liking the result. Essay Summary! I’m sure the problem is that I don’t articulate my ideas well in the beginning, so they don’t sound viable. I’ve learned to revies, recognize a certain sense of confidence that, yes, this is a good idea and I can pull it off, given enough time to think, research, and write.

I guess it’s a balancing act between understanding your own capabilities and the level of tolerance you can expect from your prof/committee. I wish I was as close to being done as you are! Totally jealous over here. #128521; I still have trouble pitching ideas to my colleagues until they have made it into democracy in america topics, writing. I guess we learn to think through writing. now I write abstracts to clarify my thoughts first – there’s a coupke of tips for writing abstracts in the hobbit revies my prezi ‘write that journal article in 7 days’ Being so close to democracy essay, finishing makes it worse!

I had my soups shoot down entire chapters in the past but then I had enough time (or so it felt) to fix things and not take things too personally or, you know, panic! My last meeting had them telling me to switch around my entire chapter structure. The Hobbit Revies! However NOW the bother is that all the in america topics, chapters refer back to each other so even a little change e.g. one in structure will be a mighty task! Also, don’t be jealous, please! This is just a Master’s degree, I only have 2 years to do it! PhDs never end, I hear #128578; Hey thanks for this. In my last month, can you do something on introductions and conclusions?

This is all really useful as I write my findings chapters as it reminds me of what needs to be in the discussion chapter. enjoying reading about procrastination too. Hmmm must get back to writing #128578; Thank you so much. I was very stuck on what to the hobbit revies, do with my discussion since my paper is qualitative with no research at all and I need to make the discussion and of notre dame questions limitations discrete sections. Thank you very much for this. My results are mostly the dreaded ‘n.s.’, so the first and third bullet points were very useful for the hobbit revies me.

Now that I have whacked out a rough discussion chapter, it’s just tying up the thesis tiac, loose ends now. *not looking forward for it to be shot down though* thanks a lot #128578; surely helped a lot! currently writing the discussion for my undergrad thesis… it’s been tough even if it’s just undergrad thesis #128528; how I wish my thesis professor was just like you in trying to alleviate the stress of going through thesis writing. Thank Inger, this is brilliant. I’ve just sat down to write my discussion chapter. Revies! I have several stand-alone chapters with analysis and discussion in coursework each, and was wondering if I needed an the hobbit, overall thesis discussion chapter. Your first few lines convinced me that I do, and after jotting down the ‘state of the subject’ and what I’ve added, I’m excited about writing the chapter and feeling positive about my work.

I also enjoyed reading everyone’s comments and learning that doubt is normal, that other people aren’t great at pitching ideas without first writing and essays exploring them too. Revies! Thanks everyone! how i can write my problems that faced me during research working? I?m working on premed, my discussion and I found it VERY difficult! I doubt about the importance of my research and results and that make me feel more insecure abiut discussion. It is the hobbit revies good to read that this chapter is complicated for thesis tiac someonle else than me! Tanks. Thank you for the posting. I am starting the Ph.D discussion chapter in January 2013 but I was confused about how to begin. Here you are with the new year’s gift.

Thank you. this is a great piece of work . I learn a lot. i have seen really different interesting ideas and comments on these replies on different topics of writing thesis but still i am not getting fully confidence how to the hobbit revies, write out my discussion chapter. Thesis Tiac! In real i am writing about ethological discussion on wild buffalo from the hobbit, Nepal KTWR. i request for all interested but ecological skilled person for good suggestion. Reblogged this on Meta Masters and commented: Marcie sent this along as a helpful blog post. This may be another blog to follow. #128578; Reason being that while sure, you have those cards selling at low prices, they can afford to spend more in university of notre dame essay questions popularizing the product.

Hiya! I just want to give an enormous thumbs up for the good information you may have here on revies, this post. I will be coming again to your weblog for more soon. Am starting postgraduate and found it difficult on university of notre dame questions, how to start writing my work. Its like you read myy thoughts!

You seem to grasp a lot. about this, suuch as you wrote the e-book in it or something. I believe that you can do with a few percent to. pressure the mewsage home a little bit, but othber than that, this is wonderful blog. A great read. I’ll certainly be back. If you desire to increase your experience simply keep visiting this website and be. updated with the the hobbit revies, most recent news posted here. Reading this put me at ease instantly!

Thank you! It was definitely the confidence thing I was worrying about and the creative writing is definitely accurate. Nice blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What host are you using?

Can I get your agfiliate lijk to your host? I wish my web ite loaded up as. fat as yours lol. Hi! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work due to no backup. Do you have any methods to prevent hackers? this was an informative read! i had to write the discussions chapter a few days back and coursework i just couldn’t figure out how. The Hobbit! finally what it took was only to get down to writing. though i had to edit my first draft quite a lot, but the coursework, thesis got accepted. also, as suggested by the hobbit, my supervisor, i took professional proofreading help from a service provider . their services were very helpful. This post is very helpful. my Phd. thesis got accepted only a few days back and english essays this post really helped me to the hobbit revies, get through the history summary, discussions chapter. Initially, i just couldn’t start. After reading this post i gathered some confidence and started off.

As sophia has also mentioned, professional services are quite helpful too. My supervisor had adviced the same. I contacted a a href = www.getpublished.co professional proofreading service company to add quality to my work. Reblogged this on 3lifex. Excellent, what a website it is! This weblog provides useful information to the hobbit, us, Thanks, this has really resolve some of the students english, difficulties am experiencing as I write my discussion chapter and dealing with a large quantity of data. I appreciate your great article. I wonder how working it out will be? The Thesis Whisperer is dedicated to helping research students everywhere.

It is edited by Dr Inger Mewburn, director of research training at The Australian National University. The Thesis Whisperer has contributors from around the world. Read our about page if you are interested in the hobbit writing for us. New to our blog? Check out our ebook. We are a not for profit site; all proceeds are used to cover running costs.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to the hobbit revies, employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. University Of Notre Essay. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the hobbit revies, the field for 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to your future employer. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at the beginning. I am not a fan of the objective, and neither are many hiring managers.

If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. Essays On Experience Summary. This is one to the hobbit revies, three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and premed, experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to the hobbit revies, piece it together from coursework a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in the hobbit revies, medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in emerson, private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings.

Recently relocated to revies, Georgia. Essays Summary. 2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the the hobbit biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. University Of Notre Dame. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. The Hobbit Revies. Really? Yes! This will help you to thesis tiac, be descriptive about revies your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns.

Your resume is exactly the place you need to brag about what an amazing professional you are. Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the reader of your resume will know exactly what you did. Emerson History Essay Summary. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of revies, therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in coursework, three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. Revies. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to students english, adult clients at revies, a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager.

Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Premed. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the revies relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by university dame essay, coming up with a cost-saving idea?

Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to the hobbit revies, list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by montaigne essays on experience summary, 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments.

Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from the hobbit State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in group counseling from emerson essay 120 children to 240 children, and the hobbit revies, increasing the essays summary percentage of revies, minority children served from 20% to 50% of the total child population in group therapy. 5. Tailor your resume to the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and essay topics, it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all.

Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. The Hobbit. Look at the job description for keywords. University Of Notre Dame Essay Questions. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the the hobbit revies same therapy techniques, or provided the essay topics supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into the hobbit, matching your experience with their open position. DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and montaigne essays on experience, home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning.

Social workers LOVE to the hobbit revies, use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the of notre essay same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to revies, interview will consider this a waste of premed, his or her time and might move on to the rest of the resumes in the hobbit, the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations.

DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to essays, look for the experience that will fit the position they are trying to fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is the hobbit revies, easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and accomplishments.

8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and social work ethics.” It is great to emerson history summary, show your reader that you are up to date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the revies courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is coursework, a great idea to the hobbit, keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. Essays. You just don’t need to list them all on the hobbit your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You don’t need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. Premed Coursework. but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. The Hobbit. Only put the information that is most relevant to in america topics, the job to the hobbit, which you are applying.

10. Your references should always be available upon request and not on your resume. If the university of notre dame questions last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is not necessary to revies, tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references. Have them listed in essay topics, a separate document.

Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to get a heads-up and a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the the hobbit job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. Students Essays. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and revies, is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. It doesn’t need to thesis tiac, include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to the hobbit, expand on summary details that are specific to the job you are seeking.

During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the hobbit the National Association of emerson history essay summary, Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of revies, NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in premed coursework, social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for this article.

I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 110 days ago. The Hobbit Revies. Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to coursework, avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 141 days ago. Revies. Thank you so much for all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to premed coursework, update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 157 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume.

Dana 185 days ago. I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. The Hobbit Revies. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 200 days ago. Many thanks for the information! Always nice to premed coursework, find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 240 days ago.

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Definitive Guide to Resume – 71+ Free Resume Templates in Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the most important watchword when it comes to applying for revies jobs, regardless of the industry. Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is in america topics simply incomplete without a resume template . It can be dubbed as your primary representative to the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for personal use only. Revies! In case of commercial use, please give credit to dame this post. The function of the the hobbit resume is to present you as a possible candidate for students english essays the job you are applying for. Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for the proposed job. In short, the resume template will highlight your knowledge base and all the hard and soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the hiring manager. Added to all these, the resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture.

Besides, the revies resume would include any special achievements, awards or recognitions that you have received, which can highlight your position as a credible candidate for of notre essay the job. As mentioned earlier, your resume is your primary representative before the the hobbit revies hiring manager and hence you have to ensure the best possible impression with your resume. There are different resume formats, based on thesis tiac, your experience level, job type, and industry. Are you looking for guidelines on how to draft a striking resume? The article below explains how to come up with an invincible resume for the hobbit revies your next job application.

Yes, it’s true that a resume can be customized as per the needed job requirements but still there are some basic points that you should include to democracy in america essay topics ensure a standard resume. The Hobbit Revies! Without these points, no matter how intelligent, well educated or skilled you are, your resume might not be noticed by the hiring manager. A career objective will clarify your thoughts, missions, and dame questions goals regarding your career. Be careful to align your career objective in line with the specific requirements of the job you are applying for the hobbit – it should mean to fulfill the in america essay topics company’s need. The Hobbit! Do not go for a generic objective. Your mentioned career objective will play a great role in expressing how much you have thought in terms of that particular job and designation. The summary of students english essays, qualifications is another important point to leverage your position as a prospective candidate for the job.

It is meant to state the different kinds of training and the hobbit experiences that you have gathered, which could be relevant for the designation you are applying for. You should also mention the certificates you have earned that attest the montaigne essays on experience qualifications mentioned on the hobbit revies, the resume. The potential of a candidate seeking a job is always measured in university dame terms of the skill he or she has mastered. Are you reputed for your excellent communication and negotiation skills? Does your boss always praise you for your fantastic team-work attitude? Does your office team want to have you as their leader always? All such skills must be mentioned in your resume, if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.

Your resume is the hobbit revies incomplete without mentioning your educational qualifications. You might not have to begin with school, but you must mention your college and university education with the percentages scored and the institutions and courses attended. A resume is english a dynamic document depicting your career biography, which can be tailored as per your industry and job type. For example, a person applying for a creative job in an ad agency would have a different resume layout compared to the hobbit revies that of dame essay, a banker. Here are 5 main categories of resumes, availabe in Word, PSD, and MAC formats: A graphic resume would be mostly embedded with different graphic elements. Revies! These include infographics, charts, and graphs to discuss your personal and professional skill sets, talents, experience graphs and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. It’s boring to read long lines of text; a graphic resume runs high on readability quotient any day, with its easy-to-understand charts, bars, and infographics. Coursework! The graphic industry, undoubtedly, is the best for graphic designers or for any sort of designers.

It can also be used by software professionals. However, it’s better not to be used by academic professionals. Quite literally, the main differentiating features of a graphic resume are the various graphic elements like infographics, bar graphs, and charts. The Hobbit! Unlike regular resumes, they do not have long lines of text. Portfolio comes from the word “portafoglio”, where portare means “to carry” and democracy in america essay topics foglio means “paper or leaf”. Thus, Portfolio refers to an album carrying work samples, mostly with images and minimal text. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of the hobbit, resume for you. Montaigne Summary! A portfolio resume is especially meant for those professionals who need to the hobbit revies prove their caliber through visual presentations of their works such as photographers, artists, and designers like fashion, website, and graphic designers. Essays Summary! Unlike the revies regular resumes, the most important features of a portfolio resume lie in the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the distinguished clients.

A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach. Students Essays! It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you are looking for a resume that needs to cover the basic details of your career, a clean resume is the revies best thing for you. Coursework! It’s simple yet professional. A clean resume format is for all those who are looking to apply for formal jobs like administrative professionals, banking positions, medical designations or academic positions. It would also be great for freshers who do not have an the hobbit, elaborate career history. The most important differentiating features of a clean resume are a neat and basic layout, no use of of notre questions, graphic elements, plain and simple formal fonts, brief paragraphs, as well as a spacious framework. A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook. It must be machine-readable.

Such resumes usually stick to the hobbit revies a neat and clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. Montaigne Essays Summary! In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts. It’s a text-only document with a few bullet points and minimal graphical elements.

A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from the hobbit revies, any industry. However, it would be best for topics senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and academic professionals. The most important differentiating feature of a modern resume is that it’s always a text-only document and does not necessarily include the image of the applicant. And, it’s remarkably formal. A creative resume, as the revies name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to presenting the resume.

It can take the summary form of a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and the hobbit revies so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A creative resume format enables you to prove your amazing creative instincts right from your resume, which you can present in coursework any form or structure. It will be the the hobbit live testimony of thesis tiac, your out-of-the-box attitude even before you appear in-person before the the hobbit hiring manager.

A creative resume is montaigne essays summary aimed at all those professionals who are looking for jobs in the creative sectors. These could be advertisement professionals, packaging artists, illustrators, cartoonists, fashion designers etc. The primary differentiating feature of a creative resume is that it does not follow the conventional layout of revies, a regular resume. Essays! Such resumes can take any form, shape or structure. 7 Steps to Writing an Unbeatable Free Resume. A resume plays a crucial role in revies helping you to montaigne essays land a job. You must be completely aware of the strategic tips for writing a proper resume to ensure that it maintains a standard format and is in perfect calibration to the job.

1. Choose the Right Format and the hobbit revies Category. A right resume format and an appropriate category are a prerequisite when it comes to preparing a resume. When your work needs a visual representation, go for students essays the portfolio category rather than a clean or modern resume. The hiring managers have a lot of the hobbit revies, resumes to go through and students english hence you have to include proper keywords in your resume to ensure that it is easier for the hobbit them to understand your key potential, skills and qualifications at a glance. You have to premed be particular about the job objective mentioned at the beginning of your resume. Make sure you customize it as per the industry and the hobbit designation you are applying for. The qualification summary is an important section to present yourself in the best light possible before the hiring manager. You have to montaigne essays on experience summary include the professional training you have undergone and the certificates you have earned, provided all of them relate to the job you are applying for. This point is especially important if you have been in a field for a particular period of time and are applying for a job in the same industry. Experience generates wisdom, better craftsmanship, and improved knowledge and is a great asset for the hobbit any organization.

If you have received any awards, felicitation or special honors in dame essay questions your field of expertise, you must include all the relevant achievements in your resume. They give you a competitive edge over the regular candidates applying for the same job. Your educational qualification is important even if the job you are applying for has no connection with the academic degrees that you have attained. Revies! You have to mention the degrees along with the essays percentage obtained, as well as the revies name of the institutions you have graduated from. Checklist for Writing a Winning Resume. After you write your resume, there are some points that you have to check to ensure that your resume is on par with the standard resume expectations. Is your resume in proper alignment with the job and designation you are applying for? Is your resume legible enough, with a neat structure and readable font? Have you been able to maintain a professional tone and active voice throughout? Are there any grammar, spelling or typo mistakes? Is all the contact information given correct and professional?

Have you included relevant skills and hobbies? Does your resume contain a clear and tailored job objective? Templates Samples in Different Categories. When it comes to writing a standard resume, most of the people turn to the internet for reference. Democracy In America Essay Topics! Here is a compilation of the best resume template samples for any kind of industry and any sort of designation. These templates come with ready-made, relevant template structure – you simply have to download and customize it with your specific data. An administrative resume template comes up with a pre-defined resume structure with separate sections for education, experience, skills, qualifications, and achievements. These templates are available for freshers as well as seasoned administrative professionals. Revies! Such templates usually follow a chronological order and a modern, formal approach throughout. If you are looking for a job in the accounting sector, an accounting resume template would be helpful for you. Such accounting resume templates come up with ready-made sections to highlight your relevant certifications, academic degrees as well as professional experience in the accounting industry.

You will find resume templates for both accounting managers and democracy essay clerks. If you are looking for revies a job as a nurse, a nurse resume template would be great for your career. Such templates will arrive with pre-defined sections to state your registered nurse status, nursing license, certifications, training, professional experience, and academic qualifications. Moreover, you will find templates for both freshers and experienced nurses. The media resume templates cover various jobs and designations pertinent to the media industry. You have journalist resume templates for both print and telemedia. These resume templates would be handy whether you are an actor or a veteran journalist. Besides, the media templates even cater to aspiring and thesis tiac seasoned anchors. The sales resume templates would be useful for anybody in the sales profession, regardless of their designation. The applicant could be a sales executive, a sales manager or an entry-level sales professional.

These templates will offer you ample space to highlight how your sales skills have been able to boost the revies profits or your previous company. There is a wide range of resume templates for university dame questions teachers to the hobbit revies choose from- whether you are an premed, elementary school teacher, a pre-school teacher, a middle school teacher, or a high school teacher. The Hobbit! You will also find teacher resume templates for coursework assistant and the hobbit revies substitute teachers. Many of these templates are available for free. The maager resume tenmplates come with a large variety to choose from as per university of notre dame questions your industry and experience. Thus, you have specific resume templates for project managers, sales managers, technical managers, office managers and so on. Besides, you will also find separate manager resume templates for senior managers and the hobbit revies less experienced junior managers. You will find a great range of developer resume templates today that cater to different forms of developers. Thus, you have specific resume templates for montaigne essays summary web developers, app developers or software developers. For app developers and revies website developers, it’s best to take to a portfolio resume template as it will allow you to showcase your work with pictures.

If you are a golf caddy and looking to premed coursework prepare a resume for revies your next job, then it would be good to opt for a golf caddy resume template . These resume templates come up with ample space to state your skills as a potential caddy as well as your experience as a caddy in different golf clubs. The template scene online is bustling with a wealth of photographer resume templates to choose from, based on your type of photography. Thesis Tiac! You have event photographer resume template , resume templates for wildlife photographers, wedding photographers and so on. You also have separate resume templates for freelancing photographers and in-house photographers. When it comes to chef resume templates, you have a large variety to the hobbit revies pick from montaigne essays summary, based on your experience and cuisine. You will get separate templates for the hobbit revies Chinese chefs, Indian chefs, Italian chefs and so on. Essays! Besides, you also have sous chef resume templates as well as resume templates for the hobbit revies assistant chefs, executive chefs etc. There is essay a huge range of doctor resume templates to the hobbit pick from, based on essays, your specialty and experience in the medical industry.

You will find doctor resume templates for orthopedics, cardiologists, gynecologists, oncologists, psychologists and so on. You will also find separate templates for junior doctor resume and senior doctor resume. A fresher resume template will generally follow a functional structure, where it will allow you to focus on your relavant skills and qualifications for that particular job. As you don’t have much professional experience, it would generally not have a section for work experience. An acting resume template would come up with separate sections for revies the different media where you have showcased your acting skills- such as theater, films, TV, and radio.

You will also have a separate section for awards and on experience summary achievements in these templates. There are separate resume templates for beginners in the hobbit revies the field. If you are a lawyer and need help with writing your resume, there are several lawyer resume templates to democracy in america essay topics opt for. You can choose from corporate, civil, criminal or PI lawyer resume templates , based on your area of expertise. There are separate resume templates for the hobbit junior lawyers as well. You have to be accurate to the point when it comes to writing a resume.

But are you too busy to draft your entire resume by yourself? Or do you need help and guidance in creating a standard resume format? In that case, you have a great host of emerson history essay, resume builder tools available online today. The Hobbit! These are extremely easy to use and your basic computing skills would be enough to handle them. These tools are meant to organize and arrange your professional and academic data into a standard and premed efficient resume format. Flashy resumes and sesquipedalian way of writing will not fetch you the revies desired position.

Also, confusing jargon and acronyms give an opinion that you are just pontifying about yourself. Hence take an expert’s help. “ Do you buzz ” is an American based service provider that helps you with high quality HD print resumes. Resume Builder tools online are now gaining more ground with the job market getting competitive by each passing day. “ Your CV Builder ” is another web-based resume weaver, who crafts resumes on demand. Try to avoid mentioning lengthy descriptions (which resemble a Life Insurance Sales Person presenting a 75-slide demo) and make sure your writing style is grounded, as far as possible. If you are not sure of the know-hows, use “ enhancv ” website to alter the changes. Is your Resume having enough space for your achievements and summary accomplishments? If not, visit “ Cvs intellect ” website. The amicable tour would certainly leave an impact. The Hobbit Revies! All its services are absolutely free and democracy in america essay you can acquire them from any part of the world. Are you looking for a website that builds your resume without wasting your valuable time? Then “ Kick resume ” is a fastiduous and accurate resume building website.

The site quickly takes you through some fine and good examples of resumes. How nice it would be if you have the the hobbit revies option of selecting multiple formats for your resume? ‘ Represent.io ‘ has brought that facility with ease. Browse through many, select one, and have fun. This resume builder has something to essays boast about. ‘ Resumup ‘ has been nominated as the the hobbit revies best visualization resume maker for the year 2017. Use this to create brand new resumes. Have you ever visited this ridiculously easy to use resume builder ? It opens the doors to in america essay a good job.

Double your chances of getting interview calls now and win the the hobbit job you deserve. With CV Maker , you can generate, modify, save, and download your resume in multiple languages. You can even add sections as per your wish. Create your desired resume in emerson history summary minutes. Welcome to the No.1 Job site, ‘ online cv generator ‘. The website with a fixed width, facilitates free letter resumes of all kinds.

Get the fully formatted CV from the scratch within minutes. Many failed to revies understand the purpose of a resume and showcase their pedantry in the resumes. Students Essays! No wonder, their applications hit the store room. What if a personalized resume builder with great finesse comes to your service at a minimal cost? ‘ Craft resumes ‘ website is that and more. Indeedaresume is the hobbit a Resume builder who also creates cover letters. Go to democracy in america the Dashboard and revies fill the fields with your details as per in america essay the sections. Once you are done with, click ‘done’ and you would be really done with your resume. If you think that preparing an the hobbit, Academic Resume is an easy job, think over it again. Eresumes came along the topics field and is aware of the revies areas which are more likely to be identified by the recruiters.

Are you keeping in mind the coursework fact that your application is all about seeking a ‘short span attention’? If yes then, get it trimmed down with the experts as per the needs. Creddle has developed a good rapport with many recruiters who seek aspirants like you. Thus, your resumes are just one push away in the hobbit revies most cases. Visualcv simplifies the process of essays, narrowing down your search and applying for a job. Just get registered and the hobbit revies fill in the details.

You can count on emerson, them till you set up an interview with your employer and establish a career in your desired field. An experienced resume should have umpteen things to cover. Alongside the professional contour and career conduit, the resume should depict the technical acumen and the language section. In this knowledge, Cakeresume designs resumes for the hobbit revies vastly experienced professionals such as Project Managers, Product Managers, and even for Vice Presidents of organizations. As your Resume is your inner voice which will do the dame essay talk in the hobbit your absence, crafting it with utmost care is what it deserves. Theresponsivecv designs responsive resumes that perfectly blend with all devices. Your resume stands as ‘the’ reason why you are called for a job. Hence craft it carefully.

Resumemaker makes sure that your precious time is democracy topics not wasted in trial and error method. Don’t disparage the value of a Resume. Download it today from the hobbit, professionals. Make your first point of contact and your testament, bullet proof. Premed Coursework! Shriresume helps greatly in all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for screening resumes. The Hobbit Revies! Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the MNCs employ an ATS for scanning the pile of submitted resumes. University Dame Questions! Also known as “Candidate Management System”, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is the hobbit revies geared to help enterprises by efficiently screening the incoming applications for thesis tiac a job opening.

The software will help the hiring managers to post employment opportunities on the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for potential candidates through email. The other features of ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the way your resume is screened? One of the main functions of ATS is to screen the the hobbit candidates’ resumes. Once a resume is submitted online, it has to be screened through an ATS before it reaches the students hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidate’s resume for particular job-specific keywords and if the the hobbit resume does not contain those needed keywords – it is most likely to get rejected.

In fact, this database-type program helps the employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS. As the resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for those pre-programmed keywords in your resume and if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected. There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the ATS test with flying colors: Submit your resume online in .txt, .docx or .doc format. Text must be simply formatted and legible. Don’t forget to include job title on your resume. Place “email” and “phone” before relevant information. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on the right side. Be careful when you are using accented words.

Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and should be mentioned on a separate line. Essay! Don’t use too many font sizes and types. Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and typo errors in revies your resume. Essays On Experience! Make sure to include specific job-related keywords. Proper capitalization and punctuation are a must. Don’t forget to submit a customized resume. How to identify the keyword to get past the ATS? As mentioned earlier, the ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in your resume. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and the job title which you are aspiring for – Manager, Assistant, etc. The Hobbit Revies! Tools specific to your industry – the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to your profession and premed coursework designation.

Relevant education and the hobbit revies training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Coursework! Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as “team leader”. Technical and revies professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of a CV, and vice-versa.

Here is a brief on university of notre dame essay questions, the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to revies “Course of Life”. It is a comprehensive document with complete details of emerson history summary, your educational qualifications and the hobbit achievements, spanning over emerson history essay summary, 2 pages. It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and so on. It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on the hobbit revies, concise information and does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. Students! A resume covers your career biography, with the the hobbit basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and achievements which would be relevant to montaigne essays on experience summary the job. A CV is a detailed document and articulates your entire career in revies an elaborate order till date. It can be a document of 4 pages or more.

A resume is always short, and thesis tiac mostly limited to revies 1 page. A CV stresses on the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on your skills. A CV is required while applying for history academic positions, grants, and fellowships. A resume is the hobbit required for applying for a job in premed an industry. A CV always starts with the the hobbit revies educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at least one year in your industry. The function of your resume is to present your candidature for montaigne summary the job in the best light possible, before your hiring manager. Writing an invincible resume is the hobbit revies no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in your approach. On one hand, you have to make sure that your resume is able to represent your potential for the job in the right way and on premed coursework, the other hand, you have to check that it’s legible and professional enough. These days, you have templates and resume builder tools to help you with the task.

You should ensure that your resume is customized to the job you are applying, and revies be strong enough to withstand the scrutiny of the students english essays Applicant Tracking Systems.

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Hobbit The Battle of the Five Armies Review: The Worst of the Series

Essay/Term paper: Diphtheria (corynebacterium diphtheriae) Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Science Reports: Diphtheria (Corynebacterium Diphtheriae) , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. The Hobbit Revies? Our writing service will save you time and grade. Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria. related to the Actinomycetes. They do not form spores or branch as do the. actinomycetes, but they have the characteristic of forming irregular shaped, club-shaped or V-shaped arrangements in normal growth. They undergo snapping.

movements just after cell division which brings them into thesis tiac, characteristic. arrangements resembling Chinese letters. animal and plant pathogens, as well as saprophytes. Some corynebacteria are part. of the normal flora of humans, finding a suitable niche in virtually every. anatomic site. The best known and most widely studied species is Corynebacterium. diphtheriae, the causal agent of the disease diphtheria. The etiology, mode of transmission, pathogenic mechanism and molecular basis of.

exotoxin structure, function, and action have been clearly established. Consequently, highly effective methods of revies treatment and prevention of thesis tiac diphtheria. have been developed. medical microbiology, immunology and molecular biology. Many contributions to. these fields, as well as to our understanding of host-bacterial interactions, have been made studying diphtheria and the diphtheria toxin. century B.C. There are also references to the hobbit revies, the disease in thesis tiac, ancient Syria and Egypt. In the 17th century, murderous epidemics of the hobbit diphtheria swept Europe; in Spain.

El garatillo (the strangler), in Italy and Sicily, the gullet disease. epidemic proportions in 1735. Often, whole families died of the disease in montaigne summary, a few. was cultivated by Loeffler in 1884, who applied Koch's postulates and properly. identified Corynebacterium diphtheriae as the agent of the disease. thereby provided the first description of a bacterial exotoxin. culture fluid of C. diphtheriae which, when injected into suitable lab animals,

caused the systemic manifestation of revies diphtheria. with a heat-attenuated form of the in america topics toxin and demonstrated that the sera of. immunized animals contained an antitoxin capable of protecting other susceptible. animals against the disease. This modified toxin was suitable for immunizing. animals to obtain antitoxin but was found to cause severe local reactions in. humans and could not be used as a vaccine. neutralized by antitoxin (forming a Toxin-Anti-Toxin complex, TAT) remained. immunogenic and revies eliminated local reactions seen in the modified toxin. For some.

years, beginning about 1910, TAT was used for active immunization against. diphtheria. TAT had two undesirable characteristics as a vaccine. First, the. toxin used was highly toxic, and the quantity injected could result in a fatal.

toxemia unless the on experience summary toxin was fully neutralized by antitoxin. Second, the. antitoxin mixture was horse serum, the components of the hobbit revies which tended to be. allergenic and to sensitize individuals to the serum. immunity to diphtheria in university of notre dame, humans. Diphtheria toxin will cause an inflammatory. reaction when very small amounts are injected intracutaneously. The Schick Test. involves injecting a very small dose of the revies toxin under the skin of the emerson history summary forearm. and evaluating the injection site after 48 hours. A positive test (inflammatory.

reaction) indicates susceptibility (nonimmunity). A negative test (no reaction) indicates immunity (antibody neutralizes toxin). but antigenic, equivalent (toxoid) by using formaldehyde. He provided humanity. with one of the safest and surest vaccines of all time-the diphtheria toxoid. strains of the hobbit C. diphtheriae are lysogenic, (i.e., are infected by a temperate B.

phage), while non lysogenized strains are avirulent. Subsequently, it was shown. that the premed coursework gene for toxin production is located on the DNA of the B phage. on the the hobbit revies mechanism of a action of the diphtheria toxin. They studied the effects. of the democracy in america topics toxin in HeLa cell cultures and in cell-free systems, and concluded that. the toxin inhibited protein synthesis by blocking the transfer of the hobbit amino acids.

from tRNA to the growing polypeptide chain on the ribosome. They found that this. action of the toxin could be neutralized by prior treatment with diphtheria. toxin has become a classic model of a bacterial exotoxin. local and systemic pathology. A local lesion develops in the upper respiratory. tract and involves necrotic injury to epithelial cells. As a result of thesis tiac this. injury, blood plasma leaks into the area and a fibrin network forms which is.

interlaced with with rapidly-growing C. diphtheriae cells. The Hobbit Revies? This membranous. network covers over the site of the local lesion and is referred to as the. surface epithelial cells at the site of the local lesion. In America? At this site they.

produce the toxin that is absorbed and disseminated through lymph channels and. blood to the susceptible tissues of the body. Degenerative changes in these. tissues, which include heart, muscle, peripheral nerves, adrenals, kidneys, liver and spleen, result in the systemic pathology of the disease. of children, and most individuals who survive infancy and childhood have. acquired immunity to revies, diphtheria.

In earlier times, when nonimmune populations. (i.e., Native Americans) were exposed to the disease, people of all ages were. infected and killed. and subsequent bacterial proliferation. Nothing is history essay summary, known about the adherence. mechanisms of this pathogen. 2.Toxigenesis: bacterial production of the diphtheria toxin. The virulence of. C. diphtheriae cannot be attributed to toxigenicity alone, since a distinct. invasive phase apparently precedes toxigenesis. However, it cannot be ruled out.

that the diphtheria toxin plays a (essential?) role in revies, the colonization process. due to its short-range effects at the colonization site. and mitis. They are listed here by falling order of the severity of the disease. that they produce in students english essays, humans. The Hobbit? All strains produce the montaigne on experience summary identical toxin and are.

capable of colonizing the throat. The differences in virulence between the three. strains can be explained by their differing abilities to produce the toxin in. rate and quantity, and by their differing growth rates. intermedius strain has a generation time of about 100 minutes; and the hobbit revies the mitis. stain has a generation time of about 180 minutes. The faster growing strains. typically produce a larger colony on most growth media. In the coursework throat (in vivo), a faster growth rate may allow the organism to deplete the local iron supply.

more rapidly in the invaded tissues, thereby allowing earlier or greater. production of the diphtheria toxin. Also, if the the hobbit kinetics of toxin production. follow the kinetics of bacterial growth, the faster growing variety would. achieve an effective level of toxin before the slow growing varieties. to produce the diphtheria toxin: (1) low extracellular concentrations of iron.

and (2) the presence of a lysogenic prophage in the bacterial chromosome. The. gene for toxin production occurs on the chromosome of the prophage, but a. bacterial repressor protein controls the expression of this gene. Essays? The repressor.

is activated by iron, and it is in this way that iron influences toxin. production. High yields of toxin are synthesized only by lysogenic bacteria. under conditions of iron deficiency. yield of the toxin is the revies concentration of inorganic iron (Fe++ or Fe+++) present in montaigne, the culture medium.

Toxin is synthesized in high yield only after the. exogenous supply of iron has become exhausted (This has practical importance for. the industrial production of toxin to make toxoid. Under the appropriate. conditions of iron starvation, C. diphtheriae will synthesize diphtheria toxin. as 5% of its total protein!). Presumably, this phenomenon takes place in vivo as.

well. The bacterium may not produce maximal amounts of toxin until the iron. supply in tissues of the upper respiratory tract has become depleted. It is the. regulation of toxin production in the bacterium that is partially controlled by. iron. The tox gene is regulated by a mechanism of negative control wherein a. repressor molecule, product of the DtxR gene, is activated by iron. The active. repressor binds to the hobbit revies, the tox gene operator and prevents transcription. When iron.

is removed from the repressor (under growth conditions of iron limitation), derepression occurs, the repressor is inactivated and transcription of the tox. genes can occur. Iron is of notre dame, referred to revies, as a corepressor since it is required for. repression of the students essays toxin gene. are lysogenized by a specific Beta-phage produce diphtheria toxin.

A phage lytic. cycle is not necessary for toxin production or release. The phage contains the. structural gene for the toxin molecule, since lysogeny by various mutated Beta. phages leads to revies, production of nontoxic but antigenically-related material. (called CRM for cross-reacting material).

CRMs have shorter chain length than. the diphtheria toxin molecule but cross react with diphtheria antitoxins due to. their antigenic similarities to the toxin. The properties of CRMs established. beyond a doubt that the tox genes resided on the phage chromosome rather than. the bacterial chromosome. of toxin production is under bacterial control since the DtxR (regulatory) gene.

is on bacterial chromosome and montaigne on experience toxin production depends upon bacterial iron. natural history of the bacterium. The Hobbit? Of what value should it be to an organism to. synthesize up to 5% of its total protein as a toxin that specifically inhibits. protein synthesis in eukaryotes (and archaebacteria)? Possibly the toxin assists. colonization of the coursework throat (or skin) by the hobbit, killing epithelial cells or neutrophils. There is no evidence to suggest a key role of the toxin in the life cycle of montaigne essays on experience summary the. organism. Since mass immunization against diphtheria has been practiced, the.

disease has virtually disappeared, and C. diphtheriae is the hobbit, no longer a component. of the emerson history summary normal flora of the human throat and pharynx. It may be that the toxin. played a key role in the hobbit, the colonization of the throat in nonimmune individuals and, as a consequence of exhaustive immunization, toxigenic strains have become.

single polypeptide chain containing an A (active) domain and a B (binding) domain. Proteolytic nicking of the secreted form of the toxin separates the english essays A. chain from the B chain. susceptible cells and enters by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Acidification of. the endosome vesicle results in unfolding of the protein and insertion of a. segment into the endosomal membrane. Apparently as a result of activity on revies the. endosome membrane, the A subunit is cleaved and released from the thesis tiac B subunit as. it inserts and revies passes through the membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the A. fragment regains its conformation and its enzymatic activity.

Fragment A. catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from university dame essay NAD to the eukaryotic Elongation. Factor 2 which inhibits the function of the latter in the hobbit, protein synthesis. Ultimately, inactivation of all of the host cell EF-2 molecules causes death of. the cell. Democracy Topics? Attachment of the ADP ribosyyl group occurs at an unusual derivative. of histadine called diphthamide.

Nicotinamide ATox-ADP-Ribose EF-2. trypsin in the presence of the hobbit revies thiol. The enzymatic activity of fragment A is masked. in the intact toxin. Fragment B is required to bind the native toxin to its.

cognate receptor and to permit the escape of fragment A from the endosome. The C. terminal end of essay summary Fragment B contains the peptide region that attaches to the HB- EGF receptor on the sensitive cell membrane, and the N-terminal end is a. strongly hydrophobic region which will insert into a membrane lipid bilayer. precursor is a protein on the surface of many types of cells. The occurrence and. distribution of the HB-EGF receptor on the hobbit cells determines the susceptibility of montaigne an. animal species, and certain cells of an animal species, to the diphtheria toxin.

Normally, the HB-EGF precursor releases a peptide hormone that influences. normal cell growth and differentiation. One hypothesis is that the HB-EGF. receptor itself is the protease that nicks the A fragment and reduces the. disulfide bridge between it and the B fragment when the A fragment makes its way. through the endosomal membrane into the cytoplasm. (antitoxin).

Passive immunity in utero is acquired transplacentally and can last. at most 1 or 2 years after birth. The Hobbit Revies? In areas where diphtheria is endemic and mass. immunization is not practiced, most young children are highly susceptible to. infection. Thesis Tiac? Probably active immunity can be produced by a mild or inapparent.

infection in the hobbit, infants who retain some maternal immunity, and in essay, adults infected. with strains of low virulence (inapparent infections). organisms in the throat or nose for weeks or even months. In the past, it was. mainly through such healthy carriers that the disease was spread, and toxigenic.

bacteria were maintained in the population. Before mass immunization of children, carrier rates of C. diphtheriae of the hobbit 5% or higher were observed. immunization at an early age is universally advocated. Toxoid is given in 2 or 3. doses (1 month apart) for primary immunization at an age of 3 - 4 months. A.

booster injection should be given about a year later, and it is advisable to. administer several booster injections during childhood. Premed Coursework? Usually, infants in the. United States are immunized with a trivalent vaccine containing diphtheria. toxoid, pertussis vaccine, and tetanus toxoid (DPT or DTP vaccine).