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AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report Essay Sample. The topic of this research involved the term occurrence of genetic transformation in bacteria (E. Coli). More specifically, a previously prepared pGLO plasmidwhich consisted of the gene to be clonedwas used to transform non-pathogenic bacteria. The pGLO plasmid contained a gene for the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from a bioluminescent jellyfish and a gene for resistance to ampicillin, an antibiotic. Essentially, we wanted to essay in school life, determine the conditions of the bacteria that would glow. Our hypothesis was that the american transformed solution with no plasmid DNA and on water, ampicillin would produce no bacteria colonies, as it wouldn#8217;t be able to grow without the gene for ampicillin resistance. Also, the american government term transformed solution with just LB and ampicillin would produce bacteria colonies but the essay about transformed solution with LB/ampicillin/Arabinose would produce glowing bacteria colonies (as Arabinose allows the government term papers GFP gene to be expressed, but in both cases bacteria colonies would be present because of the gene of responsibility essay an inspector, resistance to american term papers, the antibiotic, ampicillin). We essentially made the german required transformed solutionsand the controlsswiped them on the agar plate, and then observed to see whether or not bacteria colonies grew and whether or not they glowed.

Our data fully supported our hypothesis. We can thus conclude that bacteria can take in foreign DNA through the process of transformation and that this foreign DNA can fundamentally change the bacteria (ex: making it glow). Future research can involve inserting other pieces of DNA into bacteria from different organisms, making the bacteria take on various phenotypic characteristics. Genetic transformation is government one of the most important processes in biotechnology. Essentially, genetic transformation involves the process where a cell (in this lab, a bacterial cell) takes up foreign DNA from its surroundings and incorporates it into its own DNA. German Essays Experience! This gene transfer is accomplished with the aid of a plasmid, a naturally-occuring small piece of circular DNA in bacteria. Bacteria can efficiently adapt to new environments by transferring plasmids with beneficial genes aiding survival to other bacterial cells. In biotechnology laboratories, plasmids are transformed.

Essentially, restriction enzymes are used to make cuts in the plasmidthe #8216;vector#8217;and in the DNA sequence containing the gene to government term, be transferred to narrative essay, the bacteria. Then, this gene to be transferred is forged into american term papers the plasmid (in this lab we used previously made plasmids called pGLO, containing a bioluminescent gene and german, a gene for ampicillin resistance). Plasmids are then #8216;forced#8217; into bacterial cells using a process called #8220;heat shock,#8221; where small pores in the bacteria open up. Government! In the german essays on work endin order to find out which bacteria received the new genethe transformed solution can be incubated on agar gel. The transformed bacteria will exhibit certain unique characteristics (in our case actually growing, or glowing if Arabinose was present). Materials and term papers, Methods: For this experiment, the following materials were used: two micro test tubes, sterile transfer pipettes, 500 µl of Transformation Solution (CaCl2), an ice bath, a foam rack for the tubes to keep them afloat in the ice-bath, non-pathogenic E. Coli bacteria, sterile loops, pGLO DNA solution, four specially-prepared agar plates, LB-broth, and a water bath set at 42 degrees Celsius. First we labeled one micro test tube #8216;+DNA#8217; and the other #8216;-DNA.#8217; Then we transferred 250 µl of Transformation Solution (CaCl2)using a sterile pipetteinto each micro test tube, and placed the tubes in a foam rack, which floated on an icy water bath. Next, we used two sterile loops to transfer E. Coli. Bacteria from the starter plate to each of the tubes (#8216;+DNA#8217; and #8216;-DNA#8217; tubes). Now that we had added the required bacteria, we proceeded in our experiment by adding the essay my mother pGLO DNA solutionusing a new sterile loopto the micro test tube labeled #8216;+DNA.#8217; The next part of the experiment involved the heat shock process, where plasmids were fused into bacteria. We incubated both micro test tubes on ice for 10 minutes.

Then, we transferred both of them into the water bath set at. 42 ?C for exactly 50 seconds, making sure to place them back on ice after the 50 seconds were #8216;up.#8217; After letting the tubes incubate on ice for american term papers 2 minutes, we used a sterile pipette to add 250 µl of in school life, LB broth to the #8216;+DNA#8217; tube. We repeated this process with the #8216;-DNA#8217; tube. We let these tubes sit for ten minutes at room temperature. Finally, each transformation solution was prepared. Using new sterile loops for each plate, we spread the suspensions evenly around the surface of the agar of each of their four respective plates (plates were labeled +DNA LB/amp ; +DNA LB/amp/ara ; -DNA LB/amp ; -DNA LB for what they contained or didn#8217;t contain [Arabinose, ampicillin, LB]). Lastly, we put our plates in an incubator so bacteria could grow, and observed them the next day under UV light. American Term Papers! The nature of this research involved fusing pGLO plasmids containing the narrative GFP glowing gene and a gene for ampicillin resistance into american term E. Coli bacteria, only some of essay, which would take in this plasmid.

The solutions having transformed bacteria DNA from the plasmid (+DNA) and the solutions where its bacteria did not receive plasmid DNA (-DNA) were spread on agar plates; the plates were then observed in the hopes of drawing important conclusions about papers, gene transfer and essay, transformation in bacteria. In the government term papers agar plate with LB/Amp, where the solution with plasmid DNA combined into bacteria was spread, transformed white bacteria colonies were present, but no glowing under UV light was observed. In the german essays on work agar plate with LB/Amp/Ara, where the government term papers solution with plasmid DNA combined into bacteria was spread, transformed white bacteria colonies were present that glowed bright green under UV light. In the agar plate with LB/Amp and -DNA, no bacteria were present. In the agar plate with just LB and -DNA, a bacteria lawn was present (bacteria were everywhere, but they did not glow). M Pseo! Our experiment was designed to observe the genetic transformation of non-pathogenic bacteria (E.

Coli) via pGLO plasmids fusing into the bacteria. From careful analysis of our results, it becomes clear that our hypothesis was supported. Originally, we hypothesized that the only bacteria that would glow would be the bacteria that had received the plasmid DNAthat had been transformedbut that had also been cultivated in american government term papers Arabinose. Also, we predicted the solutions with just the on water problem bacterianot the plasmid DNA in addition to the bacteriawould NOT grow if ampicillin was present in government term papers the growth medium, but would grow if ampicillin was absent from the responsibility an inspector calls growth medium (agar). Our results confirmed our hypothesis. Clearly, when analyzing our experiment, our hypothesis was supported by american government, our results because it makes sense scientifically. In School Life! First of all, any bacteria growing on the #8216;+DNA#8217; plates must have been transformed, since the government term papers plates have ampicillin, an antibiotic.

In being transformed, bacteria received the gene for ampicillin resistance from the pGLO plasmid. Thus, the only ones that grew were the ones that had the ampicillin-resistance-gene (which they received from the plasmids). Although all transformed bacteria will grow, only the bacteria present in arabinose will glow under UV light. This Arabinose is essays experience a sugar which turns on the GFP glowing gene. Furthermore, even bacteria which had not received the plasmid genes (#8216;-DNA#8217;), and american government papers, thus could not glow, obviously would grow on a medium with LB, favoring the growth of bacteria. Life! However, if ampicillin is present, non-transformed bacteria will not grow, as they would not have received the ampicillin-resistance-gene from the pGLO plasmids. From this lab, we can conclude that bacteriathrough the process of transformationare able to take up foreign DNA (such as in the form of a pGLO plasmid) and express it in phenotypic characteristics (such as glowing). We also learned that transformation is never fully effective; only american government cells that are competent enough are able to take up foreign DNA. This can be seen by essay text, the fact that the american government term control (-DNA/LB) plate had a lawn of bacteria, whereas the ampicillin plates had small bacteria colonies (only transformed bacteria could grow). Our lab results are subject to imperfections, such as the fact that the heat shock timing might not have been perfect. Howeveroverallour results seem to be accurate; they are substantiated by current scientific knowledge in biotechnology.

Is this the german essays on work experience perfect essay for you? Save time and papers, order AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. On Discipline Life! Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report. Conjugation is a natural occurring process that involves the transfer of DNA from one cell into government term another through a physical connection between the cells. Essay Shortage Problem! In the government following experiment, two strains#8230; Normal flora are found in specific areas of the body and often depends on essay on water shortage problem environmental factors such as pH, oxygen concentration, amount of moisture present, etc. Some sites in which#8230; Microbiology: Viable Counts.

Total Viable Count is a quantitative idea about the presence of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and mold in a sample. It counts the number of colonies produced by a#8230; The purpose of this report is to term papers, use different tests to discover what bacteria is the unknown. This is important because we need to know what test need to be#8230; Medicinal Microbiology Lab Report. Many infectious diseases caused by german on work, infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, have plagued human existence. Term Papers! Thus the identification of bacteria becomes all the essay text more important in the search#8230;

Microbiology lab report on american Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In this lab experiment two different types of bacteria, Escherichia coli and essay text, Staphylococcus aureus, were grown singly and mixed on four different types of agar in order to observe the#8230;

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Essay: Speech Disorder – Vocal Folds. Vocal Pathologies arise due to accident, disease, misuse of the american voice, or surgery affecting the responsibility calls vocal folds and have a profound impact on patients’ life. The modeling of normal and american government term papers, pathological voice source and the analysis of healthy and m pseo, pathological voices has gained increasing interest recently. Among the most interesting works are those concerned with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and papers, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which belong to a class of neurodegenerative diseases that affect patient’s speech. Most voice-related pathologies are due to irregular masses or the presence of calls, pathologies in the larynx such as vocal fold nodules or vocal fold polyps located on the vocal folds interfering in their normal and regular vibration.

This phenomenon causes a decrease in voice quality, that is, usually the first symptom of american government papers, this type of disorders. In the past, the only way to measure voice quality was by applying perceptual measurements denoting the existence or absence of several voice characteristics [26]. To analyze the speech signal in calls, order to estimate numerous parameters that indicate amplitude and frequency perturbations, the level of air leakage, the degree of turbulence, and so forth. Voice production starts with the vibration of the vocal folds, which can be more or less stretched to achieve higher or lower pitch tones. In normal conditions and in spite of this pitch variation ability, phonation is government term papers considered stabilized and regular. Any transformation on the vocal fold’s tissue can cause an irregular, nonperiodic vibration which will change the shape of the essay text glottal source signal from one period to the next, introducing jitter [7]. Government? The same problem can occur in responsibility calls, amplitude. If, for instance, the vocal folds are too stiff, they will need a higher sub glottal pressure to american vibrate. The glottal cycle can thus be irregularly disturbed also in amplitude, originating shimmer. The possible existence of high frequency noise, especially during the closed phase of the glottal cycle, originated by a partial closure of the vocal folds will cause an air leakage through the glottis, providing a turbulence effect. Essay Text? All these phenomena affect the glottal source signal, but there is no direct access possible to this signal, the access is only available to the sound pressure radiated at the lips.

The estimation of the glottal source signal from the voice signal is not a simple task. Research in this field shows that it is american term reasonable to narrative my mother approximate the influence of the american government papers vocal tract by responsibility calls, a linear filter. Using this approximation, the voice signal can be filtered by inverse of this filter to obtain an estimate of the government glottal source signal [11]. In this work a non-interactive approach is taken without consideration of the influence of the supraglottis vocal tract or the influence of the sub glottis cavities on the glottal flow. German On Work? As a consequence, it is assumed that the source and filter parameters are independent. Details of the vocal tract and the utterances with respect to different articulators are indicated below. Figure 7.1 Vocal Tract indicating Place of different categories of Speech Production. 7.2 Frequency Perturbation-

Fundamental frequency has been shown to government term reflect the vocal fold status and u of m pseo, how the variables interact and perform. Fundamental frequency is defined as follows. The vocal fundamental frequency is reflective of the biomechanical characteristics of the vocal folds as they interact with sub glottal pressure. The biomechanical properties are determined by laryngeal structure and applied muscle forces. Adjustment of the latter, in turn, is a function of reflective, affective and learned voluntary behaviors. The small cycle-to-cycle changes in frequency are represented by frequency perturbations or what is called jitter. The estimation of government term papers, irregularities in the vibration of the vocal folds is commonly measured by the jitter parameter. Jitter measures the irregularities in a quasi-periodic signal and can account for variations in one or more of its features, like period, amplitude, shape, and so forth [7].

Even a sustained vowel produced by essay on discipline in school life, a professional speaker cannot be considered as a periodic signal. Hence, the jitter of a voiced speech signal is american government usually taken as a measure of the change in the duration of consecutive glottal cycles. Jitter the instability of vocal fold vibration represents a reflection of biomechanical and neuromuscular control. Perturbation values can vary in several ways. Shortage Problem? Variations of american, pitch perturbation are inversely proportional to the frequency, for example when fundamental frequency increases, jitter decreases. Variations of pitch perturbation is german essays on work experience expected to change in relation to the degree of tension present in the vocal folds, where high tension reflects lower perturbation values and american term papers, low tension reflects higher perturbation values. Vocal intensity and speech samples used have shown to affect perturbations.

The effects of intensity on jitter values are as follows. The higher jitter ratios were related to low pitch and intensity of sustained vowels. It is found that pitch perturbation measures were more useful than amplitude perturbation measures. The use of perturbation measures in sustained phonation to detect laryngeal pathologies is german on work more valuable when combined with amplitude perturbation measures. Amplitude perturbation measures could increase the american term accuracy of targeting vocal pathologies. The greater the force, the greater is the amplitude of a sound wave. Intensity is an objective measure of sound loudness and it is the on discipline amount of force per unit of area. As pressure changes the perception of government term, loudness also changes. Changes of frequency can affect perceptions of loudness. The Vocal intensity is dependent on an interaction of sub glottal pressure and the adjustment status and aerodynamics at the level of the vocal folds, as well as vocal tract status. Changes in fundamental frequency can affect maximum and minimum vocal intensities.

The speakers raise their fundamental frequency when asked to speak louder. Reduced vocal intensity can also be an identifying factor to some speech disorders, especially those involving the central nervous system. Essay Text? Values of amplitude perturbation or “shimmer” are similar to jitter values. Shimmer measures the cycle-to-cycle variations of the vocal signal. Amplitude perturbation also analyzes the short-term variability of the vocal signal .Amplitude perturbation measures are based on the maximal peak amplitude of each cycle measured in american, mill volts or millimeters. That the forces of on discipline life, vocal fold tension, mass, length and american government, subglottic pressures can affect shimmer as well as jitter scores. Shimmer is also better analyzed in prolongations of single sounds rather than in essay text, spontaneous or connected speech. Government Papers? Connected speech contains instances of silences, its intensity is variable between syllables as well as in essay text, word stress, and each phoneme has its own acoustic pattern. [9] The vocal folds are driven by the cranial nerves originating within this system. If the cranial nerves which innervate speech articulators are destroyed or damaged, then the american government transmission to the vocal folds will be disrupted. This subsequently may cause changes in the vocal fold vibratory pattern.

It happens in case of m pseo, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) subjects. Jitter and shimmer values represent the small cycle-to-cycle changes during vocal fold oscillations. It would seem logical that there would be significant changes reflected in the jitter and shimmer measures, since the vocal folds play an active role in speech production. Speech portion of large duration ‘ 10ms is used to calculate frequency, jitter and shimmer. American Government Term? The pathological subjects have higher jitter values than the normal subjects for utterances. Vocal Tract Model. The vocal tract is responsible for changing the spectral balance of the glottal source signal. By changing the vocal tract shape the essay shortage speaker can modify its resonance frequencies to produce a wide variety of different sounds.

Humans use the american government term evolution in shortage problem, time of the resonance frequencies to american government papers produce speech. The glottal source signal is responsibility an inspector calls further modified by the vocal tract filter. The contribution of the vocal tract resonances can be removed from the speech signal by inverse filtering. Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) is another useful measure of hoarseness. For a signal that can be assumed to be periodic (e.g. a sustained vowel), the signal-to-noise ratio will be equal to the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR).

Praat declares that a healthy voice phonating /a/ or /i/ should have an HNR of government term papers, 20, and 40 for the phonation of the vowel /u/. The pathological subjects have lower HNR values than the normal subjects for essay text utterances and hence the intelligibility of vowels or consonants produced by them is american papers very low. Formant Frequency Analysis. In real time continuous speech, even the sustained vowel phonation consists of some random part mainly due to turbulence of airflow through the glottis (anterior and/or posterior glottis) and due to essays experience pitch perturbations. During the vowels pronunciation, the value of first formant (F1) can be found in range from 250Hz to 1000Hz. When the tongue is closer to american government term papers the hard palate the value of F1 is lower.

The value of the second formant (F2) can vary from 550 Hz up to 2700 Hz and it depends on german on work experience, front and back position of the tongue. The lower value for F2 can be achieved by rounding the lips [4]. Third formant (F3) is important for term papers quality and clarity of about my mother, pronounced phoneme. 7.3 System Implementation. The system implemented for vocal folds Speech disorder is described below. The present work attempts to find few parameters from pathological speech for confirmation of Vocal Folds disorder. Researchers have used lot many parameters. We try to reduce the term papers computational cost and reduce the number of parameters. The present work is based on study of children and some adult male and female subjects speaking with Marathi as their mother tongue. The speech data of normal subjects/children and narrative about, pathological subjects/children of the same age group between 3 to 10 years is collected. The children were trained to utter similar words before recording.

The speech data of normal adult male and female subjects and pathological adult male and female subjects of the government term same age group between 20 to 50 years is collected. The standard database is not available. U Of? The speech data of 11Vocal Folds disordered speakers comprising of above 100 words uttered by each subject are collected. The speech database consists of isolated words, connected words, fast uttered sentences and songs for e.g. American Government Term Papers? Prarthana-School-Prayer, National anthem and Pledge ,Nursery Rhymes ,famous film songs etc.

The speech data was recorded using Sony Intelligent Portable Ocular Device (IPOD) and recording facility in COLEA freeware in digital form. The recording was carried out in a pleasant atmosphere and maintaining the children and other subjects in tension-stress free environment. The recorded signal is transformed into ‘.wav ‘file by using GOLDWAVE software. The data was collected at ChetanaVikasMandir, a special school established to educate Mentally Retarded children as well as children with various disorders. It is located at Kolhapur, India. The data is also collected from the patients under the treatment of speech therapists and ENT specialists in Kolhapur city. German Essays? We got the government papers database labelled by consulting the doctors as Vocal Folds disorder speech data. 7.3.3 Evaluation of essay text, Speech. The present work attempts to confirm the Vocal Folds disorder from the american government term speech signal by extracting only important segmental and supra segmental acoustic indices. The important indices are considered as Diagnostic Markers are as follows. 1. Evaluation of Fundamental frequency fo, Jitter, Shimmer, and HNR for the analysis of harshness and breathiness in the voice to responsibility essay an inspector be done in the Training Phase to confirm the american term speech as of pathological speech category.

Evaluation of Voice Regularity for the analysis of overall motor control during speech production activity. This is done with reference to the parameter threshold ranges specified in Table 4.1. 2. Fundamental Frequency Analysis- The fo mean value lies in the high range between 180 Hz to 440 Hz for adult male female speakers and children. 3. Glottal frequency variations ‘ the source frequency fo variations with respect to % percentile values from in school 0% to term papers 100%. The Linear or nonlinear nature of the characteristics is important. The Vocal Folds disorder is german on work confirmed by low gradient index in 0% to 50% fo percentile range and high gradient index and nonlinear nature of the american term characteristics in 50% to 100 % fo percentile range. 4. Essay Text? % Close Quotient (CQ) graph simulates the Laryngograph and indicates the american government papers close phase of Glottis pulse signal or vocal folds vibrational cycle. The mean CQ, range of variation of CQ and CQ variations with respect to total time duration of u of essay, speech sample are important parameters. 5. All ‘Tx’ graph indicates histogram of all pitch cycles for the total time duration of speech sample.

Regular ‘Tx’ graph indicates the histogram of the regular pitch periods which vary within +/- 10% with respect to the adjacent pitch periods. The similarity between the two graphs and the mean fo value of the person are important parameters. 7.4 System Block Schematic ‘ Diagram of the system implemented for evaluation of Vocal Folds disorder is as shown in Figure 7.2 below. The present work attempts to confirm the Vocal Folds disorder from the speech signal by extracting various segmental and supra segmental acoustic indices. The important indices are considered as Diagnostic Markers.

The acoustic indices are evaluated for american government term all isolated word and SFS tool generates ‘Ls’ signal from the input speech data, which is compatible to responsibility essay calls Laryngograph signal which is not accessible to us. The ‘SFS’ tool provides the Qx a histogram of the closed quotient values found in the recording. American Government Term? The closed quotient is an estimate of the percentage time the vocal folds remained closed in each pitch period. It is found from the Laryngograph signal.The SFS tool provides the Dx1 a histogram of all the pitch periods found in the recording, distributed according to their fundamental frequency, Dx2 a histogram of all the regular pitch periods found in the recording, distributed according to their fundamental frequency. Essay Text? A pitch period is defined as regular if it deviates in duration by no more than 10% from the period before or after it. American Papers? Using the acoustic indices the relationship between the an inspector calls Electroglottograph (EGG) measures and the physical movements of the vocal folds is expressed as ratios between the temporal measures of government term, open phase of vocal fold movement with closed phase and also between different phases of movement with the on discipline life full glottal period continuous sentence type speech data samples (above 100 words by each subject) uttered by every pathological and normal subject. Term? The ready to u of m pseo essay use softwares are used for the development phase .We have used the developmental tool’ Praat’ to verify the intensity, pitch , the formant frequencies f1 , f2 ,f3 and HNR calculated by us using our MATLAB code for the speech samples. We have used the american government papers developmental tool ‘SFS’ to extract the parameters voice regularity, Jitter, Shimmer, fo mean mode values. The Laryngeal Quality Analysis, Glottis Pulse Analysis is performed by using SFS software. SFS reports indicate exactly similar ‘all Tx ‘ and ‘regular Tx ‘ glottis pulse graphs in case of german experience, normal subjects where as for pathological subjects the ‘regular Tx ‘ pulses produced are very low, insufficient in time domain as well as variable in frequency domain . 7.5 System Development. The system is developed using two modes training mode and term papers, testing mode.

Training Mode- In training mode 50 speech samples are used to train the system. The Laryngograph comprising of % Close Quotient (CQ) with respect to time indicative of the close phase of Glottis pulse signal or vocal folds vibrational cycle and the comparison of histograms of all ‘Tx ‘ which is all pitch periods with respect to regular ‘Tx’ pitch periods are plotted for these 50 speech samples to essay text confirm Vocal Folds disordercharacteristics. The observations for Tx are as follows. 1. A pitch period is defined as regular if it deviates in duration by no more than 10% from the term papers period before or after it. 2. In case of normal persons, regular Tx graph matches with all Tx graph. 3. For Vocal Fold disordered persons, regular Tx contains almost 50 % of frequency range as compared to all Tx. Glottal Frequency F0 variation is found for normal as well as pathological speech.

It is evaluated in transformed percentile domain. The fo values for a speech data file are calculated by using Framing and Windowing Algorithm in MATLAB. Then the Normalization routine is developed in Microsoft Excel. Responsibility Essay An Inspector Calls? The algorithm for evaluation of Normalized fo Variation in american government, Percentile Domain is as follows. 1. The % percentile value of f0 maximum level is considered to be 100% percentile. 2. Hence according to the data values of f0 variations as per essay text the speech sample 0%-5%-10%-15%—–95%-100% percentile values of every speech sample are calculated. 3. The f0 frequency variations are plotted with respect to % percentile values. This graph provides a very good measure of fundamental frequency analysis to differentiate between normal speech and pathological speech .It also confirms Vocal Folds disorder.The graph is linear for certain range with high or low gradient and it exhibits curved nature in the other range of fo for Vocal Folds disorderedspeakers. For normal speech % percentile fo track graphs are linear from 5% to 95 % range with very low gradient 0.05 to 0.3. The observations for CQ are as follows.

1. American Government Term? CQ is a time Vs CQ graph. It indicates that the CQ values are present in about my mother, the range 15 % to 75 % for term Vocal Folds disordered speakers. For normal speech, CQ variation is observed in the range 15 % to u of 60 % The observations for Regular Tx pulses are as follows. 1. % Regular Tx pulses is less than 20 % or even negligible of the frequency spectrum as compared to american government all indicating loss of regular pitch periods. 7.6 Graphs of some of the Diagnostic Markers-

Figure 7.3 to u of Figure 7.5 show the american government speech parameters extracted for 3 different speakers. Essay Text? The observations are indicated in the notes. Diagnostic Markers ‘ dudh1.wav. Figure 7.3a. % Regular Glottal Pulses dudh1. Notes-The regular Tx pulses are produced in the 110 Hz to 140 Hz and 258 Hz to term papers 278 Hz pitch spectrum. The time duration of regular Tx pulses is almost 50% of problem, All Tx graph. Figure 7.3b. % Close Quotient wrt Time dudh1. % Qx graph indicates set of short Qx pulses spread in 20% to american government papers 75% CQ with mean value %CQ ‘ 54.7. Figure7.3c. % Percentile fo track variations dudh1. % percentile fo track indicates initial linear section from 5% to 50% percentile range with 0.07 -low gradient index, and narrative, second nonlinear curved section graph from 55% to 95% percentile range and from 9 5% to american government term 100% range’ 4.31 very high gradient index. Figure 7.4a. % Regular Glottal Pulses -dr1.

Notes-1. The regular Tx pulses are produced in the 120 Hz to 140 Hz and 500 Hz to 510 Hz pitch spectrum. 2. The time duration of essays experience, regular Tx pulses is almost 30% of All Tx graph. Figure 7.4b. % Close Quotient wrt Time ‘dr1. Note-% Qx graph indicates set of short Qx pulses spread in 15% to government 72% CQ with mean value %CQ ‘ 44.5.

Figure 7.4c. % Percentile fo track variations dr1. Note- % percentile fo track indicates linear graph from 5% to 50% percentile range ‘0.12 low gradient index, nonlinear curved graph from 55% to 95% percentile range with very high gradient. Diagnostic Markers-par 16.wav. Figure 7.5a. Responsibility Essay An Inspector Calls? % Regular Glottal Pulses -par 16. 1. The regular Tx pulses are not produced in american government term, the entire 60 Hz to essay on water shortage 600 Hz pitch spectrum. Figure 7.5b. Papers? % Close Quotient wrt Time-par 16. % CQ graph indicates Qx pulse 18% to 77% wide with CQ with mean value %CQ ‘ 46.2.

Figure7.5c. Essays Experience? % Percentile fo track variations ‘par16. Note-Glottal frequency fo Characteristics in Percentile Domain indicates continuous rising locally nonlinear graph from 0% to 100% percentile range ‘0.55 high gradients’ Testing Mode- In testing mode remaining 50 speech samples are used for confirmation of government papers, Vocal Folds disorder. The testing mode checks the an inspector calls Laryngograph characteristics, CQ graph and F0 track to confirm Vocal Folds disorder. The following observations are made. 1. Fundamental Frequency fo mean is in papers, the range 120 Hz to 440 Hz as per the categories like adult male, female, children or elderly speakers. 2. It is observed that Laryngograph comprising of m pseo, regular Tx pulses contains less than 20 % or even negligible of the frequency spectrum as compared to all Tx. 3. Time Vs closed quotient graph indicates closed quotient range more than 50 % wide with mean %CQ within 42% to 48%. 4. fo track has a mixed linear and nonlinear curved nature. More than 90 % speech samples followed above pattern of Vocal Folds disorder characteristics.

7.7 System Developed for correction – We have used MATLAB based open source developmental tool E-System compatible with SFS developmental software for trying methods for government correcting Vocal Folds disordered speech. The developmental tool COLEA and german essays on work experience, Adobe Audition are used for preprocessing the speech samples. In preprocessing the term papers silence zone or the essay text audible breathing voice segments are removed. Using E-System following processing blocks can be designed. ‘ Amplifier /Attenuator ‘ Design specifications are gain and Bandwidth. ‘ Low Pass Filter- Design specifications are Cut off Frequency. ‘ High Pass Filter- Design specifications are Cut off Frequency. ‘ Band Pass Filter- Design specifications are lower and american government term, upper Cut off Frequency. ‘ Band Stop Filter- Design specifications are lower and upper Cut off Frequency.

‘ Vocal Tract Filter- Design specifications are f1,f2 and f3 formant Frequencies. ‘ Resonator- Design specifications are Resonating Frequency and Bandwidth. The system applied for experience correction is american government term developed with the help of following filters. Band Pass Filter- The lower cut off frequency is in the range 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the upper cut off frequency selected should be such that the second formant frequency f2 should lie in responsibility essay an inspector, the pass band. Hence it is selected as 1500 Hz, 2000 Hz or 2500 Hz as per american term male, female or children based on pitch frequency range. Resonator – The resonating center frequency selected should be such that the second formant frequency f2 should lie in the pass band. Essay On Discipline In School Life? Hence it is selected as 1500 Hz, 2000 Hz or 2500 Hz as per male, female or children based on pitch frequency range. Vocal Tract Filter ‘ It is realized as a cascaded combination of three resonators acting as per three formant frequencies. The standard adult male formant frequencies are 500 Hz, 1500Hz, and 2500 Hz. The first formant frequency is amplified by 20 dB, the second formant frequency is amplified by 10 dB and the third formant frequency is maintained at 0 dB.

Hence this filter boosts up the input speech signal spectrum as per the formant frequencies. In case of pathological speech the amplitudes of upper formants are degraded .Hence the term VTF is the better solution to lift up the second formant spectrum. 7.7.1 System Applied for Correction of Vocal Folds disorder. The performance of Band Pass Filter was found to be better in comparison with Vocal Tract Filter and Resonator Filter during the Training mode. Hence the german experience BPF is american term applied for m pseo essay correction of Vocal Folds disorder speech. The BPF is designed with upper cut off frequency such that the second formant frequency f2 should lie in the pass band. Papers? Hence it is selected as 1500 Hz, 2000 Hz or 2500 Hz as per male, female or children based on pitch frequency range. After applying the BPF to u of m pseo essay Vocal Folds disorder the following observations are made. 5. It is observed that Laryngograph comprising of regular Tx pulses graph shows improvement and contains more than 50 % of the frequency spectrum as compared to all Tx.

6. Time Vs closed quotient graph indicates closed quotient range more than 50 % wide with mean %CQ within 42% to 48%. 7. F0 track has a low gradient (slope)- In 10% to 50% percentile range ‘ 0.17 to american papers 0.24 and a high gradient (slope) in u of essay, 55% to 100% percentile range ‘0.55 to 1.94 .The nonlinear curved section is american improved and converted to approximately linear with comparatively low gradient levels. Improvement in the diagnostic markers due to application of BPF Filter is indicated below with the help of Regular Tx graph, % Close Quotient (CQ) graph and % percentile fo track graphs. Diagnostic Markers-dudh 1BPF.wav. Figure 7.6a1. % Regular Glottal Pulses-dudh1 BPF processed. Figure 7.6a2. % Regular Glottal Pulses-dudh1 Original. The regular Tx pulses are produced in the 110 Hz to 140 Hz and essay text, 260 Hz to 275 Hz pitch spectrum in term, original where as in 110 Hz to 160 Hz pitch spectrum only in BPF processed graph. Figure 7.7b. Essay On Discipline? % Close Quotient wrt Time dudh1 BPF Processed. Figure 7.7b. American? % Close Quotient wrt Time dudh1 Original. The % CQ graph lies within 20 to 75% range in Original where as it lies in 15% to 60 % range in BPF processed. Figure7.5c1. % Percentile fo track variations ‘dudh1 Original.

Figure7.5c2. Narrative About My Mother? % Percentile fo track variations ‘dudh1 BPF Processed. Original% percentile fo track indicates linear graph from 5% to 50% percentile range ‘0.077 low gradient indexes. In BPF processed the nonlinear curved graph from 55% to 85% percentile range is smoothed ,approximately linear from 5% to 85% percentile range with 0.06 very low gradient. fo Track Comparison dudh1 Vocal Folds Disorder. Figure7.7. Comparative Response of the government term papers Correction System for Vocal Folds Disorder.

It is evident from the graph that the BPF is better than Resonator and VTF. The BPF processed graph extends linear range till 85% fo and further reduces the gradient of both the on discipline life sections. Hence it is preferred as Correction System. 7.8Segmental and Supra segmental Acoustic indices Analysis. The analysis of american government term papers, segmental and essay an inspector calls, supra segmental acoustic indices was carried out for particular isolated words and continuous speech data. The isolated word data above 100 words uttered by american papers, each of 25 normal subjects and12 Vocal Fold disabled subjects were analyzed and reference /threshold level was considered for each isolated word. Various Misarticulation cases were analyzed in case of pathological subjects. Narrative Essay My Mother? The spectrograms were studied for Formant analysis. Fast uttered words or continuous sentences exhibit greater complexities with respect to papers speech intelligibility. Considering the essay text observations for % CQ variation, Tx variation and F0 track variation observations the american system is designed for confirmation of responsibility essay an inspector calls, Vocal Folds Disorder. Results for training system are shown in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1 range of diagnostic markers for 50 % of Vocal Folds Disordered speech sample and 50 % of normal speech. Diagnostic marker Range of values for Vocal Folds Disordered speech Range of values for normal speech. Time Vs % CQ 15 % to american government term 75 % 10 % to 60 % Time periods Vs frequency TX graph Regular Tx has less than 20 % or negligible frequency range as compared to on work all Tx graph with intermittent pulses Regular Tx matches with all Tx for more than 90 %. Percentile Glottal Frequency fo track variation fo track has a mixed initial range linear and nonlinear, curved nature in higher range in government term papers, percentile domain fo track has linear nature for entire range in percentile domain with low gradient. Results for testing of remaining 50 % samples are shown in Table 7.2 as % samples confirmed for Vocal Folds Disordered speech and normal speech. Table 7.2 % confirmation for 50 % of Vocal Folds Disordered speech and normal speech samples. Parameter used % samples confirmed for responsibility an inspector calls Vocal Folds Disordered speech % samples confirmed for normal speech. Time periods Vs frequency TX graph 98 % 100 % Percentile F0 track variation 100 % 100 % All 3 parameters % CQ, Tx, F0 97 % 100% The existing speech enhancement algorithms like spectral subtraction do not help in enhancement of pathological speech [97]. Papers? The pathological speech due to vocal folds disorder suffers from following conditions.

‘ Breathing voice segments are audible in speech because the subjects are under stress when they speak .When the speakers are supposed to take pause in between utterances of two successive words generally the essays on work experience breathing voice segment is american government term papers heard. ‘ The minimum intensity level does not drop much as there is essays on work no silence region due to the presence of breathing voice segments. ‘ The speakers have to put more efforts for the motor movements of american papers, articulators .Hence the german essays experience utterances of different words is not appropriate. ‘ Due to term papers low HNR levels below the essay text pathological threshold of 12 dB the speech indicates harshness. ‘ The formants f1, f2, f3 are seen to papers be spread in case of pathological speech with respect to responsibility an inspector calls normal speech. As a result the vowels and consonants produced are either weak or inappropriate. 7.10 Our Contribution to present work. The Vocal Folds disordered speech database is not available. We got the database labeled by american government term, the doctors .We have evaluated and analyzed the speech of the Vocal Folds disorder people with the help of essay text, few segmental an supra segmental acoustic indices like fo mean , Percentile glottal frequency fo track Characteristics, Laryngeal Quality represented by % Close Quotient characteristics , All ‘Tx’-Regular ‘Tx’ time-frequency Histogram and % voice Regularity.

Evaluation and confirmation of Vocal Folds disordered speech using the government term papers present theory is done for the first time by us and it is not done by any one before. 7.11 Concluding Remarks. The Vocal Folds disorder can be identified by evaluation of speech of 25 normal and 12 pathological subjects .Out of 12 pathological subjects 11 were confirmed to be vocal folds disabled persons .The disorder can be evaluated on u of essay, the basis of following segmental and supra segmental acoustic indices. ‘ The speakers exhibit variability in american government, different acoustical indices from time to time. ‘ The range of essay text, % Voice Regularity is observed to american government term be 15% to 40%.

‘ The range of % CQ Mean is observed to be 25% to 49 % with standard deviation of 13% to 20 %. ‘ The % of german on work experience, regular Tx pulses is very low with respect to all Tx pulses. The glottal pulses exist relatively only for 20 to term 50 % of time duration of speech data and are effectively present in particular frequency range in 140 Hz to 300 Hz. The glottal pulses cannot be produced by the disabled speakers in low frequency range and in400 Hz to 600 Hz spectrum.. ‘ Percentile glottal frequency characteristics are Linear with low gradient up to an inspector calls 50 % percentile fo and government term, Nonlinear curved with very high gradient up to 100% percentile fo. In some cases Nonlinear with very high gradient. ‘ The minimum intensity levels attained are in the range 28 dB to 40 dB because of breathing voice segments present consistently. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in an inspector, our area of expertise, and american government term, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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