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badly written essay The Philosophy and Literature Bad Writing Contest ran from 1995 to 1998. For an essay giving background on the contest, click here . We are pleased to announce winners of the fourth Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature . The Bad Writing Contest celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles published in essays the last few years. Antithesis Tera? Ordinary journalism, fiction, departmental memos, etc. are not eligible, nor are parodies: entries must be non-ironic, from serious, published academic journals or books. Deliberate parody cannot be allowed in a field where unintended self-parody is so widespread. Two of the most popular and influential literary scholars in the U.S. are among those who wrote winning entries in the latest contest.

Judith Butler, a Guggenheim Fellowship-winning professor of rhetoric and comparative literature at the University of California at Berkeley, admired as perhaps “one of the ten smartest people on the planet,” wrote the sentence that captured the contest’s first prize. Homi K. Bhabha, a leading voice in the fashionable academic field of postcolonial studies, produced the second-prize winner. “As usual,” commented Denis Dutton, editor of Philosophy and Literature , “this year’s winners were produced by well-known, highly-paid experts who have no doubt labored for students essays, years to write like this. That these scholars must know what they are doing is indicated by by malcolm x the fact that the winning entries were all published by students english essays distinguished presses and on education academic journals.” Professor Butler’s first-prize sentence appears in “Further Reflections on the Conversations of Our Time,” an article in essays the scholarly journal Diacritics (1997): The move from a structuralist account in which capital is understood to on education system structure social relations in relatively homologous ways to students english essays a view of hegemony in sociology which power relations are subject to repetition, convergence, and rearticulation brought the question of temporality into the thinking of structure, and marked a shift from a form of Althusserian theory that takes structural totalities as theoretical objects to one in which the students essays, insights into the contingent possibility of structure inaugurate a renewed conception of hegemony as bound up with the counseling psychology research paper, contingent sites and strategies of the english, rearticulation of power. Dutton remarked that “it’s possibly the writing, anxiety-inducing obscurity of such writing that has led Professor Warren Hedges of Southern Oregon University to essays praise Judith Butler as ‘probably one of the ten smartest people on the planet’.” This year’s second prize went to a sentence written by Homi K. Bhabha, a professor of antithesis tera English at the University of Chicago. It appears in The Location of Culture (Routledge, 1994): If, for a while, the ruse of desire is students essays calculable for sociology research paper, the uses of discipline soon the repetition of guilt, justification, pseudo-scientific theories, superstition, spurious authorities, and classifications can be seen as the desperate effort to “normalize” formally the disturbance of a discourse of splitting that violates the rational, enlightened claims of its enunciatory modality. This prize-winning entry was nominated by John D. Peters of the essays, University of Iowa, who describes it as “quite splendid: enunciatory modality, indeed!” Ed Lilley, an art historian at the University of Bristol in the U.K., supplied a sentence by Steven Z. Levine from an anthology entitled Twelve Views of Manet’s “Bar” (Princeton University Press, 1996): As my story is an august tale of fathers and sons, real and imagined, the research methods, biography here will fitfully attend to the putative traces in Manet’s work of “les noms du pre,” a Lacanian romance of the english essays, errant paternal phallus (#148;Les Non-dupes errent#148;), a revised Freudian novella of the inferential dynamic of paternity which annihilates (and hence enculturates) through the deferred introduction of the third term of insemination the phenomenologically irreducible dyad of the system in pakistan, mother and essays child. Stewart Unwin of the National Library of Australia passed along this gem from the Australasian Journal of American Studies (December 1997). The author is Timothy W. Luke, and the article is entitled, “Museum Pieces: Politics and sociology section Knowledge at the American Museum of Natural History”: Natural history museums, like the American Museum, constitute one decisive means for power to de-privatize and re-publicize, if only ever so slightly, the realms of english essays death by putting dead remains into public service as social tokens of collective life, rereading dead fossils as chronicles of life’s everlasting quest for survival, and canonizing now dead individuals as nomological emblems of still living collectives in Nature and History. An anatomo-politics of human and non-human bodies is sustained by accumulating and classifying such necroliths in the museum’s observational/expositional performances. The passage goes on to explain that museum fossils and artifacts are “strange superconductive conduits, carrying the vital elan of contemporary biopower.” It’s demonstrated with helpful quotations from Michel Foucault’s History of Sexuality.

Finally, a tour de force from a 1996 book published by the State University of New York Press. It was located by M.J. Devaney, an essay by malcolm x, editor at the University of Nebraska Press. Students English Essays? The author is antithesis tera D.G. Leahy, writing in Foundation: Matter the Body Itself . Students English? Total presence breaks on the univocal predication of the exterior absolute the research, absolute existent (of that of which it is students english essays not possible to univocally predicate an outside, while the equivocal predication of the outside of the absolute exterior is possible of that of which the reality so predicated is not the counseling, reality, viz., of the dark/of the students, self, the identity of which is antithesis tera not outside the absolute identity of the outside, which is to say that the equivocal predication of essays identity is possible of the self-identity which is not identity, while identity is univocally predicated of the limit to sociology the darkness, of the limit of the reality of the students, self).

This is the real exteriority of the absolute outside: the reality of the absolutely unconditioned absolute outside univocally predicated of the essay by malcolm, dark: the light univocally predicated of the darkness: the shining of the light univocally predicated of the limit of the darkness: actuality univocally predicated of the other of english self-identity: existence univocally predicated of the absolutely unconditioned other of the Do science, self. Students? The precision of the best books, shining of the light breaking the students english, dark is the other-identity of the Do science and religion, light. The precision of the absolutely minimum transcendence of the students english, dark is the light itself/the absolutely unconditioned exteriority of existence for the first time/the absolutely facial identity of existence/the proportion of the new creation sans depth/the light itself ex nihilo : the dark itself univocally identified, i.e., not self-identity identity itself equivocally, not the dark itself equivocally, in “self-alienation,” not “self-identity, itself in self-alienation” “released” in and by “otherness,” and “actual other,” “itself,” not the abysmal inversion of the light, the reality of the darkness equivocally, absolute identity equivocally predicated of the self/selfhood equivocally predicated of the dark (the reality of this darkness the other-self-covering of identity which is the identification person-self). Dr. Devaney calls this book “absolutely, unequivocally incomprehensible.” While she has supplied further extended quotations to prove her point, this seems to essay x be enough. We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature and its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT. The Bad Writing Contest attempts to english locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in antithesis tera a scholarly book or article published in the last few years. Ordinary journalism, fiction, etc. are not eligible, nor are parodies: entries must be non-ironic, from actual serious academic journals or books. In a field where unintended self-parody is so widespread, deliberate send-ups are hardly necessary. This year’s winning passages include prose published by established, successful scholars, experts who have doubtless labored for years to write like this. Obscurity, after all, can be a notable achievement.

The fame and influence of writers such as Hegel, Heidegger, or Derrida rests in part on their mysterious impenetrability. On the other hand, as a cynic once remarked, John Stuart Mill never attained Hegel’s prestige because people found out what he meant. This is a mistake the authors of our prize-winning passages seem determined to avoid. The first prize goes to the distinguished scholar Fredric Jameson, a man who on the evidence of his many admired books finds it difficult to write intelligibly and impossible to write well. English? Whether this is because of the deep complexity of Professor Jameson’s ideas or their patent absurdity is something readers must decide for best, themselves.

Here, spotted for us by Dave Roden of Central Queensland University in Australia, is the very first sentence of Professor Jameson’s book, Signatures of the Visible (Routledge, 1990, p. 1): The visual is essentially pornographic, which is to say that it has its end in students rapt, mindless fascination; thinking about its attributes becomes an adjunct to that, if it is narrative essay in pakistan unwilling to betray its object; while the most austere films necessarily draw their energy from the attempt to repress their own excess (rather than from the more thankless effort to discipline the viewer). The appreciative Mr. Roden says it is “good of Jameson to essays let readers know so soon what they’re up against.” We cannot see what the second “that” in the sentence refers to. And imagine if that uncertain “it” were willing to betray its object? The reader may be baffled, but then any author who thinks visual experience is essentially pornographic suffers confusions no lessons in English composition are going to fix. If reading Fredric Jameson is like swimming through cold porridge, there are writers who strive for incoherence of a more bombastic kind. Here is our next winner, which was found for us by Professor Cynthia Freeland of the sociology paper section, University of Houston. The writer is essays Professor Rob Wilson: If such a sublime cyborg would insinuate the future as post-Fordist subject, his palpably masochistic locations as ecstatic agent of the sublime superstate need to be decoded as the best books, “now-all-but-unreadable DNA” of a fast deindustrializing Detroit, just as his Robocop-like strategy of carceral negotiation and street control remains the tirelessly American one of inflicting regeneration through violence upon the racially heteroglossic wilds and others of the essays, inner city.

This colorful gem appears in a collection called The Administration of Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and the Public Sphere , edited by psychology paper Richard Burt “for the Social Text Collective” (University of Minnesota Press, 1994). Social Text is the cultural studies journal made famous by publishing physicist Alan Sokal’s jargon-ridden parody of postmodernist writing. If this essay is Social Text’s idea of scholarship, little wonder it fell for students essays, Sokal’s hoax. (And precisely what are “racially heteroglossic wilds and others#148;?) Dr. Essay By Malcolm? Wilson is an English professor, of course. That incomprehensibility need not be long-winded is proven by our third-place winner, sent in by Richard Collier, who teaches at Mt. Students English? Royal College in sociology research Canada. It’s a sentence from Making Monstrous: Frankenstein, Criticism, Theory , by Fred Botting (Manchester University Press, 1991): The lure of imaginary totality is momentarily frozen before the dialectic of desire hastens on within symbolic chains. Still, prolixity is students often a feature of bad writing, as demonstrated by our next winner, a passage submitted by Mindy Michels, a graduate anthropology student at the American University in Washington, D.C. It’s written by antithesis tera Stephen Tyler, and appears in Writing Culture , edited (it says) by James Clifford and George E. Students Essays? Marcus (University of California Press, 1986).

Of what he calls “post-modern ethnography,” Professor Tyler says: It thus relativizes discourse not just to form #151; that familiar perversion of the modernist; nor to authorial intention #151; that conceit of the romantics; nor to a foundational world beyond discourse #151; that desperate grasping for a separate reality of the mystic and scientist alike; nor even to history and ideology #151; those refuges of the hermeneuticist; nor even less to language #151; that hypostasized abstraction of the linguist; nor, ultimately, even to Do science discourse #151; that Nietzschean playground of students essays world-lost signifiers of the on education system in pakistan, structuralist and grammatologist, but to all or none of these, for it is students english essays anarchic, though not for the sake of anarchy but because it refuses to become a fetishized object among objects #151; to be dismantled, compared, classified, and neutered in that parody of scientific scrutiny known as criticism. A bemused Dr. Tim van Gelder of the University of Melbourne sent us the following sentence: Since thought is seen to be “rhizomatic” rather than “arboreal,” the movement of essay on education differentiation and becoming is already imbued with its own positive trajectory. It’s from The Continental Philosophy Reader , edited by english essays Richard Kearney and Mara Rainwater (Routledge, 1996), part of an editors’ introduction intended to help students understand a chapter. Dr. van Gelder says, “No undergraduate student I’ve given this introduction to has been able to make the slightest sense of Do science conflict? it. Students English Essays? Neither has any faculty member.” An assistant professor of English at a U.S. university (she prefers to remain anonymous) entered this choice morsel from The Cultures of United States Imperialism , by Donald Pease (Duke University Press, 1993): When interpreted from within the research methods, ideal space of the myth-symbol school, Americanist masterworks legitimized hegemonic understanding of American history expressively totalized in essays the metanarrative that had been reconstructed out of (or more accurately read into) these masterworks. While the entrant says she enjoys the Bad Writing Contest, she’s fearful her career prospects would suffer were she to be identified as hostile to the turn by English departments toward movies and soap operas. We quite understand: these days the worst writers in universities are English professors who ignore “the canon” in order to apply tepid, vaguely Marxist gobbledygook to popular culture. Young academics who’d like a career had best go along.

But it’s not just the English department where jargon and incoherence are increasingly the fashion. Susan Katz Karp, a graduate student at Queens College in New York City, found this choice nugget showing that forward-thinking art historians are doing their desperate best to antithesis tera import postmodern style into their discipline. It’s from an article by Professor Anna C. Chave, writing in Art Bulletin (December 1994): To this end, I must underline the phallicism endemic to the dialectics of students english essays penetration routinely deployed in counseling psychology research paper descriptions of pictorial space and the operations of spectatorship . The next round of the students essays, Bad Writing Contest, results to be announced in and religion 1998, is now open with a deadline of December 31, 1997. There is an endless ocean of students english essays pretentious, turgid academic prose being added to daily, and we’ll continue to celebrate it. The entries for the second run of the sociology research paper, Bad Writing Contest have now been tabulated, and we are pleased to announce winners.

But first a few tedious words. There is no question that we have better #151; if that’s how to students put it #151; entries than the last time we ran the contest. Some of the entries are stunning, and counseling psychology paper we think almost all of them deserve a prize of some sort. This is not to say that much of the english essays, writing we would consider “bad” is necessarily incompetent. Graduate students and young scholars please note: many of the writers represented have worked years to attain their styles and they have been rewarded with publication in books and journal articles. In fact, if they weren’t published, we wouldn’t have them for our contest.

That these passages constitute bad writing is merely our opinion; it is arguable that anyone wanting to pursue an academic career should assiduously imitate such styles as are represented here. These are your role models. First prize goes to David Spurrett of the essay by malcolm, University of students english Natal in narrative essay on education South Africa. Students English Essays? He found this marvelous sentence #151; yes, it’s but one sentence #151; from Roy Bhaskar’s Plato etc: The Problems of Philosophy and Their Resolution (Verso, 1994): Indeed dialectical critical realism may be seen under the aspect of Foucauldian strategic reversal #151; of the unholy trinity of Parmenidean/Platonic/Aristotelean provenance; of the Cartesian-Lockean-Humean-Kantian paradigm, of foundationalisms (in practice, fideistic foundationalisms) and irrationalisms (in practice, capricious exercises of the best, will-to-power or some other ideologically and/or psycho-somatically buried source) new and old alike; of the primordial failing of students english western philosophy, ontological monovalence, and its close ally, the epistemic fallacy with its ontic dual; of the analytic problematic laid down by Plato, which Hegel served only to replicate in his actualist monovalent analytic reinstatement in transfigurative reconciling dialectical connection, while in for essay writing his hubristic claims for students english essays, absolute idealism he inaugurated the Comtean, Kierkegaardian and Nietzschean eclipses of reason, replicating the fundaments of positivism through its transmutation route to the superidealism of a Baudrillard. It’s a splendid bit of prose and I’m certain many of us will now attempt to read it aloud without taking a breath. The jacket blurb, incidentally, informs us that this is the essay x, author’s “most accessible book to date.” Second Prize is won by Jennifer Harris of the University of Toronto. She found a grand sentence in an essay by Stephen T. Tyman called “Ricoeur and english the Problem of Evil,” in The Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur , edited, it says, by Lewis Edwin Hahn (Open Court, 1995): With the last gasp of Romanticism, the quelling of its florid uprising against the vapid formalism of one strain of the Enlightenment, the psychology research, dimming of its yearning for students, the imagined grandeur of the archaic, and the dashing of its too sanguine hopes for a revitalized, fulfilled humanity, the horror of in pakistan its more lasting, more Gothic legacy has settled in, distributed and diffused enough, to be sure, that lugubriousness is recognizable only as languor, or as a certain sardonic laconicism disguising itself in a new sanctification of the destructive instincts, a new genius for displacing cultural reifications in the interminable shell game of the analysis of the human psyche, where nothing remains sacred.

Speaking of shell games, see if you can figure out the subject of that sentence. Third prize was such a problem that we decided to award more than one. Exactly what the prizes will be is uncertain (the first three prizes were to be books), but something nice will be found. (Perhaps: third prize, an old copy of Glyph ; fourth prize two old copies of Glyph .) Jack Kolb of essays UCLA found this sentence in Paul Fry’s A Defense of Poetry (Stanford University Press, 1995). Books For Essay Writing? Together with the english, previous winners, it proves that 1995 was to bad prose what 1685 was to good music. Fry writes, It is the moment of non-construction, disclosing the absentation of actuality from the concept in antithesis tera part through its invitation to emphasize, in reading, the helplessness #151; rather than the will to power #151; of its fall into conceptuality. Incidentally, Kolb is essays reviewing Fry’s book for Philosophy and Literature , and believe it or not he generally respects it. Arthur J. Weitzman of Northeastern University has noted for us two helpful sentences from The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Do science and religion conflict? Criticism , edited by Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth (JHUP, 1994).

It is from Donald E. Students English Essays? Pease’s entry on Harold Bloom: Previous exercises in influence study depended upon Do science and religion conflict? a topographical model of reallocatable poetic images, distributed more or less equally within ‘canonical’ poems, each part of which expressively totalized the entelechy of the entire tradition. But Bloom now understood this cognitive map of interchangeable organic wholes to be criticism’s repression of poetry’s will to overcome time’s anteriority. What can we add to essays that? William Dolphin of San Francisco State University located for us this elegant sentence in John Guillory’s Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation (University of Chicago Press, 1993): A politics presuming the and religion conflict?, ontological indifference of all minority social identities as defining oppressed or dominated groups, a politics in which differences are sublimated in the constitution of a minority identity (the identity politics which is students increasingly being questioned within feminism itself) can recover the differences between social identities only on the basis of common and therefore commensurable experiences of marginalization, which experiences in turn yield a political practice that consists largely of antithesis tera affirming the identities specific to those experiences. Essays? Finally, the Canadian David Savory found this lucid sentence in the essay by Robyn Wiegman and books writing Linda Zwinger, in “Tonya’s Bad Boot,” an essay in Women on Ice , edited by Cynthia Baughman (Routledge, 1995): Punctuated by what became ubiquitous sound bites #151; Tonya dashing after the essays, tow truck, Nancy sailing the ice with one leg reaching for heaven #151; this melodrama parsed the transgressive hybridity of un-narrativized representative bodies back into recognizable heterovisual codes. Thanks to these and paper methods all the other entrants. If you didn’t win this time, the next round of the Bad Writing Contest, prizes to be announced, is students english now open with a deadline of September 30, 1996. So you’ve plenty of time to find examples from the turgid new world of academic prose.

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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Students Essays? Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Essay By Malcolm X? Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Students English? Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Do Science Conflict?? . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Essays? Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. X? Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for students, Respondents, Hamdan c. Psychology? Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Students Essays? . By Malcolm X? En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Students English? 22. Counseling Research? . Students English Essays? Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Research? 38. English Essays? . Essay By Malcolm? Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Students English? « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Antithesis Tera? D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Students? Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Counseling? » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Essays? cit., pp. Narrative Essay? 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. English Essays? La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of essay Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Students Essays? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for best books, Use of students english Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Do Science And Religion? Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct. Students Essays? 2749, 2006. Psychology Research Paper? . Students English Essays? L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan.

Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Counseling Psychology Paper? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Essays? Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. By Malcolm? Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration. English Essays? Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Antithesis Tera? Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Essays? La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Sociology Paper Methods Section? La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». English Essays? Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ».

L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Paper? Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. English Essays? A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for sociology paper methods section, Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Students English? Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. In Pakistan? Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for english, Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present. La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Counseling Research? La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […].

Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Students English? Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Best For Essay Writing? En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Students English Essays? Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Best Books For Essay Writing? […] Le delit dont on students, accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Do Science? Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Essays? Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on antithesis tera, encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. English Essays? L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of narrative system in pakistan war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Essays? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Counseling Psychology Paper? , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Students English Essays? […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Research Paper Methods? Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. English? […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for narrative on education, Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Students English Essays? […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Do Science Conflict?? . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve. English? Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande.

En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. Sociology Paper Methods Section? La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Students? Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Research Methods Section? De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Students English Essays? La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Sociology? Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Students English? qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Counseling? L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Students Essays? La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Sociology Section? La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. English Essays? Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Antithesis Tera? Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Students Essays? Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. Best Books For Essay? L’article 3, auquel on students english, se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Essay System In Pakistan? L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Essays? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. Books For Essay? 73. Essays? . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. Do Science? Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Students English Essays? L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Sociology Research Methods? Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire.

Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. English? Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue. Antithesis Tera? Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Students English Essays? Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Do Science And Religion? . English Essays? Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. In Pakistan? Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Students English Essays? De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of best books writing War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Essays? Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. X? . English? Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Sociology Methods? Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Students? La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. X? . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Students English? Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Antithesis Tera? Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. English Essays? 5. Antithesis Tera? . Students? Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Narrative Essay System In Pakistan? Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Students Essays? 1 ; . Antithesis Tera? . Students English? Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Paper Section? 2. Students English Essays? . Sociology Methods Section? C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». English Essays? « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in counseling psychology research, Congress Over Military. Students English Essays? , souligna Dell’Orto. X? Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Essays? Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to best books writing Change. Students English Essays? . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration.

Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Essay On Education? Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Students? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. For Essay? . Students? Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Antithesis Tera? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. English Essays? . Sociology Research Methods? Pour John D. Students English? Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable. And Religion? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on students, ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Sociology Paper Methods Section? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Students English? . And Religion Conflict?? Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the essays, Name of sociology paper methods National Security. Students? . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. And Religion? Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Essays? Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. By Malcolm? La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee. English Essays? Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client.

Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Best For Essay Writing? La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Students Essays? L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Counseling Psychology? Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Students? Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution. Antithesis Tera? Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir.

L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. English Essays? Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of psychology paper Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Essays? Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. And Religion? Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Students English Essays? Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Narrative On Education? Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Students English Essays? Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Best Books For Essay? Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre. Essays? Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Counseling Paper? Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ».

Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. English? Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Do Science And Religion? L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Students? L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Narrative Essay On Education System In Pakistan? Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Students? Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Books? « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. English? 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol. On Education System? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Students English? . Paper Methods Section? C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Essays? La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Research Section? Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres.

Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter. Students? Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on antithesis tera, Detainees Intensifies”. Essays? . Essay On Education System? D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. English? Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Antithesis Tera? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Students Essays? . Antithesis Tera? Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Essays? . Antithesis Tera? L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. English? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Sociology Methods? . Students English? Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Best Books? Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Students? . Do Science And Religion? Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in english essays, Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Sociology Paper Methods? Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in students, Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. For Essay? . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Students? Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires. Sociology? Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense.

Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Students English Essays? Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. Antithesis Tera? Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Essays? Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Best Writing? Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives. Essays? Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». For Essay Writing? On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Students English? Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Counseling Psychology? L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. English? Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Psychology Paper? Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Students English Essays? L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Paper? L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. English? En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». By Malcolm? Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Students English? Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Counseling Psychology Research? Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Essays? Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Antithesis Tera? Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Students Essays? Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». And Religion Conflict?? Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Students Essays? Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Essay X? « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Students English? La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the x, Decider”, The Washington. English? . Do Science And Religion? Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Students? Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Do Science And Religion Conflict?? Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Students Essays? L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. By Malcolm? Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Students English? A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Antithesis Tera? Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes. Essays? Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies.

Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. And Religion Conflict?? L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Essays? Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Psychology Research? Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Students? En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. By Malcolm X? Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive.

Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Students English Essays? Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Psychology? En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Students Essays? Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Psychology Research? Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres. Students Essays? Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Best Books For Essay? En 2000, les presses de la State University of essays New York ont edite Politics and conflict? Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. English Essays? 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Research Paper Methods Section? A 01. Students Essays? Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. And Religion Conflict?? Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Students English Essays? John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Research Paper? Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Students Essays? 41-51. Brief for by malcolm, Respondents, Hamdan c. Students Essays? Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Best Writing? 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Students English Essays? cit. Sociology Paper Section? , pp. English Essays? 44-45. Hamdan c. X? Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct. Students Essays? 2749, 2006.

L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Best For Essay? Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. English? Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Essay By Malcolm? 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in students english essays, Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Do Science And Religion Conflict?? A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to students essays Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. Antithesis Tera? A6. R. Students English Essays? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for and religion, Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Students English Essays? A11. R. Psychology? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of students Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Essay X? A4.

Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the students english essays, Name of and religion National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and students english the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Antithesis Tera? 230-240. Congressional Record , vol. English Essays? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Antithesis Tera? S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on english, Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. X? A1. “How 3 G.O.P.

Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Students Essays? 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to research methods 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. English? A6. John M. Essay? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to students english essays Bush proposal on by malcolm x, terrorist suspects keeps issue at students essays cutting edge of essay security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. English? 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Do Science Conflict?? 2624. “Profiles in students essays, Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Essay X? B6.

Eugene Robinson, “Checking the english, Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. By Malcolm? A27. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Students Essays? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Narrative Essay On Education System In Pakistan? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. English Essays? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.

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Racer X Online - Motocross Supercross News. Used to sign in with your email and password, or a different site? Sign In Now. Dunlop is the largest supplier of original equipment and replacement motorcycle tires in the U.S.A. and the only manufacturer of motorcycle tires in North America. “You just don’t go over to english, Europe and psychology paper win a world championship; you’ve got to pay your dues.” This was Brad Lackey speaking to Cycle News a few weeks after becoming the first American to ever win a 500cc World Championship Grand Prix. It was a long time coming for the then 24-year-old.

After winning the 1972 AMA 500cc National Championship, Lackey packed up his belongings and took off for Europe, keen to fulfill a dream of making a run at a Federation Internationale de Motocyclisme World Championship. Half a decade later, Lackey won his first GP on July 3, 1977 at Farleigh Castle, Wilts, England, triumphing over GP stalwarts Gerrit Wolsink and Bengt Aberg on his full-on factory Honda RC-400 Elsinore. A year later, Lackey placed second in the championship to Heikki Mikkola. Students English Essays! In 1980, he would finish in the runner-up position yet again, this time with Belgian Andre Malherbe getting the better of him. By Malcolm X! His decade-long odyssey finally came to a close on Sunday, August 8, 1982, when after a frantic and english tumultuous day of racing in a sweeping meadow in Luxembourg, Lackey claimed the narrative on education system in pakistan 500cc World Championship. It was one of the greatest moments in the United States’ ascension to essays, the top of world motocross power. It’s now the spring of 2015 and Monster Energy Kawasaki pilot Ryan Villopoto is three rounds into a quest to win the premier class in the FIM Motocross World Championship. Who better to talk with about the past, present, and near future of counseling psychology paper, Americans fighting on the international front than Brad Lackey? (Our Steve Matthes also did a Racer X podcast with Lackey prior to this season.) Fully aware of the brawl that Villopoto has gotten himself into, Lackey, from his home in the Bay Area region of students, northern California, took some time over writing the recent Easter weekend to provide us with his candid take on it all. Racer X : Brad, thanks for taking the time to bench race with us about the world championship. With that said, just what have you been up to?

Brad Lackey: Oh, not too much. I have a T-shirt business where I print T-shirts for cycling stuff. We do stuff for different companies and english events and things like that. Counseling Psychology Paper! I’m also watching the GPs and the supercross races on TV every weekend. Students English Essays! That’s about books for essay, it. Nothing too exciting. Are you still tuned in and watching everything under a magnifying glass? No, we’re not that serious about it because we don’t know any of the riders really personally. Students English! And unless you’re involved really tight, you’re not really getting the straight scoop over the television. In general, we’re fans and we’re watching all of antithesis tera, it and trying to keep up with what’s going on. English! And of psychology paper, course we’re interested in [Ryan] Villopoto’s progress in Europe.

We’re interested in that so we keep a close eye on it. Sometimes it’s cool to just be a fan, huh? Yeah, it’s a lot easier [ laughs ]. What did you think when you heard the news that Ryan Villopoto was going to contest the 2015 MXGP World Championship? I kind of english, thought about it for a minute and went, “Well, you know, he’s won everything here pretty easily for the last few yearshe can win indoors and outdoorsand if he’s planning on retiring, it would be a good thing to race the GPs. I’d also try to antithesis tera, go get a world championship title before the retirement party.” Interestingly, you won the world championship in 1982 and retired almost immediately afterward, didn’t you? Ryan has a completely different plan than I did.

His plan is to go one year and try to win and then retire no matter what, according to what I’ve heard. But, yeah, I went over early in my career. I was first over to students essays, Europe in 1970, and all the way through 1982 I rode the GPs for ten years. Best Books Writing! I got second twice and should have won it a couple times but had problems, so there were a lot of students essays, years that I didn’t quite make it for sociology whatever reason. After finally getting it done in ’82, I was 28 by then and I was kind of old for students english the big-time GP stuff. Psychology Research Paper! My contract was also up with the company that I was riding for at the time [Team Suzuki]. They said they weren’t going back the following year because they got first and second in english the world that year and won the paper methods section manufacturers’ championship and did everything they wanted. They were happy with that so I didn’t really have a great opportunity for a ride, so I figured the english best thing to paper section, do at that time was to retire. In an english, article I pulled from the August 3, 1977, issue of Cycle News you stated, “You just don’t go over to Europe and win a world championship; you’ve got to narrative essay system in pakistan, pay your dues.”When you said this, you had already put five years into riding the 500cc World Championship and students english had just won your very first Grand Prix.

You really did pay your dues along the way. Here’s a line I pulled out of an interview you did with Cycle News back in 1980: “Brad’s antics on a CZ earned him a 1971 invitation to visit the factory in Czechoslovakia. There he spent three months living in a shack with no electricity, using a nearby stream as combination kitchen sink and sociology paper methods bathhouse.” The stories about you back then make it sound like you were on some sort of Jack London adventure. Well, I mean those stories are all true. I worked at the factory in Czechoslovakia as a factory worker.

I was behind the students essays Iron Curtain at the time in antithesis tera Communist Czechoslovakia where the students essays whole country was on lockdown. There were gates and barbed wire fences and machine guns everywhere. I’d work all day in the factory and ride my motocross bike to a little shack where I stayed. Best Books! I was only 16 or 17 years old. I chose that. Students! It’s not like today. Those guys are in first-class hotels and have first-class airplane tickets. They have semi-trucks. I bought a little cara Ford station wagonto go the GPs with.

I borrowed a trailer from one of the Do science and religion conflict? CZ mechanics and I had my bike on the back of that trailer. That’s how you did it. I wanted to go get better and my goal was to be world champion and I couldn’t really do that staying at home in America. By 1974 or 1975, I was knocking down a moto win or two. To get that first overall took until 1977. People out there who are reading this are going to think, “Five years to students english essays, win your first GP?” How rewarding was it to win that first GP in by malcolm x 1977? It wasn’t that big a deal; it didn’t seem like a giant deal. Like I said, I should have won a bunch of them and students english essays had problems with some things. X! I kind of students english, already knew that I could win, but you have to have some luck on your side sometimes.

That’s just how that works. Speaking of close finishes, in 1976 you placed a fighting second to Roger DeCoster at sociology research methods section the Belgian Grand Prix at the fabled Namur circuit. English Essays! I’ve been there before and I’ve never witnessed anything like it. Would you consider Namur to be one of the most unique places you ever raced at? Oh, yeah. Namur, for sure. Antithesis Tera! It was crazy and wild. The setting and where it was Man, it was amazing. To have been there when there are 50,000 people standing around the track is incredible. You jump down on the street and students english go by the beer stand and through the woodsand it was really dangerous through the trees.

Then there was the Citadel. All the people sat up in there and looked down on the big circle where the start was. It was just crazy. The place had the history of psychology research paper, European Grand Prix racing. English! It’s a really neat thing, but that’s not out there any longer. What do you think of Grand Prix motocross now? The organizers are trying to cater to by malcolm x, television and trying to cater to VIPs and trying to raise the game in essays hospitality and improving creature comforts. The tracks are often on flatter parcels of land. The series is going to places where perhaps the government is helping out financially.

I’m not passing judgment on antithesis tera what they are doing because all sports and entertainment are in a different world now. Thoughts? I have a bad opinion because I like the old school and the way it was. And I think I’m like a lot of essays, people. Sociology Methods Section! Here’s a good example of english, that: The last time I was at Namur, like in 2000 or some time like that, we went up there and sat in antithesis tera the Citadel up there above Namur to watch the start, and these two-story VIP tents were blocking the whole start. English Essays! As a spectator you couldn’t even see the start at essay by malcolm x Namur. I said, “What!

I can’t believe this. What are those tents for?” and somebody said, “Oh, you get champagne and you pay $500 for a ticket and english you get to antithesis tera, stand around and watch the start and you block the view of every normal person sitting in the stands.” I said, “There you go. That really makes sense.” That’s the way it is. That’s what they’re trying to essays, do. They’re trying to on education, get it on a Formula 1 level, which it’s not. It’s dirt bike riding. It’s never going to be Formula 1. And the base fans that they have are the regular people.

They’re not some guy in a Ferrari with a Rolex, you know? He’s just a Joe Blow who has his favorite guy and goes out students english essays there and camps out and and religion eats a hot dog and drinks a beer and watches his guy. They’re trying to change that, and I think that’s a mistake because that could kill it. And I saw the first two GPs this year and the tracks were so ridiculously poor and it looked like there were absolutely no people at those two events. At the students essays third race the track looked very nice and there were a lot more spectators.

I really can’t say until I get back from the best Grand Prix in Lommel this year. I’m going to go to that Grand Prix in students Belgium and I’m going to antithesis tera, get a firsthand look at everything. I’m going to check out the english essays spectators and I’m going to check out how much more restricted things are. Can the average joe go here and see something he wants to see? I’m going to test all areas of research paper methods, that and I’ll come back with a real opinion.

Right now, I’m just guessing, really, because I haven’t been there enough to understand what’s going on. When you finally won the world championship in 1982, was it fulfilling as you hoped it would be? Oh, yeah. There was nothing negative about it whatsoever other than it took too long. We spent a lot of years and a lot of effort and a lot of time and had a lot of help and that’s how long it took me.

I’m happy I did it. I have a national championship and a world championship. Students! If I had to antithesis tera, give up one, you know which one it would be. You left America in 1972. Essays! This was shortly before the sport really started to by malcolm x, take off here. As a type of converse to that, Ryan Villopoto raced his entire career here in Americathe true global base of the sport right nowand won nine championships and made millions of dollars.

Over the winter Ryan then had the luxury of entertaining an offer to make a one-off run at the 2015 world championship. What’s your take on students english essays all this? Now, when Ryan’s doing this, he’s banked tons of dough and he has plenty of best books writing, money to sit back and retire on and doesn’t have to race until he can’t race. Students! He can pick and choose, and I think after winning the championships here, what he did for 2015 is what I would have done. I would have said, “Hey, man, if I’m still in good shape and I can still win races and I’m planning on retiring within a year or so. I’m going to go and best books for essay writing try and add a world championship to that resume.”I think what he’s doing is students english, a great move. No matter what happens he’s still got all the and religion conflict? championships. If he doesn’t end up winning, it’s nothing bad on his side. It’s more like, “Hey, it takes more than a year to get it together.” That makes sense. And if he does win it, then he’s going to be the bad dude. What he’s doing is english essays, good for motocross too, isn’t it?

People all over the world are now tuned in. Oh, it’s great because nobody watched those GPs before this year. I didn’t even watch them. It’s making a hell of an impact for the GP guys, so it’s good for everybody and hopefully everybody is making money and antithesis tera hopefully Ryan is getting paid good money. Every week you want to watch it because you want to see how he’s doing. That was kind of how it was when I was gone because I was the only guyjust like he’s the only guy. Americans need an American in the mix doing good to root for. What did you think of what went down at the first Grand Prix at Qatar?

I thought that was the worst track I ever saw for students english a Grand Prix. It was a sh** box track and he’s not used to essay, riding on sh** box tracks. Maybe those guys in Europe are more used to it than him. Essays! He’s used to everything prepped and everything being the same. He’s used to research section, tracks being perfect in traction for students english essays supercross and outdoors.

I could see him being a little bit out of the mix there. Best Books For Essay! He could have had tire problems or gear problems. The second one, the track didn’t look too much better, but at least it was in the daytime. It was a little bit bigger and a little bit wider and he did a great job. And the third race, that track, with the ground and the trees and how wide it was, I was like, “It’s Washougal. He should kill them here.” It was surprising that he didn’t do better there. He wasn’t really making up any ground on the front-runners in both motos, was he? I spoke with Ryan before the Argentinian Grand Prix, and he mentioned that he was struggling a bit with the students english essays two-day format and that he needed to antithesis tera, get smarter about pacing himself over the two days. Do you think the students english essays GP guys are using their experience in counseling psychology research being able to pace themselves to their advantage? That’s how they do it every week, so yeah, that’s normal for them.

And for students him that’s a whole different set-up. I mean it takes more than a minute to get adjusted to all that, so yeah, that makes sense. I can see that. His supercross thing is to go out and ride one practice and ride one heat and one main event, and the total whole time on the bike is twenty-two minutes [ laughs ]. It’s a whole different deal. So that’s going to take more than a minute to essay, adjust to, but he’s smart. He’ll figure it out. It’s a long series. I feel a little nervous for students him that all the other top guys are kind of going, “Sh**, man. We’re not as nervous as we thought about him.” So that might give them a lot more confidence, which is bad for him but good for them. Did you notice how much of the and religion track Villopoto was using at Argentina? He looked to be using any sort of line he could find and essays perhaps even some lines that weren’t even there.

Yeah, yeah, he was saying, “I’m not catching you, but I better choose something different.” That’s what he was trying to do. He was trying to find a few seconds here and there. Essay! I mean the track was so wide and so available for thatthat’s how you do it, you know? When you have a track that big you can make some time up by doing something completely different and he was smart enough to look for that. Obviously those other guys were just going in english the right spot and psychology paper realizing the shortest distance was the best lines for time and it’s hard to fix that. It’s a seventeen-race series and Ryan is three races into essays it. Do you think he still has a lot of learning to do? Once he gets his body used to that extra day of being on the bike on a race weekend that will help a lot. Antithesis Tera! I don’t know how long that will take. As far as the tracks, I think they’re going to get better.

Hopefully the tracks are a little bit nicer than the first two, and they’ll be something that he’s a little bit more used to. Yeah, it’s going to take some time, but luckily he picked a time where he’s got seventeen races and not twelve to get it done. That’s a plus to him, I think. What advice would you give him, Brad? Um, send me a ticket and about a half-million and I’ll come over students essays and give him all the advice he needs [ laughs ]. As many times as I raced down to the end of a championship with the GPs, it’s going to come down to last race or two and that’s what he has to look to. Books For Essay! Don’t try to win it in the beginning, which obviously he doesn’t seem like he’s going out of students english, control and doing that. He needs to keep it cool to get that rhythm going to where he’s got that plan of having more time on the bike and essay that extra day and all that.

He needs to students english, get his body used to that. When he gets to the choice racetracks, the good racetracks, he has to sociology research paper, kill on those or else he won’t have a chance on the others. Students Essays! He has to pull some points on the ones that suit him perfectly; those are the best writing ones he needs to win. And the students english essays bad ones, or the books tracks that he doesn’t like, he has to pull in and get as close to the front as he can and just get the points, and in the end it’s going to be down a few points. I really think he’s got a pretty good shot at english it. Oh, he has the talent to win it. He just needs to have the tools to win it and the information to win it. It’s all tough, but that’s part of the deal.

I mean, Europe is part of the deal, the counseling research new tracks are part of the deal, the new team is part of the students english essays deal, the counseling psychology change on riding on Saturday is english, all part of the dealthat’s the challenge. Best! He has to figure that out and that’s the hard part. He already knows how to ride the bike. Motocross Supercross News - Racer X Online. 1999 - 2017 Filter Publications LLC.

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Aircraft Maintenance and Quality Assurance Resume. by Great Resumes Fast. Download our free resume templates. WorkBloom's resume templates all come with matching cover letters. 1234 Main Street, Orange Park, Florida 12345. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE QUALITY ASSURANCE. Performance-driven, versatile leader with over 20 years of students english aircraft quality assurance, maintenance administration, and essay staff supervision. Experienced instructor with superior ability to motivate personnel and english enhance the counseling psychology research paper, overall efficiency, performance, and english essays compliance with standard procedures and regulations. Track record of exceptional service and Naval Aviation support directly focused on achieving goals and objectives safely, accurately, and on psychology research time as demonstrated by students english, numerous commendations, citations, medals, and awards. Exceptional Administrator who gets it done right the first time all of the time. - Sgt.

J.L. Williams. Counseling Psychology Paper! Most certainly my #1 EP . Best AZC I have had the pleasure of working with in my 19 year Navy career. Great leader and mentor to all Sailors! - Capt. D.R. Gordon. Effective instructor capable of recognizing varied abilities and tailoring duties and training to the aptitude of team members. Fully engaged mentor to all staff with the ability to relate human factors to individual performance and growth. Maximizes every training opportunity by providing in-depth training, and utilizes caring, hands-on leadership style to produce top quality teams with extremely high morale. Consistently achieves exceedingly high qualification rates as Enlisted Aviation Warfare Specialist (EAWS) Program Coordinator and superior Aviation Maintenance Administrationman (AZ) retention rates. Vast knowledge of Maintenance Administration and total expertise of Navy Aviation Maintenance Program (NAMP).

Experienced, detail-oriented auditor with a focus on compliance with all standard safety and operational policies and procedures. Prepares and oversees 100% accuracy of logs, records, and students english reports to ensure smooth deployment of resources. Keen ability to research section, recognize and students essays implement streamlined processes that reduce errors, increase organization, and improve operational quality and efficiency. And Religion! Quality Assurance Supervisor , Jacksonville, Florida (2007 to 2009) Directed team of 13 QA representatives performing NAMP Program audits, and monitored 13 work centers/ detachments supporting 14 SH-60B helicopters. Trained, deployed, and supported combat-ready LAMPS MK-III Detachments, achieving a CNAL Retention Excellence Award, Battle E Award, Talon Award, SECNAV Safety S and Arnold J. English! Isbell Trophy.

Led Ordinance Handling Program lauded best on Do science station and set the calendar year record in CHSMWL for students english essays Pre-deployment readiness grades. Community leader of 2008 CPO Induction and Training. Maintenance Control Supervisor , Mayport, Florida (2006 to 2007) Effectively managed production efforts of 237 maintenance personnel performing scheduled unscheduled maintenance on 14 SH-60B aircraft. Achieved 76% retention rate and single-handedly ensured the qualification of x 7 junior AZs through intrusive mentorship and sterling personal example. Managed intense OPTEMPO resulting in the execution of 6,600 mishap-free flight hours, a 99% sortie completion rate and a Wing leading RFT gap of less than .02. Maintenance Administration , Brunswick, Maine (2004 to 2006) Supervised, trained, and mentored 10 enlisted personnel responsible for maintaining all required logs, records, and reports for four uniquely configured P-3 aircraft. Provided in-depth training to appropriate personnel during three aircraft acceptance/ transfers, three depot level modifications, 35 major component changes, and the processing of over 130 technical directives.

Achieved 80% qualification rate as EAWS Program Coordinator, 78% AZ retention rate, and english 35% advancement rate within division. Received Navy Marine Corps Commendation Medal, Gold Star in Lieu of 3rd Award - 2006. Conducted sensitive airborne reconnaissance operations in response to Joint Chiefs of Staff tasking while deployed during Operations ENDURING and IRAQI FREEDOM. Expertly led team of six subordinates in the flawless data analysis for antithesis tera numerous worldwide operational detachments. Identified and corrected over 400 critical training deficiencies within the Technical Directive Status Accounting Program resulting in a rating of Outstanding on CPRW-5 and essays CNAL AMMT inspections. Reduced aircraft records and reports error rates by 33% by utilizing methodical approach to training and books for essay production. Achieved 95% EAWS qualification rate, 100% AZ retention rate, and overall 25% AZ promotion rate.

Maintenance Administration Control , Atlantic Training/ Operations (2001 to 2004) Contributed directly to preparation efforts for students english essays CPRW-5 AMMT inspections, resulting in all programs achieving on-line status, nine programs with ZERO discrepancies and an overall grade of Outstanding. Led Material Control team in the management of 4 OPTAR funds valued at $6 million with 100% accountability for end of fiscal year audit. Antithesis Tera! Oversaw maintenance functions for students essays 10 P-3C aircraft, including supervising and training team of by malcolm x 9 personnel. Students English! Devoted countless hours mentoring personnel, attaining a 74% reenlistment rate, 47% EAWS designation and squadron's Retention Excellence Award (2003). Achieved 96% EAWS qualification rate in 2003 and antithesis tera increased division EAWS qualifications by 50% in students, 2001. Received Navy Marine Corps Achievement Medal, Gold Star in Lieu of 5th Award - 2003. Best Books Writing! Aircraft Service Period Adjustment SDLM Coordinator , Naples, Italy (1999 to essays, 2001) Evaluated, coordinated, and ensured quality of over by malcolm x 45 depot-level Emergency In-Service repair of Navy and Marine aircraft in Mediterranean NAVCENT AOR using foreign contractors, including providing oversight and students support of Standard Depot Level Maintenance program. Flawlessly managed 12 ASPA inspection requirements for 3 squadrons, 2 different T/M/S aircraft, and 2 SDLM aircraft inductions.

Initiated and by malcolm x updated 40 records for students english emergency in-service repairs, and conducted Production Control and SDLM Induction Procedures Training to enhance mission readiness. Asked for by name as established expert in aircraft logs and sociology paper methods records by Commander, Fleet Air Mediterranean to students english essays, assist in performing annual Aviation Maintenance Management Team assist visits to forward deployed detachments. Selected as NAPRA Sailor of the Year CY 2000 amp; Sailor of the Quarter 1st amp; 3rd quarters 1999. Books! Received Navy Marine Corps Commendation Medal amp; Achievement Medal - 2001. Instructor - Aviation Maintenance Administration Training , San Diego, CA (1997 to english, 1999) Designated as Master Training Specialist, 1998.

Conducted aviation maintenance and survival training to aviation units in Pacific fleet, including management of aviation training devices and equipment valued at over $500,000. Spearheaded team to completely revise the NALCOMIS OMA System Administration course, greatly improving the quality of training for conflict? fleet personnel and saving the Curriculum Division more than 50 hours of technical research. Essays! Ensured workstations, software and peripherals for 5 classrooms including over 250 computers were always 100% operational, resulting in the highest quality of training with zero lost instructional time. Received Navy Achievement Medal, Gold Star in antithesis tera, Lieu of 3rd Award - 1998. University of Florida, Bachelor of students essays Arts in Business Administration - December 2009. Windows NT Systems Administration Course - 2002. Petty Officer First Class Leadership Course Mobile Training Team (MTT) - 2002. Instructor Training Course - 1995. Paper Methods Section! Naval Aviation Dispersed Technical Publications Librarian Training - 1995. Aeronautical Technical Publications Library Management Training - 1995 1990.

Shipboard Aircraft Fire Fighting Training - 1991. Naval Aviation VIDS/MAF and students SCIR Documentation Training - 1989. Naval Aviation Maintenance Logs and antithesis tera Records Management - 1988. Aviation Maintenance Administrationman Class A1 - 1987. We recommend these resources if you want to improve your resume and/or cover letter further: MORE RESUME AND COVER LETTER EXAMPLES.

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Competitive Analysis – Reva Electric Car Essay Sample. The REVA electric car is an innovative concept that has been introduced in the Indian market because of the rising fuel price in students essays the country. The idea behind its conception is to essay provide a car that is eco-friendly and a small car that would be suitable for growing problems in traffic. Essays? The company introduced its cars not only to target the Indian market but also cater to the growing demand for such cars in antithesis tera the international market. In order to understand the students english, competitiveness of the company and antithesis tera its position, a series of analysis is carried out like Porter’s Five Forces and SWOT as well as the Value Chain under the McKinsey Business System. Following this analysis, it can be seen that REVA is well placed to perform in a good way in the EV market. Even though there various challenges that the students essays, company could face, it can be overcome by adopting various strategies.

The company’s key strength is that it provides a high technology car, in fact way ahead of others in terms of technology. And the added point is that this high tech car is Do science made possible at a lower cost. The cost compared to other manufacturers in the same industry is three to four times lower. The pull down factor for the company is that it doesn’t offer a wide range of cars like 4-door cars or bigger models. It should be noted that in students english the future the range of cars offered should be broadened so as that it satisfies various kinds of customers. Despite all this, REVA cars are making headway into many countries and in the future it would turn out to counseling research paper be one of the major players in the eco-friendly car industry.

In this assignment, the company taken into study is REVA Electric Car Company which is established in India. The company would be analyzed on its competitiveness by doing an industry analysis based on Porter’s Five Forces; a situation analysis is done using SWOT and is followed up with McKinsey Business System to analyze the value chain in REVA. Based on students english essays, this analysis, it can be understood whether the company is competitively placed to face other companies in the industry. The company strategy undertaken and also the ones to essay on education system be taken is described so as to understand its future prospects. of performance.

The challenges to be faced ahead are listed down with recommendations to be considered in order to english improve its standing. 2.0 Company Profile. REVA Electric Car Company (RECC) is based in Bangalore, India and part of the Maini Group. REVA is the essay by malcolm x, first mass produced electric powered passenger car in India. It is the result of a joint venture between Maini Group and students Amerigon Electric Vehicle Technologies (AEVT Inc.) of USA. The Maini Group holds 70 per cent equity while the rest is with AEVT. REVA means ‘new beginning’ in Sanskrit. The new eco-friendly car was introduced in the Indian market in 2001 to symbolize a new beginning after four years of research and design. With depletion of all kinds of reserves and a world characterized by smog, noise and all kinds of pollutants, governments are awakening to the several benefits of EV technology. The car is powered by a high performance 37 kW AC induction motor that drives the front wheels, and uses sodium nickel chloride batteries in lieu of conventional lead acid batteries for extended life. Further technical details can be referred in the Appendix.

Electric vehicles have vast potential in India and around the globe. Governments around the world are already advocating the antithesis tera, use of essays, eco-friendly cars as steps to control pollution in the environment. Psychology Research Paper? The first prototype was built in 1996 and the car was put to extensive testing at Automobiles Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune. Over time it won many awards for its concept of clean environment car. 3.0 Analysis of REVA. In order to examine the competitive market that REVA is students engaged in, it is vital to do an industry analysis based on Porter’s Five Forces. Then a situation analysis should be done by and religion, assessing the internal capabilities and students english external possibilities using SWOT Analysis. Antithesis Tera? This is english essays followed up by doing a Value Chain Analysis which is a method used to identify potential sources of economic advantage by suggesting how the firm’s internal core competencies can be integrated with its external competitive environment to direct optimal resource allocation. The McKinsey Business System is sociology research used to analyze the value chain in REVA. 3.1.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis. Michael Porter provided this famous industry analysis that states that an industry is influenced by five forces.

It is very important for RECC to use this model to develop a strategic edge over competitors by better understanding the industry context in which the company operates. The purpose of the Five Forces model is to analyze major economic and technological forces that will ultimately influence an english industry’s profit potential. Identifying the profit potential otherwise known as attractiveness of an industry provides the foundation for bridging the strategic gap between the firm’s external environment and its resources. (Fleisher Bensoussan, 2003, p61) Porter’s Five Forces can be classified as follows: a) Threat of new entrants. b) Bargaining power of suppliers. c) Bargaining power of buyers. d) Threat of essay on education in pakistan, substitutes. They are elaborated in detail in order to further understand and relate its importance to the competitive performance of REVA. a) Threat of new entrants. The entry barriers are related to the level of difficulty facing new entrants to compete in the industry.

If entry is easier, it would result in lower industry profitability. The entry into the market of electric cars is quite difficult because of the students, level of investment required. Essay? REVA was able to students essays develop the essay by malcolm x, car in english essays collaboration with American Electric Vehicle Technologies, US. The project took four years of designing and development that involved high investment. The funds were raised in India from ICICI Bank, Technology Development Bank and the Karnataka State Finance Corporation in the form of debt. Further investment is sought from International Finance Corporation (IFC), the World Bank’s private sector lending arm, expected to pick up a stake in RECC at a substantial premium. This attraction of investors is because of the fact that RECC has been able to develop the required technology at antithesis tera, a much cheaper cost than others.

Certain international auto majors have bought electric car companies at a lower valuation but had to pump in more funds than the acquisition cost itself to make it a viable proposition. English Essays? But what RECC enjoys over new entrants into the market is proven technology at low cost, a ready market and a good response to its product. The company has at least 10 patents and has capabilities to expand with inclusion of several new models, a bigger version of REVA and Do science and religion a vehicle for public transport. Further investment of english essays, around $20 million has been put into essay by malcolm the future projects. For new entrants, it involves high investment costs and to english achieve the sociology paper section, economies of students english, scale is paper too difficult.

It would be hard for the new competitors to compete price wise as RECC has already achieved the development of the english, electric car at a low cost. To add to woes of new competitors, commercial Electric Vehicles (EV) initiatives in India have received little governmental support – and essay by malcolm x most such initiatives have failed to take off because of two reasons: one, they cannot compete price-wise with the well entrenched petrol and diesel technology and two, battery technology is as yet inadequate to provide the complete solution, endurance and speed-wise, for an all- electric passenger vehicle. Students English? As a result such EV initiatives have been limited to applications like golf carts or airport and factory floor service vehicles. (Murali, J., 2000, IT sparks a revolution in electric vehicles, 2001 Giriprakash, K., 2003) The new entrants would face high costs, achieving economies of scale, pricing and patent rights because of RECC holding 10 patents. It is further to be noted that RECC already has a well knit network of dealers all over the country as well as abroad. This can hinder the new entrant’s distribution capability and penetration into the market. b) Bargaining power of suppliers. This is a major force that refers to the ability of the suppliers to influence the cost, availability and quality of input materials to firms in the industry.

The company can face cost and sociology research paper methods price problems if the suppliers have an upper hand in students english essays the end result of the product. In the case of RECC, the running chassis, integrated power system, energy management system and climate control seats for REVA cars are imported. The Prestolite batteries, forming the essay, power pack developed in the US, will now be manufactured through Tudor India, an Exide subsidiary. The charger has been developed in conjunction with Modular Power System of the english essays, US and the controller is manufactured by Curtis. The pricing of REVA can be influenced by the suppliers of these key elements of the car. Counseling Psychology Research Paper? This can be risky for RECC and has to look into future plans to find other prospective suppliers in the industry. The availability of substitute inputs can help in offsetting this influence.

The ability to switch supplier costs can also help in decreasing supplier influence. c) Bargaining power of buyers. The influence of the essays, firm’s customers plays an x important role in defining industry structure by virtue of their ability to force prices down by comparison shopping or by raising quality expectations. In the case of REVA, the price competition comes from essays, conventional technology cars running on petrol and diesel. The REVA’s initial cost vis-a-vis the Do science conflict?, Maruti 800 is a major inhibiting factor. Maruti is a low priced car which has the largest customer base in India. To influence of the customer to students english purchase REVA over essay x, Maruti involves not just marketing the eco-friendly concept but also to target the price in par or below Maruti. Since price is a driving force in the purchasing power of the consumer in India, the bargaining power of the buyer has great importance. But when it comes to students essays pricing with other EV car manufacturers like Ford, Chrysler, General Motors, Nissan and Toyota; the buyer would be influenced by the pricing of REVA. (Jagannathan, V., 2003)

So it can be noted that in the domestic Indian market the buyer has tremendous influence in the purchase of REVA over Maruti. But at the same time there are no other EV competitors in the domestic market to influence the buyer. And in the global market, price would surely influence the consumer to essay on education in pakistan buy REVA over other brands. This owes to the fact that REVA offers at students english, par with the noted brands in terms of quality and technology. d) Threat of substitutes. The threat of substitute products can actually influence REVA’s market. If other substitute products can be offered at a lower price, it can cause problems for the company.

The substitutes available to compete with EV cars are solar powered or hydrogen cars. If these new technology cars enter into narrative the market offering lower price, it can hinder the students essays, sales of REVA. But the fact remains that solar powered cars are highly priced and so it doesn’t attract customers. The cost of a solar car is prohibitively high and recovery will be over a long period of time. As far as hydrogen run cars are concerned, it’s still in the infant stage of designing and Do science and religion its full scale introduction into the market would take a longer period of time than expected. So it can be seen that there is no threat of substitute products coming into the car industry offering low price and essays hindering the sales performance of REVA. In the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero.

But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals. As far as rivalry is x concerned to REVA in essays the domestic Indian market, there is none. Essay By Malcolm X? REVA dominates the essays, Indian EV market. There have been other manufacturers of EVs in India. Some of them being, Mahindra Mahindra who launched a battery operated three wheeler “Bijlee” in best books for essay writing Delhi and the Chalakudi, Kerala-based Eddy Current Controls (India) Ltd, put on road its own pioneering chopper controller, DC motor- driven electric passenger car the “Lovebird”. The public sector Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) and the Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute (CEERI) and the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Mumbai, have also developed all-electric vehicles . English Essays? But all of these projects didn’t make it big because the national policy on antithesis tera, non conventional energy alternatives was not encouraging; initiatives in students essays India have received little governmental support and financial support by banks or financial institutions have been negligent. (IT sparks a revolution in by malcolm x electric vehicles, 2001) In the global market, REVA will face tough competition from some of the well established branded car manufacturers like Ford, Chrysler, General Motors, Nissan and Toyota.

But REVA can compete with these titans over time by strengthening its sales promotion, marketing and students highlighting the price advantage it enjoys. 3.1.2 SWOT Analysis. Ken Andrews is system in pakistan considered to be the pioneer of SWOT analysis. A SWOT analysis is a subset of the broader situation analysis that is used to asses the strategic fit between the firm’s resources and essays capabilities with the external environment. Using this methodology, it is the antithesis tera, right approach to determine a niche strategy – the best way for a firm to use its strengths to exploit opportunities and to defend both the english essays, firm’s weaknesses and strengths against threats. (Fleisher Bensoussan, 2003, p92) The SWOT Analysis shows the essay by malcolm x, internal strengths and weaknesses of the company as well as the external opportunities and threats to the company. In the case of REVA they can be highlighted in essays the following manner: * Financially strong with backing from banks and financial institutions. * High technology in par with other global brands. * Strong leadership and management by antithesis tera, founder Chetan Maini. * Low cost of production.

No brand name to students english essays compete globally. No wide range of vehicles compared to other global competitors. Worldwide awareness and by malcolm government support for eco-friendly vehicles. To expand into other countries with partnerships. Demand for students essays low priced eco-friendly cars.

Small cars more preferred in traffic infested cities. Lack of government support in India to avail tax cut or subsidy in order to sociology research compete with similar priced Maruti cars. Entry of other competitors into India to students english utilize the opportunity to manufacture at low cost. 3.1.3 McKinsey Business System. Value Chain Analysis is a method by which the firm’s internal core competencies can be integrated with its external competitive environment to best books writing direct optimal resource allocation. Students English? Using the McKinsey Business System, the key idea here would be to identify which part of the value chain is books for essay writing vital to add more value to the company’s end product.

The McKinsey Business System has the following categories in its value chain analysis. Students Essays? They are: Though all of antithesis tera, these are important in REVA’s case, it is to be noted that more priority should be given to technology and product design. In an EV market, technology plays a key factor in order to students english essays compete with other EV manufacturers. Since technology keeps changing day by day, it’s imminent that the company improves its car models by conflict?, adding more sophisticated gadgets. The design of the car is very crucial to attract the interest of potential buyers so as to increase its customer base.

Technology has been given due importance and steps taken to improve on english, it. Like for instance, the car’s battery-charging unit is 15 per cent more efficient than others are. The car is controlled by two onboard computers and furthermore it has been Internet enabled. Due to the technology driven concept, REVA is the world’s first car to have a remote-controlled pre-cooling air-conditioning system, and with climate-controlled seats. (Murali, J., 2000, Jagannathan, V., 2003 Reva showcases new electric car, 2005) The car also features a high-resolution single touch-screen display system featuring all vehicle dashboard functions as well as personal communication tools such as a GPS navigation system, a GPRS modem for internet and sociology research methods section email access and an MP3 music player. (Reva Introduces NXG Electric City Car, 2005)

Product design is top priority in the eyes of REVA’s design team. So they adopted “Pro/Engineer” a 3-D product development solution from Parametric Technology (India) Pvt Ltd, Indian end of the US-based company that is a market leader in high end Computer- aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) tools. Complementing Pro/Engineer is Parametric’s solution for collaborative product commerce, “Windchill”, which enables dozens of engineers to students english use the Internet to bring together designers, parts suppliers, customers and manufacturers into a single environment. For Essay? The REVA car design was achieved across 10 SGI work stations equipped with Pro/E. A complete model of the students english essays, car was created in 3D and the structural and motion analysis was done using Pro/Mechanica. (IT sparks a revolution in electric vehicles, 2001) The design team thus analyzed critical components like the books writing, chassis and the suspension and ironed out all foreseeable mechanical problems before the actual prototyping began. The joint venture with California-based AEVT group which specializes in students essays aerospace technologies for the automotive industry has ensured that the REVA has its heart, an Intelligent Energy Management System (EMS) that interfaces with all on-board electronics and optimizes the battery charging process.

(IT sparks a revolution in electric vehicles, 2001) The company hopes to make progress in the technology of the car. System? By 2006 REVA will be powered with lithium ion battery, the next step will be fuel cell (2009-13) and students essays finally a car powered by solar/fuel cell (2015-20). Next-generation motors, electronics and battery will bring down the price and increase the vehicle performance. (Jagannathan, V., 2003) All this was done with cost control and is why RECC is narrative essay system in pakistan way ahead of others in technology. In the future as well, the same resilience should be shown in english technology and product design as these two can tilt the best for essay, odds in favor of REVA by adding more value to its products. 4.0 Company Strategy. As the students essays, design and production of the car was important, RECC formed partnerships with key component manufacturers like Curtis Instruments Inc (motor controller), Tudor India (batteries) and Modular Power Systems (charger unit) were also developed. In addition, group companies (Maini Precision Products, Maini Material Movement and and religion Maini Info Solutions) also contributed their share in supplying components and software.

A conventional fuel car has around 5,000 parts, the REVA has little less than 1,000 parts and not many are moving components. Nearly 900 components have been localized by REVA Electric. (Jagannathan, V., 2003) The advanced technological innovations helped RECC to keep the project cost low. For instance, the REVA plant does not have the high investment sheet metal press shop and paint booth as in the case of a conventional car project. The REVA’s body is made of essays, strong and coloured polymer plastic.

The plant does not have a conveyor line as the shell is first fixed with wheels fitted with tubeless tyres and rolled from one workstation to another. (Jagannathan, V., 2003) After RECC had finished its prototype of the conflict?, REVA car, it had to face the students, challenge of penetrating the market. Antithesis Tera? In order for the product to be popular good marketing and distribution plans has to be in place. In preparation for its launch in January 2001, the students, RECC, appointed 90 dealers country wide, 40 of whom are around Bangalore.

Then it was followed up with talks with Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation (KPTC) to get the necessary clearances. This is to enable recharging of the car at houses and counseling research apartment blocks. Further talks were carried out with Bangalore City Corporation (BCC) to install recharging points at airports and shopping complexes. The company’s goal was to essays cater to a niche market, aimed at those switching from two-wheelers to four-wheelers, housewives, retired persons, college-goers and books corporate users. The company is expanding its distribution network by entering new markets. The plan is to appoint two new dealers every month. In next six months the students english, company plans to sociology paper methods have dealers in students english 14 new cities. (Murali, J., 2000 Jagannathan, V., 2003) Pricing of the car was part of the narrative essay system, driving force in the company’s strategy. But as far as electric vehicles go, REVA is possibly the cheapest in the world!

Cars like the Ford Think, which are just a bit larger and have similar range, cost three to four times the Reva’s price in Europe. RECC understood the fact that it would face a lot of competition as it goes global with its electric car. REVA cars have various niche market applications with tremendous potential for use in island countries like Mauritius, Maldives, Seychelles, New Zealand, Cayman Islands, Channel Island, Fiji, Trinidad Tobago, St. Kitts to name just a few. REVA has been able to english essays market its concept of protecting and preserving the beauty and antithesis tera the ecology of such spots.

Attractive sales and service packages are available for bulk buyers from the tourism hospitality industry, fleet operators, and large organizations besides local residents. (Reva Company Website, 2005) REVA as part of its expansion plan wanted to penetrate the english essays, global market effectively. It saw the immense scope in the export market and as a result it formulated plans to best writing attract customers in english the international market. The company has already tied up with Nepal, Israel, Malta and Japan for marketing, sales and service of the REVA cars.

It also finalized deals in UK and Sri Lanka with talks in the process for technology transfer to China and Malaysia for counseling psychology research paper local production. RECC introduced the first electric car in Sri Lanka christened ‘Ceylinco REVA’. Students Essays? It was launched in Colombo early part of 2005. Initially the sociology research, car would be imported from India and subsequently would be assembled in students english essays Sri Lanka. The REVA car would be the ideal car to overcome the rising cost of fuel in Sri Lanka. The possibility of obtaining duty wavers and other concessions from the Sri Lankan government is essay being negotiated and would make the car more affordable for students the public. When the ‘Ceylinco REVA’ is locally assembled by the end of the year, it would also bring down the counseling research paper, cost of the vehicle. (Sirimane, S., 2005) REVA is students english essays already marketed in United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Japan and with the left hand drive version being introduced soon it would be sold in Europe as well. The focus has been to get acclaim from prospective customers around the globe. The car did very well in the world famous Osaka Auto Show, Japan creating a lot of excitement among car enthusiasts.

The Japan Government in its bid to promote electric vehicles has provided a subsidy of $2,600 per car to REVA. The subsidy amount is given directly to the customer from the Japanese Government once he has purchased the car. (Japan provides subsidy for REVA car, 2005) This was followed by x, introducing a new series of models in UK this year. Students English? GoinGreen, a retailer of electric cars in the UK, showcased the new REVA NXG electric concept car in London.

GoinGreen has been marketing another REVA EV–the G-Wiz–since May 2004. The NXG has a range of 125 miles (200 km) per charge and a top speed of 75 mph (120 km/h). The car also features a high-resolution single touch-screen display system featuring all vehicle dashboard functions as well as personal communication tools such as a GPS navigation system, a GPRS modem for Do science conflict? internet and email access and an MP3 music player. (Reva Introduces NXG Electric City Car, 2005) The corporate plan now is to launch newer and bigger vehicles and scale up capacity to 50,000 units. Currently there are around 500 REVA cars on the road. The company rolls out 50 cars a month. The production is planned to go up to 200 cars per month and students english the target for this fiscal is to sell 1,200 cars.

5.0 Challenges Ahead. There are various challenges that the company would face in the domestic as well as international arena. The challenges can be listed as follows: Intense competition from local Indian car maker, Maruti. International car makers like Toyota, Honda, Ford, etc. have a wider range of electric cars.

Support from governments in Asian countries who lack the will to promote eco-friendly cars. Unavailability of electric charging facilities like the established network of petrol stations for conventional vehicles. Though there are many challenges which RECC has to face; in order to be successful it can take up necessary steps with a vision to out beat competition. Antithesis Tera? Some of these recommendations are listed below: In many countries postal departments use RHD cars as they offer ease of dispatch of mailing letters. The REVA can be easily custom-made to suit the requirements of varied uses. At a phenomenally low cost, the REVA will be a good initiative by any Government in promoting the students essays, use of x, clean vehicles by its departments. Negotiate and avail tax cuts subsidies from the Indian Government in order to english cut down price and thereby compete with conventional car makers. Target the narrative essay system, European market with its left hand version as soon as possible. with price being the plus factor of REVA. Form partnerships with countries and look for localized production in target countries if price can be further reduced.

Like tap the english, hardware industry of China to make the narrative on education system in pakistan, product more cost effective. More models need to be introduced to counter other international competitors. On the basis of the analysis done in this assignment on the REVA electric car, it can be concluded that the company has the capabilities to perform well in the market. This is possible through the students english essays, strength it enjoys over other competitors – high technology with cost effectiveness. The problem it can face is research that it doesn’t have the brand name like Ford or Toyota to english compete globally but over time as technology is upgraded in REVA and new models are introduced, it can surely take on narrative essay on education, the titans in the car industry. Essays? But as of now it is system in pakistan critical to slowly build up on the strong platform that it enjoys and build partnerships to penetrate into international markets. In the long run, REVA is most likely to make its mark in students english the EV market. 1. AutoCar. (2002). Retrieved: May 23, 2005, from essay, 2. Students Essays? Fleisher, C.S. Antithesis Tera? Bensoussan, B.E. (2003).

Strategic and students english Competitive Analysis: Methods and Techniques for paper methods Analyzing Business Competition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 3. Giriprakash, K. (2003). Reva in talks with IFC to raise funds. Business Line, May 28 issue. Students Essays? Retrieved: May 21, 2005, from 4. IT sparks a revolution in electric vehicles (2001) The Hindu, Sept 06 issue.

Retrieved: May 19, 2005, from 5. Jagannathan, V. Do Science And Religion? (2003). Revving up a revolution. Retrieved: May 22, 2005, from. 6. Japan provides subsidy for REVA car. (2005). The Hindu, Jan 08 issue. Retrieved: May 22, 2005, from 7. Murali, J. (2000). Maini Group upbeat on REVA car prospects. Business Line, Sept 17 issue.

Retrieved: May 20, 2005, from 8. Reva Company Website. (2005). Reva – Global Markets. Retrieved: May 22, 2005, from. 9. Reva Introduces NXG Electric City Car. Students English? (2005). Retrieved: May 24, 2005, from 10.

Reva showcases new electric car. (2005). Retrieved: May 21, 2005, from 11. Sirimane, S. (2005). Ceylinco REVA electric Car launched. Retrieved: May 22, 2005, from essay system in pakistan, Is this the perfect essay for you?

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What Are Communities Of Practice (Cops)? With the development of economy globalization and multiculturalism, the concept of Communities of Practice (CoPs) has been widely spread in order to improving performance and driving innovation. Users rely on these communities to achieve their needs of working with groups. Practices aim to solve problems, request information, seek experience, coordination and essays, synergy, discuss developments, document project mapping knowledge and identify gaps. However, current critiques point that the essay by malcolm x, concept is students english, deficient. Narrative Essay On Education System In Pakistan! Managers typically have problems with their internal evaluation and external impact.

Further doubts involve coherence lost and analytical power shortage. 1.2. Terms of References. This report is to identify what CoPs are and how they can increase productivity and students english essays, improve organizational performance followed by strengths analysis. Antithesis Tera! It should also be noted that CoPs' implications and application will be discussed as request. Recommendations are applied to weight key factors for successful implementation and evolution within technology management aspect through the case of KPMG. 2. What are Communities of Practice (CoPs)? Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly (Wenger, 2006). A group of accountants can work on english, similar problems. A network of IT staffs may explore new techniques. A gathering of Do science managers are able to communicate and help each other better.

CoPs may act as corporate memories, mechanisms for situated learning of practice, and foci for innovation (Jakovljevic, Buckley and Bushney, 2013, pp.1108-1109). Students Essays! It can exist in conflict?, every place with a purpose of sharing information and setting up a useful community. Participations do not require to work at the same department and can join the community by individuals. For example, to invite external groups to attend conferences and business meetings can give benefits of exchanging information with clients, possible competitors and government. Informal conversations can make idea generation effectively. CoPs are essential knowledge resources and they are difficult to identify in organisations (Wenger, 1999).

These communities are not bound by official organizations and students, participations are voluntary. Do Science And Religion! Informal personal workgroups with particular technology may diversify institutional structures and internal hierarchies. 2.1. The Characteristics and students english essays, Key Drivers of CoPs. Wenger (1998) characterised CoPs by a domain, community and practice. He stated that a CoP is best writing, a group of individuals with a shared domain of interest, or a common responsibility, united by a joint desire to develop and grow by sharing ideas and best practices. Essays! Participations select a CoP by themselves from other groups and networks, such as workplace groups or department networks, and counseling psychology paper, practice their new knowledge. They focus on the execution rather than the theory, and aim to create an students essays, ongoing cycle of and religion practicing.

A community carries trusted relationship among members naturally. The sustainable rewards of social community and collaboration bring participations confidence that it is worthy for them to join the group. Economic benefits, globalization, high-speed technology development, the changing dynamic of the workplace and the war for talent are all the factors driving the demand for CoPs (Cegos, 2012, pp. 6). With the global economic slowdown, organizations reply on essays, CoPs to seek more flexible and low cost-efficient tools in order to remain employees' productivity and narrative essay on education in pakistan, monitor core activities' efficiency in the workplace. Students English Essays! The rise of the internet and new technology towards today's global multi-cultural 24/7 business environment.

CoPs can widen networks and reduce training costs through collective collaboration in antithesis tera, product development and customer services. The changing dynamics of the students english, workplace require a CoP to get a balance of cross-generational concepts gaps so that employees can seek common ground while reserve differences and maximize effectiveness at work. 2.2. The Strengths of CoPs. CoPs provide a whole host of benefits such as reducing costs and improving performance. Key benefits can be concluded as the passion of the community, the knowledge sharing locally or globally and the ability to connect people from different departments, organizations, geographical regions and other specific boundaries. Wenger and Snyder (2000, pp.

140) said that 'people in essay by malcolm x, communities of practice share their experiences and knowledge in free-flowing, creative ways that foster new approaches to problems'. CoPs support people to experts so that the students essays, learning curves of new employees get decreased. Rework and 'reinvention of the wheel' can also be reduced and narrative essay on education in pakistan, prevented as an advantage of students CoPs. The informal communication builds a strong social networking environment so that individuals from different levels within or even outside an organization can bring knowledge together. Greater innovation can be achieved, not only in a typical workplace but also in that particular industry, based on the trusted relationship and shared ideas of problems solving and creation. 2.3. Key Factors for counseling psychology research paper Successful Implementation. Cegos Group (2012, pp. 12) summarized ten guiding principles for establishing a successful CoP in Asia. Essays! In a global perspective, there are a number of points that can sustain and enhance CoPs' implementation. Setting up a clearly stated purpose of a CoP and identifying valuable participations are fundamentally important for starting a good community.

It is Do science, worth noting that the english essays, purpose for building a CoP is to foster instead of x control as this is for learning not fulfilling. Organizations are focusing on technical solutions and english essays, tools, rather than the sociology section, social or environmental factors. The needs and capabilities of both the group and members' should be determined. The power of defining key roles and essays, responsibilities should not be underestimated as it maintains the community and has to thrive business outcomes. A kick-off meeting is required to mention duties to narrative essay system, all the students english essays, members and build trusted relationships for both individuals and the community. CoPs also need to establish behaviour from the outset, especially if the on education, organizations or members are new to the approach. Two-way learning may be useful for a CoP to balance members and reifications.

For example, a community may lose time concerning too much on participation instead of english essays sharing information with each other. A good CoP must monitor the balance between two sides. More than that, CoPs run more efficient and best books writing, effective through the promotion in internal and external propaganda with marketing department. Faster advertisement in the early stage wins as it can attract numbers of people in a high speed so that a new. community can be strong in a short time. Maintaining connectivity is necessary for keep the participants closing to the community. Both face-to-face activities and online activities are suggested to establish in order to target long-term success. Effectiveness evaluation should be monitored regularly and aims to solve problems and upgrade qualities, which can be assessed through the performance review and test for continued relevance.

2.4. The Evolution of CoPs. However, each coin has two sides. CoPs bring knowledge, policy and practice closer, they also widen the gaps among these three. Closed communities can reject new ideas and suffer from 'groupthink,' paralysing their ability to respond to external input (Nemeth, 1987).

CoPs are advised to adopt the minority views and english, encourage critical thinking and recommendations. Moreover, the amount of time people invest in their communities also tends to narrative on education, be an issue along with the essays, technology development. In particular with online participations, the cost of online communities should be at counseling psychology research paper, a low level so that some people could attend more than three or four communities at the same time. But the cost of students actual participation is very high. The commitment and essay on education system, resources invested in the CoPs reduces as members are supposed to english, contribute value while the community is to gain value. Wenger in 2005 indicated that difficulties with technology will inhibit participation in an online community of antithesis tera practice. Technology is to students essays, respond the real activities in the society globally, rather than to define an system, experience for participations. People may face technical difficulties such as unable to access the live meeting or did not know how to use a specific software. KPMG invented a global CoP in the name of K-World in students, 1999, which is counseling psychology research paper, a knowledge management system to enhance knowledge sharing and collaboration between KPMG partners, employees and clients all over the world (KMWorld, 1999). K-World offers a virtual extension for its internal and external participations with an easy click. CoPs can be found within business, across business units and across company boundaries.

KPMG established K-World as people determining solving problems together. Information can be processed constantly within a proper CoP. Both internal and students, external participations do not need to reserve any information by themselves as this kind of communal memory can be found through the K-World system in best books, accordance with their different demands. Marketing people who keep in touch with different businesses as a representative of the company should form CoPs to share updated information with their clients and sustain their expertise. For example, the CoP Marketing department built can run a business fair for promoting new services that no other departments with the company are able to handle this by themselves. Furthermore, a CoP created by HR department can be useful as they are working across company functions. Students English Essays! With changes made in the transfer of best for essay writing employees, HR managers may set up a CoP to keep up with constant HR movements. Wenger in 1998 acknowledged that different members of organizations can support CoPs in their own domains so that advantages can be maximized. Consulting managers must ensure that their team employees are able to join the right CoPs so they can continue providing professional services to their clients. IT managers must confirm that knowledge is a thing, which towards sustaining social and technical.

ecology in students essays, accordance with the mission of knowledge. HR departments have a very good system that training new employees in practice and a typical CoP for them can enhance the community between new employees and veteran employees. Essay X! Senior management board should be beneficial from the information collected through the CoPs. Online feedbacks and comments bring two-way connections between the CoP and organizational strategies in students english, a global perspective. As a professional accounting firm, KPMG accountants have already realised the potential capital could be generated running a system like K-World in an early stage. A strong CoP can create more economic benefits for an organization. In fact, KPMG was using a vision called 'Shadow Partner' during 1980s. That knowledge management system did not perform well so that KPMG fell behind the other professional services firms. The shortage of paper methods global knowledge management capabilities to KPMG was not able to support this company in students english, sharing information and making decisions on x, the largest engagements across the world at that time. A new system was much needed in the global competitive environment in order to precede virtually all other professional accounting firms. Consequently, 'Shadow Partner' was moved away and K-World improved the quality of KPMG's CoPs on the basis of adopting cultural diversity.

This new technology model was implemented that it could move users across the life cycle in parallel to essays, system developments and sociology research paper methods section, evolution (O'Leary, 2008, pp.16). Further feedbacks in the recent years confirmed that K-World system guides internal employees and external clients in an electronic path to the growth capital and spot news. Besides, Microsoft software, such as Outlook, Windows NetMeeting, Exchange, Site Server, Office and Internet Explorer were also introduced into interactive communication activities and students english, daily networking as collaborative tools. Since Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server was designed to build a secure and easily monitored environment for organizational communication, KPMG enhanced its collaboration abilities with clients replying on this software. This global professional firm starts to work more effective and efficient for their partners and clients across proper boundaries in the world. With the counseling psychology research paper, launch of K-World, we will leverage the intellectual capital of everyone in essays, KPMG and enable our practitioners to better serve our clients locally and globally, said KPMG CEO Paul Reilly two weeks before K-World launched in 1999. Do Science And Religion Conflict?! Shared experience in the past ten years proved that K-World did bring all the advantages to KPMG workers of running conferences and students english essays, business activities, updating and customizing both internal and external news, and evaluating breaking news globally. As Gerry Murray, director of knowledge technologies at methods, IDC, predicted in 1999, $100 million revenues invested by KPMG over that year in innovating its worldwide knowledge management system is worthy as this system does offer a high quality service to its clients after K-World launched. The resources the system disposed and the vision also bring a huge number of benefits for partners and internal users.

The design widely used in essays, a short time generates not only economic benefits but also potential wealth for best books writing KPMG. Even so, client privacy and students english essays, search are the research, two key issues in the current system. Confidential knowledge must be confirmed that it is essays, not included among knowledge management resources. It cannot be reviewed easily as it assures client confidentiality. On the other hand, K-World faces a tough test as the continuously increased number of documents reveals the counseling research, system storage shortage. Leaving client information out students english essays finally could be barrier for essay system in pakistan search as long as the english, number of clients constantly expands. Although different countries have tried to sociology paper methods, improve the current system with their solutions, further changes for K-World should be taken into consideration. CoPs plays a valuable role in today under the conditions of individuals operation within their workplace, networking and shared interest. Although working attitudes and environment may be revealed through workplace context, appropriate CoPs offer many benefits to individuals, groups and organizations on an internal and external perspective. Students! CoPs aim to connect people in passion to drive business efficiency and increase productivity.

They are the antidote to the financial crisis and need to and religion conflict?, span continuously in order to innovate and create economic growth with the concern on employee engagement for the future. It is unclear whether KPMG can overcome the competition with K-World or not. It is obviously that they have implemented and evolved a system, which gathers disparate systems and essays, supports collaboration for best for essay global decision making. Eventually, evolving new and emerging changes for students W-World are in demand. In another word, appropriate CoPs provide substantial benefits within collaboration and improve consistency and quality of innovative solutions. Companies, who clearly integrate CoPs as part of their culture and structure in their business, are able to acquire long-term investment returns in the years to come. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to narrative essay on education in pakistan, help you.

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