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Copper olefin metathesis

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bodies exhibit essay POST HUMAN EXHIBIT CATALOG ESSAY 1992-93 Jeffrey Deitch. On most people#146;s beauty scale, Stacey Stetler would be a 10. A blond, blue-eyed, 5-foot-11 New York model, she has confidently sashayed down the runway for Yves Saint Laurent in Paris and has graced the covers of fashion magazines. But until recently, when Ms. Stetler looked in the mirror she saw less perfection and more flaws. I was flat-chested, Ms. Olefin. StetIer said. You couldn#146;t tell if I was coming or going. My back protruded almost as much as my front.#133; Ms.

Stetler enhanced her boyish figure by having breast implants. Compare And Egypt Essay. She is not alone. The New York Times, 6 February 1992, front page. Stories about breast implants, crash diets, and mood drugs have moved from the health and copper olefin metathesis, beauty page to the front page. The public has been galvanized by explosive testimony about sexual harassment and by the sensational rape trials of public figures.

Questions about the new boundaries of appropriate interpersonal behavior are attracting unprecedented interest. There is a growing sense that we should take control over our bodies and our social circumstances rather than just accepting what we inherited. Social and scientific trends are converging to shape a new conception of the self, a new construction of what it means to be a human being. The matter-of-fact acceptance of one#146;s natural looks and emerson summary, one#146;s natural personality is being replaced by a growing sense that it is normal to reinvent oneself. The Freudian model of the psychological person is dissolving into a new model that encourages individuals to dispense with the anguished analysis of how subconscious childhood experiences molded their behavior. There is a new sense that one can simply construct the new self that one wants, freed from the copper olefin, constraints of one#146;s past and mesopotamia, one#146;s inherited genetic code. Human evolution may be entering a new phase that Charles Darwin never would have envisioned. The potential of olefin metathesis, genetic reconstitution may be quickly propelling us beyond Darwinian natural evolution and into a bold realm of artificial evolution.

Our society will soon have access to students english the biotechnology that will allow us to make direct choices about how we want our species to further evolve. This new techno-evolutionary phase will bring us far beyond eugenics. Our children#146;s generation could very well be the copper olefin, last generation of proquest & theses and social, pure humans. This new sense of one#146;s power to control and, if desired, reconstruct one#146;s body has quickly developed a broad acceptance 1 but there is still a significant segment of society that is deeply disturbed by copper olefin metathesis its implications. Compare And Contrast And Egypt Essay. The bitter debate over abortion rights is an example of how explosive the controversy over the limits of natural life will become. The battle over metathesis, the abortion issue and the outcry over euthanasia and the right to choose suicide may be just the beginning of an enormous social conflict over one#146;s freedom to use the new biotechnology to take greater control over one#146;s body and to enhance the course of emerson history essay, one#146;s life. The issue of using genetic engineering to improve the fetus will potentially become much more highly charged than the controversy over abortion. It may not be an exaggeration to say that it will become the most difficult moral and copper metathesis, social issue that the human species has ever faced. Genetic engineering is not just another life-enhancing technology like aviation or telecommunications.

Its continued development and application may force us to redefine the parameters of life. Our consciousness of the self will have to and contrast mesopotamia essay undergo a profound change as we continue to embrace the transforming advances in olefin biological and communications technologies. A#146; of the self will inevitably take hold as ever more powerful body-altering techniques become commonplace. As radical plastic surgery computer-chip brain implants and english essays, gene-splicing become routine, the former structure of self will no longer correspond to the new structure of the body. A new post-human organization of personality will develop that reflects peoples#146; adaptation to this new technology and copper olefin, its socioeconomic effects. New approaches to self-realization are generally paralleled by new approaches to art. With each successive transformation of the social environment, great artists have both reflected and helped to define the new personality models that have developed out of society#146;s absorption of technological, political, and emerson history summary, social change. Looking back through the history of art, we can see how artists have portrayed the changes in models of self-realization that have accompanied profound changes in the social environment. Starting with the Renaissance as an example, we can see how an artist such as Hans Holbein the Younger captured the ethos of Humanism in his famous portrait of Erasmus. This new concept of portraiture portrayed a new human attitude that characterized the enhanced sense of self shared by olefin metathesis Holbein and his friends. Help Gcse. Holbein#146;s portraits also helped to define and communicate this new organization of personality to a broadening audience.

The new conception of self that developed with the Enlightenment in the late eighteenth century is captured and communicated by Jean-Antoine Houdon in his portrait of Denis Diderot. Theodore Gericault reveals an increasingly complex concept of the individual in his famous portrait of the copper metathesis, kleptomaniac. The deepening sense of individuality that characterized the modernist attitude is portrayed and communicated by a succession of dissertations & theses full text the humanities and social sciences collection, great nineteenth-century artists from Ingres to Manet. The modern model of the self goes through numerous phases as the concepts of individual freedom and individual expression become more sharply focused. Metathesis. A more profound model of self that reflects the late-nineteenth-century#146;s progressively deeper exploration of the inner mind is manifested in the art of Edvard Munch. The adaptation of personality to the increased velocity of the early-twentieth-century#146;s new urban industrial society is reflected by the Cubist portraits of Picasso. By Langston. The profound contribution of the Freudian psychological model of the self is communicated through the copper metathesis, expressionistic portraiture of Kokoschka. After assimilating the Dada phase, the existential phase, and the celebrity-as-an-art-form Pop phase, the history of the modern self reaches its culmination with the free-for-all, let it all hang out ethos of the help gcse geography, late 1960s counterculture.

The attitude reflected by olefin metathesis the body art of Vito Acconci represents both the ultimate fulfillment of modernist unrestrained individualism as well as the undermining of the utopian modern dream. It is both the final phase of the progression of modern models of self-construction and the beginning of a search for a new postmodern construction of personality. The year 1968 was a watershed, when the culture of Modernism reached both its culmination and its collapse. The sexual, ethnic, and political liberation movements that we associate with 1968 were the hughes, logical fulfillment of the modern dream of copper olefin, unrestrained personal freedom, but also represented the shattering of the utopian modern search for absolute truth. The events of 1968 and their repercussions demonstrated a new sense that there were numerous ways to look at the world and numerous equally valid standards of behavior.

The long-accepted male-dominated, Eurocentric world view of the emerson history summary, Western political, economic, and intellectual power structure began to copper olefin be punctured. Although attitudes seem to have regressed since the youth-culture euphoria of the students english, late #145;60s and early #145;70s, many of the liberating impulses of 1968 have led to significant changes in the way our society defines itself. There is now a much greater consciousness of the world#146;s multiculturalism and an understanding that not every country aspires to the same modern model of progress that the West once believed to be an copper metathesis unquestioned absolute. Feminism, in particular, has spurred tremendous changes in the structure of society during the past twenty-five years, creating perhaps the most significant revolution in human behavior since the. Renaissance. Even the drug culture of the years around 1968 has had its effect on how people perceive the world today. Can corporate executives who experienced the alternative realities of mind-altering drugs while they were college students have as absolute a sense of reality as their parents#146; generation? The post-1968 period has been a time of transition, when the radical impulses of the counterculture have slowly penetrated the english, more traditional segments of copper, society. Along the way, of course, many of the more radical features of counterculture consciousness have been muted, but many of its most significant innovations, such as feminism, have begun to take hold. A distinct new model of behavior and a new organization of personality that is distinct from the modern model is history summary, still in the process of developing.

The tentative term of Post Modern is probably the appropriate one to copper describe this intermediate state of consciousness that constitutes the transition between the modern model and emerson history essay, the new model of reality that we are building. The obsession with self-awareness and copper olefin metathesis, self-improvement in the 1970s (the Me decade), and with self-image and self-indulgence in the 1980s, demonstrated the intense interest in redefining and perhaps reformulating society#146;s definition of the self. The new broader understanding of the multiplicity of possible realities has inspired a widespread desire to break with older constraining models of personality. It is becoming routine for people to try to emerson history essay alter their appearance, their behavior, and their consciousness beyond what was once thought possible. The modern era might be characterized as a period of the discovery of self. Our current post-modern era can be characterized as a transitional period of the disintegration of self. Perhaps the coming post-human period will be characterized by the reconstruction of self. The new construction of self is conceptual rather than natural.

A key element of the emerging consciousness of personality is that an individual need not be tied to his or her natural looks, natural abilities, or the ghosts. of his or her family history. People used to live not just their own lives but their parents#146; lives and their children#146;s lives as well. The sense of self wa?? tied to the structure of the family. Copper Metathesis. People had a strong sense of their obligation to english essays the traditions and attitudes of copper olefin metathesis, their parents and to their obligation t pass these attitudes on to their children. Now the changing social patterns c our society have led to a sense that people#146;s lives are their own to invent an their own to lead. With the history, deepening penetration of the electronic media models of copper olefin, self-construction will increasingly be as likely to be taken from celebrities and other media role models as they will be from english essays parents an grandparents. The decentered television reality that we experience, with its fragmertation, multiplicity, and simultaneity, is helping to deepen the sense the there is no absolutely correct or true model of the self. Olefin Metathesis. Increasingly people may come to feel that it is creative degree texas, no longer relevant to metathesis try to cure a personality disorder. Instead it may seem more appropriate to try to alter, rather than cure, the creative writing texas, self. Olefin. We are likely to be witnessing the dissolution of the Freudia psychological model with its emphasis on childhood experiences and family background.

The latest statistics show that in American inner cities, more than half of the school-age children come from one-parent homes and a many as ten percent from and social sciences no parent homes. The process of copper olefin, seif-construction has to be radically different from the way it was in turn-of-the-century Vienna. Many contemporary people have little sense of past and little sense of students essays, future, only a sense of the present. Disconnected from traditional family history, people are more prone to start their self-identity with the present. There is less need to psychologically interpret or discover oneself and more of a feeling that the self can be altered and copper, reinvented. History. Self-identity becoming much more dependent on how one is perceived by others, opposed to a deeply rooted sense of inner direction. The world has become a mirror. Reality, fantasy, and fiction are merging into the inspiration for a new model of personality organization. The interchangeable identities of Madonna and the extraordinary self-transformation of Ivana Trump are examples of this shuffling of copper olefin metathesis, reality and fantasy into a reassembled fictional personality that quickly becomes fact. The search for the absolute true self has been replaced by a constant scanning for new alternatives.

The contemporary collapse of absolutes applies not only to personality models, but to political and social models as well. The crumbling of Communism in the Soviet Union marked the dissolution of one of the most absolute of all belief systems. In the and contrast mesopotamia and egypt essay, capitalist sphere, as well, the olefin metathesis, Japanese bubble economy has been punctured and the ideologies of Reaganism and Thatcherism have been tarnished. Corporate restructuring, with their plant closings and forced early retirements, have shattered the long-nurtured assumption that the modern corporation would make every effort to take care of its dedicated employees. The belief system at the foundation of modern corporatism has been seriously weakened, leading to students essays new models of copper, how individuals perceive their place in proquest & theses full text and social sciences collection the free-market structure. The public has even experienced an unprecedented collapse of the reputation of many of its most trusted and admired heroes. It turned out that Ben Johnson#146;s astounding athletic prowess was the copper olefin metathesis, product of steroids and that Donald Trump#146;s vast wealth was not real, only simulated. The recent deflation of all these absolutes in our cultural, socioeconomic, and by langston hughes, political environment has set the stage for a new kind of belief structure based on multiple realities and multiple perceptions. In addition to copper olefin the way social and economic forces are shaping a new method of seeing and experiencing the world, two extraordinary new technologies will soon be challenging definitions and perceptions of proquest & theses text the humanities sciences, reality in copper olefin a way that is beyond anything previously imagined. Computer science with its ever closer realization of virtual reality, and biotechnology with the amazing potential of genetic engineering, are on the verge of creating a new environment where most of coursework, our assumptions about what is reality and copper, even what is life will have to emerson essay be reexamined. Olefin Metathesis. The combination of these two sets of help gcse geography, technologies will create not only copper, new life forms and new communications channels, but will shape new perceptions of time and space and even lead to nevi, structures of on harlem by langston, thinking.

We are already experiencing a new kind of electronic space and a new kind of simultaneous television time. The former sense of the vast distances that separated, for example a metals trader in New York from his customer in Tokyo has already been collapsed by twenty-four-hour, on-line trading. Economic space once encompassed a sense of the long journeys involved to move goods and information from copper one city to compare and contrast another. Now with computer networks, video conferencing. and DHL overnight service, company office on different continents can function as if they were next door to each other The new sense of time experienced through CNN#146;s live broadcasts of the Gulf war and the August 1991 Soviet coup has changed forever the way work affairs will function. There will no longer be the cushion of time between an event and its interpretation in the newspaper. The electronic media h networked the world into a new kind of simultaneous real-time structure speeding up the copper olefin metathesis, course of social interchange. Students English Essays. The current communications revolution is likely to olefin be just a prelude, however, to the advent of cyberspace a vast computer universe that will further restructure our understanding o time and students essays, space. The new electronic time and space also seems to be shaping a new kind. of thinking, oriented toward images and sound bites. The former emphasis on deductive rational structures and lengthy narrative has been eclipsed b#146; the electronic media#146;s compressed sense of copper olefin, time. The television audience i. being trained to emerson history summary take in complex issues through quick successions of images and compact, packaged commentary.

As previous generations learn structures of complex thinking through essays and novels, today#146;s advanced television generation learns how to think through news anchorpeople and talk show hosts. The structure of copper metathesis, thinking is changing, and it appears that the quality of thinking is changing as well. Summary. Patterns of thinking are becoming less rational. With the metathesis, collapse of many of the modern era#146;s hierarchical belief systems, and their replacement by multifaceted alternatives, people are moving away from hierarchically structured rational thinking to a more perceptual. Text Sciences Collection. less structured outlook and a more irrational mode of thought. An irrational outlook in fact might be a more appropriate approach to a world that seems to have outgrown its modern utopian faith in copper metathesis rational solutions. This feeling of & theses full text the humanities sciences, irrationality is furthered by the sense that the explosive new technologies may also be unleashing some explosive new pathologies.

We are experiencing a surge of seemingly untamable viruses: biological, social, environmental, and computer viruses as well. There is a sense that we are advancing but not progressing, mired in a swirl of unexpected side effects that have undermined our belief in a rational order and moved us closer to copper embracing an irrational model of the world. Our transition to the post-human world of creative degree texas, cyberspace and olefin metathesis, genetic engineering is occurring gradually. Many of the new attitudes toward the body and the new modes of social behavior do not seem particularly significant in isolation, but viewed together they demonstrate a decided trend toward a radically new model of the self and emerson history summary, of social behavior. They constitute a kind of prelude that is likely to make society attitudinally more ready than one would have expected for the truly radical technologies that are soon to copper metathesis come. It is assumed that the average person can and should alter his or her body through rigorous diet and exercise. The virtues of online creative texas, mind exercise and even of mind-altering drugs have also achieved wide acceptance. Plastic surgery is not only accepted and olefin, encouraged by on harlem by langston many of olefin metathesis, our social role models but is enthusiastically shown off.

For the generation that has watched and compare and contrast mesopotamia and egypt essay, perhaps tried to imitate the self-transformation of Jane Fonda. there is already a strong sense of one#146;s freedom to control and alter one#146;s body. As more powerful technology becomes accessible, the next logical step might be for members of the metathesis, post-Jane Fonda generation to want to create a genetically improved child who would already incorporate the history essay summary, enhanced physical endowments that years of exercise, liposuction, and implant surgery had accomplished. How large a jump would it be for copper metathesis someone with an elaborate home-computer system to install a chip in his or her brain that stored the entire Encyclopedia Britannica and images of every important painting in art history? The attitudes that may make us ready to embrace the creative writing, post-human person may already be here. We are also already well on our way to assimilating a new set of nearly post-human social structures. These new types of copper olefin metathesis, social behaviors first seemed to assert themselves in the realm of mating rituals.

The social dislocations that began to isolate young people from their traditional family and students english, community networks led to numerous artificial structures to metathesis facilitate introductions. First there were personal ads and singles clubs, then singles bars and an organized singles industry. Essays. Now, with the threat of AIDS and metathesis, perhaps a growing sense of human alienation, phone sex has become especially popular. People can conduct fantasy relationships without the mess that often goes along with real human contact. From phone sex it is only a small step to virtual sex. the multisensual sexual experience that people will soon be able to have in three dimensions with their home computer A virtual-sex program featuring every simulated sound and sensation is not only likely to & theses full text sciences be better in many ways than the real thing, for future generations it may become the real thing. In Japan, which, as in copper other areas, is in the vanguard of post-human behavior, there has emerged a new personality type known as Otaku. Otaku people are defined more by their possessions than by their inherent character.

They can be described as a concept of person-as-information. Travelers to Tokyo are often amazed by the proliferation of emerson history essay, vending machines for all sorts of goods and services, even for matchmaking. Survey research has shown that much of the popularity of these vending machines is due to the preference of young Japanese for interacting with machines instead of with real people. These emerging social and technological trends that are redefining our concepts of the self and of social behavior have begun to exert tremendous influence on artists. There is an enormous new artistic interest in the body and in the presentation of the self. Much of olefin, today#146;s most innovative new artistic practice involves new concepts of the figure and new approaches to the figure. Essay. This new interest in the figure is, however, not to copper be found where it would traditionally be expected, in online writing degree painting and in conventional sculpture.

The new interest in figuration. in copper metathesis keeping with the social and technological trends that are inspiring it, is conceptual rather than formal. The new figurative art is emerging through the channel of the conceptual-body, and performance art of the late #145;60s and #145;70s rather than through the figurative-painting tradition. Many of the most interesting younger artists are dealing with the new conceptions of the body and the new definitions of essays on harlem, self that the vanguard of metathesis, our society is also dealing with. They are exploring through their art the same questioning of essays, traditional notions of gender, sexuality, and self-identity that is taking place in the world at large. Much of the new figurative art is reactive to and descriptive of the real world, but it cannot in fact be called realistic in the conventional sense. That is because so much of the real world that they are reacting to has in fact become artificial. With the concept of the real disintegrating through an acceptance of the multiplicity of reality models and through the embrace of artificiality. Realism as we used to know it may no longer be possible. This new figurative art may actually mark the copper, end of Realism rather than its revival. The redefinition of the figure is being approached by essay a number of artists through its breakup and reassembly.

Robert Gober shockingly isolates segments of the body from the whole, creating an eerie new reality of free-f bating limbs and disconnected emotions. Body parts are disassembled and reassembled in the sculpture of George Lappas, who also mixes time frames from the past and copper metathesis, the present. This shuffling of historical, present, and future time is compare and contrast and egypt essay, also characteristic of the approaches of Wim Delvoye and Yasumasa Morimura. The figures in their works function in historical, present. and future time simultaneously, giving a picture of the kind of time mix that is likely to be more and more characteristic of the way we will experience the copper olefin metathesis, world. Time is not the & theses full text and social collection, only element that is shuffled. Humans and animals are conflated in the work of Mike Kelley, humans and mannequins in the work of copper olefin metathesis, Charles Ray. and humans and machines in the work of Paul McCarthy. These artists present a shocking reformulation of humanity that gives a disquieting glimpse of the coming post-human situation. In Kelley#146;s world, the ever more intense underflow of violence and perversity bubbles over into an uneasy confusion of artificiality, innocence, and bestiality. In Ray#146;s sculpture, frighteningly out of scale mannequins represent intensified visions of post-human evolution, drained of all emotion and affect.

McCarthy#146;s Garden depicts an students essays alien post-human future in which the figure becomes a robotic shell seized by an uncontrollable sexual obsession from which all human passion is absent. Future genetic manipulation may spawn a race of post humans who are outwardly perfect but whose inner neuroses and instincts may not be so easily controlled. Artists are sensitive to this murky underside of displaced urges that may not be quite as easy to copper olefin metathesis re-mold as a pair of flabby thighs. Janine Antoni#146;s cube of gnawed chocolate reveals the neurotic and desperate behavior sometimes hidden beneath the sleek facade of mesopotamia, a woman#146;s image perfected through cosmetics. Kiki Smith#146;s flayed bodies, dripping with excretions, bear witness to the emotional wreckage that festers below the plastic surface. Artists are giving us a frightful warning of the irrational reservoir of dislocated emotions that may overwhelm the advances of technology. The emphasis on appearance versus essence, a central feature of the copper metathesis, new construction of self-identity. is explored by Clegg Guttmann through their seemingly normal images of corporate-type personalities, which subtly reveal something empty and abnormal underneath. The new way in which personal identity is being constructed is on harlem hughes, examined through the mind-flow drawings of Karen Kilimnik, which enter into the interplay between model of celebrity and models of self. The fascinating collapse of the olefin metathesis, border between public and private lives is also explored though Kilimnik#146;s work. evidenced by the new approaches to the private versus public, in everything from the scrutiny of the personal lives of political candidates to the behind the-scenes revelations of Madonnas Truth or Dare, our entire understanding of the meaning of private life is in the process of being redefined. The re-creation of online texas, self through an embrace of fantasy and fiction embodied in metathesis the life and history essay summary, work of Jeff Koons. In the course of a two-yea period, Koons transformed his body and his life through his courtship and marriage with Cicciolina.

The biological and material sculpture resulting from their union dissolves the dividing line between artificial and olefin, real, creating art that can truly be described as post human. As the organic, naturally evolving model of human life is replaced by t1 artificial evolution into the Post Human, art is likely to assume a much more central role. Art may have to fuse with science as computerization and bio-technology create further improvements on the human form. Many of U#146; decisions that will accompany the applications of computerized virtual reality and of genetic engineering will be related to essay aesthetics. Technology w make it possible to remodel our bodies and supercharge our minds, but a will have to help provide the inspiration for what our bodies should look Iike and what our minds should be doing. Will the onset of the Post Human mean unprecedented freedom for U individual and for the artist?

Will we soon have almost unlimited ability recreate ourselves and break through the constraints of genetic history. Copper Metathesis. Will we have the opportunity to express ourselves in any way we want through physical appearance? Will we be able to create art that is also biology? Or will it happen that all these extraordinary new possibilities will result in increased social repression and emerson history summary, a push toward conformity? Will the persuasive skills of the advertising industry convince us all to buy the copper metathesis, same two or three genetic-improvement programs? Will governments assert their control over the powerful new biotechnology and restrict its use? Or will they take a more aggressive stance, exploiting the new technology to create genetically improved populations for economic and with gcse, military superiority? Could the world evolve into a nightmarish situation with new, improved Post Humans in the wealthy countries ruling over the old humans in countries where the new technologies cannot be readily afforded? All these scenarios remain unclear.

What we do know is that we will soon be forced by copper olefin metathesis technological advances to develop a new morality. We will need to build a new moral structure that will give people a framework of & theses full text sciences, how to deal with the copper olefin metathesis, enormous choices they will have to english make in terms of genetic alteration and metathesis, computerized brain enhancement. Summary. We will have to face decisions not only about what looks good, but what is good or is copper, bad about the students english essays, restructuring of the mind and body. The limits of life will no longer be something that can be taken for olefin metathesis granted. We will have to create a new moral vision to cope with them. In the future, artists may no longer be involved in essays on harlem by langston just redefining art.

In the posthuman future artists may also be involved in redefining life.

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ma research proposal This is a work in progress, intended to organize my thoughts on the process of metathesis formulating a proposal. If you have any thoughts on the contents, or on the notion of making this available to students, please share them with me. Thanks. This is a guide to writing M.A. research proposals. The same principles apply to help with dissertation proposals and to proposals to most funding agencies. It includes a model outline, but advisor, committee and funding agency expectations vary and metathesis your proposal will be a variation on this basic theme. Use these guidelines as a point of departure for discussions with your advisor. History Essay Summary? They may serve as a straw-man against which to build your understanding both of your project and of proposal writing.

Proposal writing is important to your pursuit of a graduate degree. The proposal is, in effect, an intellectual scholastic (not legal) contract between you and copper olefin your committee. It specifies what you will do, how you will do it, and how you will interpret the results. In specifying what will be done it also gives criteria for online writing texas determining whether it is done. Metathesis? In approving the proposal, your committee gives their best judgment that the english essays, approach to the research is reasonable and likely to yield the olefin metathesis, anticipated results. They are implicitly agreeing that they will accept the result as adequate for the purpose of granting a degree. (Of course you will have to with gcse geography coursework write the thesis in acceptable form, and you probably will discover things in metathesis, the course of your research that were not anticipated but which should be addressed in your thesis, but the minimum core intellectual contribution of your thesis will be set by the proposal.) Both parties benefit from an agreed upon plan. The objective in writing a proposal is to describe what you will do, why it should be done, how you will do it and what you expect will result. Being clear about these things from the beginning will help you complete your thesis in essays on harlem by langston, a timely fashion.

A vague, weak or fuzzy proposal can lead to a long, painful, and often unsuccessful thesis writing exercise. A clean, well thought-out, proposal forms the metathesis, backbone for the thesis itself. The structures are identical and through the miracle of word-processing, your proposal will probably become your thesis. A good thesis proposal hinges on compare essay a good idea. Copper? Once you have a good idea, you can draft the proposal in an evening. Getting a good idea hinges on familiarity with the topic. This assumes a longer preparatory period of reading, observation, discussion, and emerson history essay incubation. Copper Olefin Metathesis? Read everything that you can in your area of interest. Figure out what are the important and missing parts of our understanding. Figure out how to build/discover those pieces. Live and breathe the topic.

Talk about it with anyone who is interested. Then just write the important parts as the proposal. Filling in the things that we do not know and that will help us know more: that is what research is all about. Proposals help you estimate the size of a project. Don't make the project too big. Our MA program statement used to say that a thesis is equivalent to a published paper in scope. These days, sixty double spaced pages, with figures, tables and texas bibliography, would be a long paper. Your proposal will be shorter, perhaps five pages and certainly no more than fifteen pages. (For perspective, the olefin, NSF limits the length of proquest & theses full sciences proposal narratives to 15 pages, even when the request might be for multiple hundreds of thousands of dollars.) The merit of the proposal counts, not the weight.

Shoot for five pithy pages that indicate to a relatively well-informed audience that you know the topic and copper olefin how its logic hangs together, rather than fifteen or twenty pages that indicate that you have read a lot of and egypt things but not yet boiled it down to a set of prioritized linked questions. Different Theses, Similar Proposals. This guide includes an copper, outline that looks like a fill-in the blanks model and, while in the abstract all proposals are similar, each proposal will have its own particular variation on the basic theme. Compare And Contrast And Egypt? Each research project is different and each needs a specifically tailored proposal to copper olefin metathesis bring it into focus. Different advisors, committees and agencies have different expectations and you should find out what these are as early as possible; ask your advisor for advice on help with coursework this. Further, different types of thesis require slightly different proposals.

What style of work is olefin metathesis, published in your sub-discipline? Characterizing theses is difficult. Some theses are straight science. Some are essentially opinion pieces. Some are policy oriented. In the essays, end, they may well all be interpretations of observations, and differentiated by the rules that constrain the interpretation. (Different advisors will have different preferences about the rules, the meta-discourse, in which we all work.) In the abstract all proposals are very similar. They need to show a reasonably informed reader why a particular topic is copper olefin metathesis, important to address and how you will do it. To that end, a proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new contribution your work will make. Specify the question that your research will answer, establish why it is a significant question, show how you are going to answer the question, and indicate what you expect we will learn. The proposal should situate the emerson essay summary, work in olefin, the literature, it should show why this is an (if not the most) important question to answer in the field, and convince your committee (the skeptical readers that they are) that your approach will in fact result in essays on harlem by langston, an answer to the question.

Theses which address research questions that can be answered by making plan-able observations (and applying hypothesis testing or model selection techniques) are preferred and copper perhaps the easiest to write. Because they address well-bounded topics, they can be very tight, but they do require more planning on the front end. English Essays? Theses which are largely based on synthesis of observations, rumination, speculation, and opinion formation are harder to write, and usually not as convincing, often because they address questions which are not well-bounded and essentially unanswerable. (One 'old saw' about olefin, research in the social sciences is that the emerson history essay, finding is always: some do and olefin metathesis some don't. Try to avoid such insight-less findings; finding who do and who don't is better.) One problem with this type of project is that it is often impossible to tell when you are done. Another problem is that the nature of argument for a position rather than the reasoned rejection of alternatives to essays it encourages shepherding a favored notion rather than converging more directly toward a truth. (See Chamberlain's and Platt's articles). A good proposal helps one see and copper olefin metathesis avoid these problems. Literature review-based theses involve collection of information from the literature, distillation of it, and coming up with new insight on an issue. One problem with this type of emerson summary research is that you might find the perfect succinct answer to copper your question on the night before (or after) you turn in the final draft --- in someone else's work. This certainly can knock the wind out of your sails. (But note that even a straight-ahead science thesis can have the problem of discovering, late in the game, that the work you have done or are doing has already been done; this is where familiarity with the with gcse, relevant literature by both yourself and copper your committee members is important.) A Two Page (Preliminary Proposal) Model. Here is a model for a very brief (maybe five paragraph) proposal that you might use to interest faculty in sitting on students essays your committee.

People who are not yet hooked may especially appreciate its brevity. In the first paragraph, the first sentence identifies the general topic area. The second sentence gives the metathesis, research question, and the third sentence establishes its significance. The next couple of paragraphs gives the larger historical perspective on the topic. Essentially list the and contrast mesopotamia, major schools of thought on the topic and copper olefin metathesis very briefly review the literature in the area with its major findings. Who has written on the topic and what have they found? Allocate about a sentence per important person or finding. Include any preliminary findings you have, and geography indicate what open questions are left. Restate your question in this context, showing how it fits into this larger picture. The next paragraph describes your methodology.

It tells how will you approach the question, what you will need to do it. The final paragraph outlines your expected results, how you will interpret them, and how they will fit into the our larger understanding i.e., 'the literature'. The two outlines below are intended to show both what are the standard parts of a proposal and of a science paper. Notice that the only real difference is metathesis, that you change expected results to results in the paper, and usually leave the budget out, of the paper. Another outline (maybe from Gary Fuller?). Each of these outlines is very similar. You probably see already that the proposal's organization lends itself to word-processing right into the final thesis.

It also makes it easy for readers to essays by langston hughes find relevant parts more easily. The section below goes into copper olefin slightly more detail on what each of the points in the outline is and does. A good title will clue the reader into the topic but it can not tell the whole story. Follow the title with a strong introduction. The introduction provides a brief overview that tells a fairly well informed (but perhaps non-specialist) reader what the proposal is about. It might be as short as a single page, but it should be very clearly written, and it should let one assess whether the research is relevant to their own. Dissertations & Theses Full Text Sciences? With luck it will hook the reader's interest.

What is your proposal about? Setting the topical area is a start but you need more, and quickly. Get specific about what your research will address. Once the topic is established, come right to the point. Copper Olefin Metathesis? What are you doing? What specific issue or question will your work address? Very briefly (this is still the introduction) say how you will approach the work.

What will we learn from your work? Why is this work important? Show why this is it important to proquest answer this question. What are the implications of doing it? How does it link to other knowledge? How does it stand to copper metathesis inform policy making? This should show how this project is significant to our body of essays knowledge. Why is it important to our understanding of the world?

It should establish why I would want to copper olefin metathesis read on. It should also tell me why I would want to support, or fund, the history essay summary, project. State of olefin metathesis our knowledge. The purpose of the summary, literature review is to situate your research in the context of copper olefin what is already known about a topic. It need not be exhaustive, it needs to show how your work will benefit the whole. It should provide the theoretical basis for help with geography your work, show what has been done in the area by others, and set the stage for your work. In a literature review you should give the reader enough ties to olefin metathesis the literature that they feel confident that you have found, read, and assimilated the literature in essays on harlem, the field.

It might do well to include a paragraph that summarizes each article's contribution, and a bit of 'mortar' to hold the edifice together, perhaps these come from metathesis your notes while reading the material. The flow should probably move from the more general to the more focused studies, or perhaps use historical progression to develop the story. It need not be exhaustive; relevance is 'key'. This is where you present the holes in the knowledge that need to be plugged, and by proquest full the humanities sciences doing so, situate your work. It is the place where you establish that your work will fit in and be significant to the discipline. This can be made easier if there is literature that comes out and says Hey, this is a topic that needs to be treated!

What is the copper olefin, answer to this question? and you will sometimes see this type of piece in the literature. Perhaps there is a reason to read old AAG presidential addresses. Your work to date. Tell what you have done so far. It might report preliminary studies that you have conducted to establish the feasibility of your research. It should give a sense that you are in a position to add to the body of knowledge. Overview of approach.

This section should make clear to the reader the way that you intend to approach the geography, research question and the techniques and logic that you will use to address it. This might include the field site description, a description of the instruments you will use, and particularly the data that you anticipate collecting. You may need to comment on site and resource accessibility in the time frame and budget that you have available, to olefin metathesis demonstrate feasibility, but the emphasis in this section should be to fully describe specifically what data you will be using in your study. By Langston? Part of the purpose of doing this is to detect flaws in the plan before they become problems in the research. This should explain in some detail how you will manipulate the data that you assembled to get at the information that you will use to metathesis answer your question. Creative Writing? It will include the statistical or other techniques and the tools that you will use in processing the copper, data. It probably should also include an indication of the range of essay summary outcomes that you could reasonably expect from your observations. In this section you should indicate how the anticipated outcomes will be interpreted to answer the copper olefin metathesis, research question. It is essays on harlem by langston, extremely beneficial to anticipate the range of outcomes from your analysis, and for each know what it will mean in copper, terms of the dissertations the humanities sciences, answer to your question. This section should give a good indication of what you expect to get out of the research. It should join the data analysis and possible outcomes to the theory and copper questions that you have raised.

It will be a good place to summarize the significance of the work. It is often useful from the very beginning of formulating your work to write one page for help gcse coursework this section to focus your reasoning as you build the rest of the olefin, proposal. This is the gcse geography coursework, list of the relevant works. Some advisors like exhaustive lists. I think that the olefin, Graduate Division specifies that you call it Bibliography. Others like to see only the literature which you actually cite. Most fall in between: there is no reason to cite irrelevant literature but it may be useful to history keep track of it even if only to say that it was examined and found to be irrelevant.

Use a standard format. Copper Metathesis? Order the references alphabetically, and use flag paragraphs as per the University's Guidelines. Read. Read everything you can find in your area of interest. Read. Read. Read. Take notes, and talk to your advisor about the topic. If your advisor won't talk to you, find another one or rely on 'the net' for students english intellectual interaction. Email has the advantage of copper metathesis forcing you to get your thoughts into written words that can be refined, edited and improved. It also gets time stamped records of when you submitted what to your advisor and how long it took to get a response.

Write about the topic a lot, and don't be afraid to tear up (delete) passages that just don't work. Often you can re-think and gcse re-type faster than than you can edit your way out of a hopeless mess. The advantage is in the re-thinking. Very early on, generate the research question, critical observation, interpretations of the possible outcomes, and the expected results. Copper? These are the essays by langston, core of the project and will help focus your reading and thinking.

Modify them as needed as your understanding increases. Use some systematic way of recording notes and bibliographic information from the very beginning. Copper Metathesis? The classic approach is a deck of index cards. You can sort, regroup, layout spatial arrangements and work on the beach. Possibly a slight improvement is to use a word-processor file that contains bibliographic reference information and creative texas notes, quotes etc. that you take from the source. Olefin Metathesis? This can be sorted, searched, diced and sliced in your familiar word-processor. Essays Hughes? You may even print the index cards from the olefin metathesis, word-processor if you like the with, ability to physically re-arrange things.

Even better for some, is to use specialized bibliographic database software. Papyrus, EndNote, and metathesis other packages are available for english PCs and MacIntoshs. The bib-refer and bibTex software on UNIX computers are also very handy and have the advantage of working with plain ASCII text files (no need to worry about getting at copper metathesis your information when the online texas, wordprocessor is several generations along). All of these tools link to various word-processors to make constructing and formating your final bibliography easier, but you won't do that many times anyway. If they help you organize your notes and thinking, that is the benefit. Another pointer is to keep in copper, mind from the outset that this project is neither the last nor the greatest thing you will do in your life. It is just one step along the way. Get it done and get on with the next one. The length to shoot for is equivalent to a published paper, sixty pages of double spaced text, plus figures tables, table of contents, references, etc. is probably all you need. With Gcse Geography Coursework? In practice, most theses try to do too much and become too long.

Cover your topic, but don't confuse it with too many loosely relevant side lines. This is not complete and needs a little rearranging. The balance between Introduction and Literature Review needs to be thought out. The reader will want to be able to figure out whether to copper olefin read the proposal. Compare And Contrast And Egypt? The literature review should be sufficiently inclusive that the reader can tell where the bounds of knowledge lie. It should also show that the proposer knows what has been done in the field (and the methods used). The balance may change between the proposal and the thesis.

It is copper olefin, common, although not really desirable, for theses to make reference to every slightly related piece of work that can be found. This is not necessary. Refer to essay summary the work that actually is linked to your study, don't go too far afield (unless your committee is metathesis, adamant that you do ;-). Krathwohl, David R. 1988. How to Prepare a Research Proposal: Guidelines for Funding and Dissertations in proquest full text the humanities sciences collection, the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Syracuse University Press. Recent National Science Foundations Guidelines for Research Proposals can be found on the NSF website, Chamberlain, T.C. The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses, reprinted in Science , Vol 148, pp754-759. 7 May 1965.

Platt, J. Strong Inference in Science , Number 3642, pp. 347-353, 16 October 1964. Strunk and White The Elements of Style. Turabian, Kate. 1955 (or a more recent edition) A Manual for copper Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations , University of Chicago Press. Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren. 1940 ('67, '72 etc). How to the humanities and social sciences Read a Book . Simon and Schuster Publishers.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to copper olefin, us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is creative writing texas a very ancient institution. Olefin! There is no primitive society without religion.

Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in on harlem hughes, response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the olefin metathesis, great religions of the world.

Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of english essays human beings. Copper! It is the human response to those elements in on harlem by langston hughes, the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”.

The second root is copper olefin metathesis Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of emerson “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Copper! Religion in with, this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.

Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and olefin, self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of help gcse geography coursework worship and copper, prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to essays, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition.

Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and copper metathesis, that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is by langston hughes well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and olefin metathesis, attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to creative, Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in metathesis, such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the online creative writing degree texas, belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to copper olefin, influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.

There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in dissertations full the humanities and social collection, their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of copper olefin metathesis a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is proquest & theses and social not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the olefin, unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities.

When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the & theses full text the humanities collection, cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is olefin imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and students essays, other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. Olefin Metathesis! It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Help Geography! They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of copper these principles creates man’s sense of guilty.

It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the essays on harlem hughes, supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in copper olefin, accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of compare mesopotamia and egypt essay guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an copper metathesis, inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. Compare And Contrast And Egypt! The ultimate end of life is to copper, attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins.

In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and help with gcse geography coursework, practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for olefin metathesis, the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in online degree, the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to olefin metathesis, forget the on harlem, suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and metathesis, the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and english essays, hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Copper Metathesis! Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to online writing texas, group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from copper metathesis, members of other groups, communities or nations.

By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for proquest & theses full the humanities and social, the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is copper olefin a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by emerson history summary prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest.

Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to copper, men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. And Contrast Mesopotamia And Egypt Essay! Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the copper olefin, means of informal means of social control. Religion not only summary defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to olefin metathesis, the needy and poor and promote their welfare.

It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is students essays believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of olefin individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to proquest dissertations full text the humanities and social sciences collection, art and culture.

The priests laid the olefin metathesis, foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of compare mesopotamia observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in copper metathesis, some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and emerson history summary, striven for copper, has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and creative writing degree texas, entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in copper olefin metathesis, mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth.

8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family.

Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by mesopotamia essay Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of copper olefin civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of writing degree texas work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an olefin, integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows.

1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. And Contrast Mesopotamia And Egypt Essay! Hampers the olefin, Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions:

Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. Help With Gcse! This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the olefin metathesis, medieval Europe, the help with gcse, Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is copper evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the help with, existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to copper metathesis, fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and & theses the humanities, the soul of soulless conditions. Metathesis! It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Essays! Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.

It is copper olefin metathesis deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on text sciences, building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on copper, religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Online Creative! It leads to waste of human labour, energy and copper olefin metathesis, time. Religion creates diversities among people. And Contrast Essay! It creates a gap among them.

In the name of God and copper olefin, religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. Students English Essays! They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of copper status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the and contrast essay, scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the copper metathesis, doctrines of dissertations & theses full text the humanities and social sciences collection Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and olefin metathesis, potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of history essay summary society proceeded from the copper metathesis, material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at help with gcse geography, this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is metathesis required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of on harlem by langston hughes men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of olefin man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. Writing! But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for metathesis, consolation and justification. It is the emerson, fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to olefin, God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to essay summary, project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of copper metathesis existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the online creative degree texas, people is copper metathesis required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of on harlem by langston hughes religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of olefin metathesis right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Proquest Dissertations Full Text And Social! A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and metathesis, minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an emerson history summary, element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to copper metathesis, reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and help with gcse, ceremonies.

Buddhism for metathesis, instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the students english, common man’s reach. Metathesis! In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and history essay summary, Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of copper their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from online creative writing degree, small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the copper metathesis, earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part.

As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by dissertations & theses text and social sciences a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and copper metathesis, various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Help Gcse Coursework! In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society.

It means that religious beliefs and olefin, practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the students english essays, working class in copper olefin metathesis, Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and students english, more on social values. Metathesis! It has tried to and contrast mesopotamia and egypt essay, reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and metathesis, the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the dissertations text and social sciences, domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule.

But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and copper metathesis, secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an emerson, important political force in copper olefin metathesis, Europe and North America. Creative! Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and olefin metathesis, communalism in and contrast mesopotamia and egypt, India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in copper, Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over essays on harlem, man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of copper olefin Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by and egypt which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and copper olefin, a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results.

The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in and contrast mesopotamia essay, different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the copper olefin metathesis, word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the english, two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at olefin, least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years.

This secularism chalks out an area in with geography, public life where religion is olefin metathesis not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to compare and contrast and egypt essay, leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in olefin metathesis, the English language.

It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the essays on harlem, word. Copper Olefin! Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. Help With Geography Coursework! This is translation of those English words and copper, dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the history essay, role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and metathesis, it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to emerson history essay summary, give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the olefin metathesis, State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of essays on harlem by langston secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an metathesis, emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of proquest text the humanities sciences supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is copper olefin metathesis any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation.

Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism.

Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on writing texas, men, elimination of copper some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. Online Creative Writing! In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the olefin, following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to help gcse geography coursework, secularise the religious institutions. Olefin! This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in by langston hughes, the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Olefin! Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for proquest dissertations & theses the humanities and social, secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. Copper Metathesis! That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of proquest & theses full text the humanities religion. It is copper metathesis based on history summary, testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.

It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is copper olefin occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for dissertations & theses full the humanities and social collection, the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and copper olefin, a process.

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