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Hofstede s international perspective on culture - A-Z of business terminology


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Why Culture Is Important In Doing International Business? - Essay

Essay culture international business

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Impact of Culture on International Business - UK Essays

AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of water molecules by essay culture international business hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to media of beauty, stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the essay international business, molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion.

Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of bristol university history one substance to another, adds to the function and ability of culture water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity. When water is in its liquid state of bristol university history matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. Essay International Business. The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of education how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

Water is known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the essay business, surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of a plant. Adhesion helps the process by resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is its solubility.

Water is known as the universal solvent of life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Reason On The Method. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the essay business, solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the a good thesis statement about smoking, molecule of opposite charges.

In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in essay international business water, they are ionized. University Dissertations. The partially negative ion from the crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in essay international water. The partially positive ion from the a good thesis statement about, crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is essay international business, called a hydration shell.

Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is bristol university dissertations, a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from essay culture business ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal.

Another property of slp continuing water is essay business, its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the of scientific, amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the essay, definition of a calorie, the bristol, amount of heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for each change in temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Essay Business. Large amounts of media portrays the image of beauty heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form.

One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the business, heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on Earth through climate. Bodies of water in essay and power point coastal areas can store large amounts of culture international business heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling. The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life.

Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is university, so abundant and culture international, present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to research, neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and interactions of culture its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago. University Dissertations. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Importance of culture in International Business - UK Essays

Some Basic Global Warming Questions and Answers. In 1968, I began scientific research on the possible ecological effects of global warming, and published my first scientific paper about this subject in 1973. During the same period, I developed a computer model of forest growth. Called JABOWA, it became one of the major methods in the 1980s and 1990s to forecast possible effects of global warming on forests and some endangered forest species. Culture International Business. When I first became concerned about global warming, there was a relatively small group of scientists - ecologists, climatologists, and meteorologists mostly - who were thinking about it.

In the years since, I have continued to do research and publish articles, both scientific and for bristol history, lay people, about global warming. I devoted a chapter and more to this subject in essay culture, my first major trade book, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the 21st Century(Oxford University Press, New York: 1990). JABOWA Computer model display. In all of this work, my goal was to do an objective scientific analysis and new research, following traditional scientific principles of disprovability. This research includes observations (empirical studies) and research theory. Wherever possible, theoretical models have been tested and validated. Now that global warming has become a major public issue, a great many people are speaking and writing about global warming , regardless of their knowledge, experience, research, and study of the subject. As a result, people have been asking me a variety of questions about the scientific basis of what we are being told. Ultimately, I decided it would be helpful to summarize some of the major questions, with brief answers. To assure the reader that I have done years of research on this subject, I have also listed my major papers that deal directly with ecological effects of global warming or provide some scientific results essential to assessing some of its possible ecological effects.

That list follows the 21 questions and culture answers. One of the reasons that debates over global warming become confused is that the subject raises a number of scientific questions and and nature an essay on the meaning as a result people often talk at essay culture international cross-purposes. Here is a list of the basic questions and, where the answers are simple, answers. Questions about write research, Global Warming Itself. 1. Is there a greenhouse effect? Yes, some gases and culture business liquids transmit visible light and absorb infrared light. 2. What are the major greenhouse gases in our atmosphere? Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and CFCs (Freon).

Strictly speaking, water vapor is the major greenhouse gas by concentration; the rest are minor constituents of the atmosphere. 3. If carbon dioxide is only 0.03% of the atmosphere, and water vapor is one of the atmosphere's major components, how can carbon dioxide play a greenhouse role? The answer has to do with the infrared wavelengths carbon dioxide absorbs uniquely and the fact that it liquefies and freezes at a lower temperature than water does and university therefore can act as a greenhouse gas much higher in the atmosphere than water can. 4. International. Has the persuasive essay and power point, climate changed in the past prior to the industrial age and prior to any human effects on the atmosphere? If so, at rates and degrees that are forecast by current climate models to happen in essay culture business, the near future for us? Yes, recent scientific evidence indicates that climate has always been changing, and prior to human influences, temperature has changed as rapidly and to as great a degree as is forecast to occur in and power, the future from the global warming computer models. 5. Is carbon dioxide increasing? Yes. There are solid data for this. 6. Are any of the other greenhouse gases increasing? Data support that this is happening for methane, nitrogen oxides, and CFCs.

It is worth noting that rate of increase in methane, CFC-11, and CFC-12 slowed (or even decreased) recently, for reasons that are not well explained or understood. 7. Has the temperature been rising steadily in recent years? There have been decades in the 20th century when the temperature rose and decades when it fell. Up through the culture, end of the 1990s, there had been a recent warming trend. So far, it is unclear whether this is university dissertations continuing in the 21st century. Essay Business. A warming trend began around 1850, lasting until the1940s, when temperatures began to cool again, followed by a leveling off of slp continuing education, temperature in the 1950s, and a further drop during the culture international business, 1960s. Persuasive Essay And Power Point. After that, the average surface temperature rose.

8. What is the source of the culture business, major beliefs that global warming will occur and will have severe and undesirable effects? Large computer models of Earth's climate, called general circulation models (GCMs). There are at least 30 of these in reason and nature meaning method, use worldwide. 9. Have these climate models been proved to be true? Scientists refer to such proof as model validation. Culture Business. The GCMs have not been validated with standard scientific methods. 10. Are there any legitimate questions about the forecasts from these climate models? Yes. In particular: Climate modelers and how to write proposals their critics agree that the models do not do a very good job with water in the atmosphere. As the climate warms, more water is essay business evaporated from Earth's surface.

A key question is: Does most of this water remain vapor (a greenhouse gas) or condense into clouds (that cool the climate)? The models are steady-state, requiring and assuming that a specific change in the concentration of a greenhouse gas always has the same effect, regardless of past changes and total concentration. In fact, however, climate is always changing and and nature an essay on the is not in a steady state. The effect on international business, climate of statement, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is not linear. As the concentration of carbon dioxide goes up, an increase in a ton of CO2 has less and less effect on climate. The relative effects of greenhouse gases compared to other factors that influence the Earth's temperature are still open to international, debate. Among these other factors are the following: variations in the sun's energy output; internal dynamics of the atmosphere, ocean, and life, which can modulate the direct greenhouse effects. One of the proposals, main causes of variation in sunlight reaching the Earth is long-term variations in our planet's path around the sun and its tilt and wobble as it spins like a top. Known as the Milankovitch cycles, these produce variations over 20,000, 40,000, and essay culture business 100,000 years and are believed to be the primary drivers of the glacial and how to research proposals interglacial cycles. The models are weak in their handling of the dynamics of land vegetation and ocean dynamics, and the coupling among these and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Since both oceans and essay land vegetation --- especially forests, wetlands, and grasslands --- can have major effects on atmospheric chemistry and physics, these aspects of the global models need considerable attention.

Questions about Possible Effects of Global Warming. 11. The UN IPCC report states that up to 30% of animal and plant species will be threatened with extinction in the next few decades from global warming. Is this realistic? In the past 2? million years, under climate change as great and as fast, very few animal and plant species went extinct, far less than 30%. Most forecasting methods suggest that extinctions will be fewer than the IPCC asserts.

Methods that suggest high rates of extinction assume that the world is in steady state and must be in steady state for species to education, persist; that species have little or no ability to adjust and adapt to essay business, climate change, contrary to well-established biological and ecological knowledge. 12. Will tropical epidemic diseases spread widely and rapidly? Some excellent scientific papers show that temperature is not a good basis to forecast the spread of malaria and media portrays the image encephalitis. In fact, until the second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic and widespread in many temperate regions and there were epidemics north to the Arctic Circle. 13. Will all the essay culture international, ice in the arctic melt?

Scientists who are specialists about the dynamics of sea ice say this will not happen. What might happen is that the reason of scientific, Northwest Passage could open up - could become ice-free - for essay, a few months in the summer; large areas of sea ice in education, the arctic might melt back, but these would be renewed each year. Essay Business. Arctic sea ice cover has undergone large changes in the geological past. For example, studies of deposits of fossil plankton indicate that sea ice in the Chukchi Sea was significantly less between 6,000 and 2,500 years ago. Bristol. (These organisms respond rapidly to climate change.) 14. Will many arctic mammals go extinct from essay this change in ice cover?

Today's arctic mammals evolved long enough ago for the species to have experienced past climate changes of persuasive essay and power point, equal rate and business amount, and survived these. Experts on arctic mammals are concerned about a few that have very specific requirements and how to proposals narrow, highly specialized ecological niches. There are between 17,000 and 27,000 polar bears worldwide, and some of the populations have increased recently. Polar bears evolved several hundred thousand years ago and international business survived past climate changes equal in rate and amount to what is forecast to happen in the future. Ecologists and bristol history dissertations geneticists have in business, the past said that a species is not likely to be threatened with extinction until its number gets below 500 individuals. 16. Are all mountain glaciers melting because of present warming? No. A Good Thesis. A prime example is Mt.

Kilimanjaro's glacier, which has been retreating since the late 19th century for reasons unrelated to global warming. Some mountain glaciers may retreat from global warming, but this can happen only when the temperature at the elevation of the glaciers is above freezing, or if global warming greatly reduces snowfall in those mountains. 17. Is Greenland's ice melting? If so, will it disappear? Current scientific papers disagree about the extent to which Greenland has lost its glacial ice in recent years and about how much the glaciers will change in the future. But the essay culture international, most thorough recent study by Greenland scientists suggests that Greenland's glaciers have oscillated and are not in general decreasing. 18.

Is the sea level rising rapidly because of global warming? The sea level has been rising at about a 18 cm (7 inches) a century since the end of the last ice age. Between 1993 and 2003, the sea level rose about 3.1mm/year, or a rate of 31 cm (about 1 foot) a century. There is much disagreement about what may happen to the sea level in persuasive and power, the future, even among climatologists and oceanographers, and even if global warming happens as forecast by the global climate models. 19.

Will some island nations disappear due to sea-level rise? Yes, even from the background rate (the rate at which the sea level has been rising without global warming). But the jury is still out as to whether the business, sea level is rising more rapidly than that, and therefore might be causing accelerated problems of this kind. Portrays Of Beauty. (Of course, healthy coral reefs grow and in the past have kept pace with sea level rise.) 20. Will global warming affect world food production? If global warming occurs, it will change where the best areas for agriculture will be. Present forecasting methods are not good enough to tell us much more than that. The result will be that some countries will benefit and others will lose agriculture production.

21. Are there any fundamental underlying issues we have not addressed? One of the most important is business whether, globally, life and its life-supporting systems have been, must be, and are best in a steady state, one that is unchanging over time. The most extreme concerns about global warming assume that life and its environment must remain as they were around 1960. This assumption is common among climatologists who argue that global warming is happening and how to write proposals will be disastrous. In contrast, ecologists have established that ecological systems are not steady-state and that species not only have evolved and essay culture international adapted to change, but in fact many, perhaps most, require change. Global warming Publications by Daniel B. Media Portrays. Botkin. Botkin, D.B., and E.A. Keller, 1987, Environmental Studies: Earth as a Living Planet (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill), 500 pp. (2nd edition; 1st edition published 1982). Botkin, D.B., M. Caswell, J.E.

Estes, and culture A. Orio, eds., 1989, Changing the a good, Global Environment: Perspectives on culture international business, Human Involvement (New York: Academic Press). Botkin, D.B., 1990, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the 21st Century (New York: Oxford University Press). Botkin, D.B., 1993, Forest Dynamics: An Ecological Model (New York: Oxford University Press). Skinner, B., S. Reason An Essay On The Meaning Of Scientific Method. Porter, and D.B. Botkin, 1999, The Blue Planet (New York: John Wiley Sons). Botkin, D. B., and international business E.A. Keller, 1995 (1 st edition), 1997 (2 nd edition), 1999 (3 rd edition), 2003 (4 th edition), 2004 (5 th edition), 2007 (6 th edition), 2009 (7 th edition) Environmental Sciences: The Earth as a Living Planet (New York: John Wiley).

Keller, E.A., and a good about smoking D.B. Botkin, 2007, Essential Environmental Science (New York: John Wiley). Global Warming Articles and international Reports by Daniel B. Botkin. Botkin, D.B., J.F. Reason On The Of Scientific. Janak, and J.R. Wallis, 1973, Estimating the effects of carbon fertilization on forest composition by ecosystem simulation, pp. 328-344, In G.M. Culture Business. Woodwell and how to write proposals E.V. Pecan, eds., Carbon and the Biosphere, Brookhaven National Laboratory Symposium No. 24, Technical Information Center, U.S.A.E.C., Oak Ridge, TN.

Botkin, D.B., 1977, Forests, lakes, and the anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide, BioScience 27 : 325-33. Woodwell, G.M., R.H. Essay International Business. Whittaker, W.A. Reiners, G.E. Likens, C.A.S. Hall, C.C. Delwiche, and essay and power point D.B. Botkin, 1978, The biota and the world carbon budget, Science 199: 141-146.

Ralston, Charles W., G.M. Woodwell, R.H. Whittaker, W.A. International. Reiners, G.E. Likens, C.C. Delwiche, D.B. Botkin, 1979, Where Has All the a good statement about smoking, Carbon Gone? Science , New Series, Vol. 204, No. 4399. (Jun.

22, 1979), pp. 1345-1346. Botkin, D.B.,ed., 1980, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology . Final report NASA Grant NASW-3392. 49 pp. Botkin, D.B., 1982, Can there be a theory of global ecology? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 96: 95-98. Botkin, D.B., 1984, The Biosphere: The New Aerospace Engineering Challenge. Aerospace America , July 1984, pp. 73-75.

Botkin, D.B., J.E. Estes, R.M. MacDonald, M.V. Wilson, 1984, Studying the culture international business, Earth's Vegetation from Space, BioScience 34(8):508-514. Botkin, D.B., and S.W.

Running, 1984, Role of Vegetation in the Biosphere, Purdue University Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data (Symposium), pp. Essay And Power Point. 326-332. Davis, M.B., and D.B. Botkin, 1985, Sensitivity of the Cool-Temperate Forests and Their Fossil Pollen to Rapid Climatic Change, Quaternary Research 23:327-340. Botkin, D.B., 1985, The Need for a Science of the Biosphere, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 10(3):267-278. Botkin, D.B., 1985, The Science of the Biosphere, Origin of Life, 15:319-325. Orio, A.A., and D.B. Botkin, eds.,1986, Man's Role in Changing the Global Environment, Proceedings of International Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-26 October 1985; The Science of the Total Environment 55: 1-399 and 56:1-415.

Bretherton, F.P., D.J. Baker, D.B.Botkin, K.C.A. Burke, M. Essay Culture. Chahine, J.A. Dutton, L.A. Fisk, N.W.Hinners, D.A. Landgrebe, J.J. McCarthy, B. Moore, R.G. Prinn, C.B. A Good Statement Smoking. Raleight, WV.H.Reis, W.F.

Wee,s, P.J. Zinke, 1986, Earth Systems Science: A Program for culture, Global Change, NASA Earth Systems Science Committee of the NASA Advisory Council, Washington, DC. 48pp + supplements. Botkin, D.B. Bristol Dissertations. 1986, ed., Remote Sensing of the Biosphere , National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

Botkin, D.B., 1989, Science and The Global Environment, pp. 3-14 (Chapter 1) in Botkin, D.B., M. Essay. Caswell, J.E.Estes, A.Orio, eds., Man's Role in of beauty, Changing the culture, Global Environment: Perspectives on slp continuing, Human Involvement (Boston: Academic Press). Stolz, J.F., D.B. Botkin, and M.N.Dastoor, 1989, The Integral Biosphere, pp. 31-49 (Chapter 3) in culture business, M.B. Rambler and L. Margulis, eds ., Global Ecology:Towards a Science of the Biosphere (Boston: Academic Press). Botkin, D.B., R.A.

Nisbet, and T.E. Reynales, 1989, Effects of and power, Climate Change on Forests of the Great Lake States, pp.22-31 in The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States , J.B. Essay International Business. Smith and dissertations D.A. Tirpak, eds. Essay Culture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA -203-05-89-0. Rosenfeld, A.H., and D.B. Point. Botkin, 1990, Trees Can Sequester Carbon, Or Die, Decay, and Amplify Global Warming: Possible Positive Feedback Between Rising Temperature, Stressed Forests, and international CO 2 , Physics and Society 19:4pp. Botkin, D.B., and L. Simpson, 1990, Biomass of the media portrays the image of beauty, North American Boreal Forest: A step Toward Accurate Global Measures: Biogeochemistry 9:161-174. Botkin, D.B., and business L.G. Simpson, 1990, Distribution of education, Biomass in the North American Boreal Forest, pp.

1036-1045 in G. Lund, ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Natural Resource Monitoring and Assessments: Preparing for the 21st Century , American Society for business, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Botkin, D.B., and R.A. Nisbet, 1990, Response of Forests to and nature an essay on the of scientific, Global Warming and CO 2 Fertilization, Report to EPA . Botkin, D.B., D.A. Woodby, and R.A.

Nisbet, 1991, Kirtland's Warbler Habitats: A Possible Early Indicator of Climatic Warming, Biological Conservation 56 (1): 63-78. Botkin, D.B., 1991, Global Warming and Forests of the Great Lakes States: An Example of the Use of Quantitative Projections in essay international, Policy Analysis. An Essay submitted for the George and Cynthia Mitchell International Prize Competition, 1991, which won first prize and was published by the Mitchell Foundation, Houston, TX. Botkin, D. B., 1991, Global Warming: What it is, What is Controversial About it, and What We Might Do In Response To It, UCLA J. of Environmental Law and Policy , 9: 119-142. Botkin, D.B., R.A. Nisbet, S. Bicknell, C. And Nature An Essay On The Meaning Of Scientific Method. Woodhouse, B. Bentley, and W. Ferren, 1991, Global Climate Change and California's Natural Ecosystems, pp. 123-149 in J.B. Essay Culture International Business. Knox, ed., Global Climate Change and California: Potential Impacts and media portrays the image of beauty Responses (Berkeley: University of California Press). Botkin, D.B., and essay business R.A.

Nisbet, 1992, Forest response to climatic change: effects of parameter estimation and essay choice of weather patterns on the reliability of projections, Climatic Change 20: 87-111. Botkin, D.B., R.A. Nisbet, and essay international L.G. Simpson, 1992, Forests and Global Climate Change, Chapter 19, pp. 274- 290 in on the of scientific method, S.K. Majumdar, L.S. Kalkstein, B.M. Culture International. Yarnal, E.W. How To Write Proposals. Miller, and culture international L.M. Rosenfeld, eds., Global Climate Change: Implications, Challenges and write proposals Mitigation Measures , (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences). Botkin, D.B., L.G.

Simpson, and H.J. Schenk, 1992, Estimating Biomass, Science Letters. Botkin, D.B., and R.A. Nisbet, 1992, Projecting the effects of climate change on biological diversity in forests, pp. Essay Culture. 277-293 in a good thesis about, R. Peters and T. Lovejoy, eds., Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diversity, (New Haven: Yale University Press). Botkin, D.B., L.G.

Simpson, and R.A. Nisbet, 1993, Biomass and Carbon Storage of the North American Deciduous Forest, Biogeochemistry 20: 1-17. Simpson, L.G., D.B. Essay. Botkin, R.A. Nisbet, 1993, The Potential Aboveground Carbon Storage of North American Forests, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 70:197-205 . Nisbet, R.A., and D.B. Botkin, 1993, Integrating a Forest Growth Model with a Geographic Information System, pp.265-269 in Goodchild, M.S., B.O. A Good About. Parks, L.T. Steyaert, eds., Environmental Modeling with GIS (New York: Oxford University Press). Hunsaker, C.T., R.A.

Nisbet, D.C.L. International Business. Lam, J.A. Browder, W.L. Baker, M.G. Turner, D.B. How To Research Proposals. Botkin, 1993, pp.248-264 in essay culture business, Goodchild, M.S., B.O. Parks, L.T. Steyaert, eds. Environmental Modeling with GIS (New York: Oxford University Press). Guggenheim, D., and D.B. A Good About. Botkin, 1996, CO 2 Offset Opportunities in essay international, Siberian Forests, Report to thesis smoking, the Electric Power Research Institute, Center for the Study of the Environment, Santa Barbara, CA, EPRI report # TR-106059.

Botkin, D.B., 2001, Energy and the Quality of Life, Los Angeles Times , Sunday, June 10, 2001. Botkin, D.B., Henrik Saxe, Miguel B. Culture International. Araujo, Richard Betts, Richard H.W. Education. Bradshaw, Tomas Cedhagen, Peter Chesson, Terry P. Dawson, Julie Etterson, Daniel P. Faith, Simon Ferrier, Antoine Guisan, Anja Skjoldborg Hansen, David W. Hilbert, Craig Loehle, Chris Margules, Mark New, Matthew J. Sobel, and David R.B. Stockwell, 2007, Forecasting Effects of culture international business, Global Warming on Biodiversity, BioScience 57(3): 227-236. Bockstoce, J.R., D.B. Reason Meaning Of Scientific Method. Botkin, A. Philp, B.W.

Collins, and essay culture international business J.C. George, 2007, The Geographic Distribution of Bowhead Whales in the Bering, Chukchi, and essay Beaufort Seas: Evidence from Whaleship Records, 1849-1914,2007 Marine Fisheries Review 67 (3) 1-43. Botkin, D.B., 2007, The Future of culture business, Ecology and the Ecology of the Future, pp. Dissertations. 409-414 in Larry L. Culture International. Rockwood, Ronald E. Stewart, and Thomas Dietz, eds., Foundations of Environmental Sustainability: The Co-Evolution of Science and Policy (New York: Oxford University Press). Thesis Statement Smoking. Botkin, D.B., M.J. Sobel, L.G. International. Simpson, K. Cummins, and L.M. Reason An Essay On The Of Scientific. Talbot, 2007, Using Environmental Variation to Predict Population Change: Forecasting Spring Chinook Runs in Two Oregon Coastal Rivers. Report from The Center for the Study of the essay, Environment available at www.naturestudy.org as a pdf file. tom weschler says. So glad you wrote this and that John Bockstoce sent it on to me.

Will be passing it around to friends, Where is the public challenge to persuasive essay, the new policies now being proposed? Not from you, who supplies the scientific info, but some columnist or reporter who realizes how public policy is culture being railroaded by pseudo-technology. Ought to essay and power point, be a national debate or outcry. Essay Culture Business. Trying some, but not the contacts so far. Tom Weschler.

Contra to the tenor of your assertions in #8 9 regarding “unproven” climate models as the basis for global warming predictions, it is bristol more accurate to international, note that such predictions are based on (1) paleoclimate data, (2) real world observations (for example, contra to the inference in your #20, the observed high melting rates of media portrays the image of beauty, a significant majority of mountain glaciers around the world, including those serving as a principal summer water source of densely populated regions), and (3) only then models, with the culture business, models being tested against (1) and how to research proposals (2). The tenor of your remarks in culture business, this regard are somewhat misleading. Also, some of us are less worried about university history dissertations, how the polar bears will fare, and a lot more worried about the ability of HUMAN SOCIETIES to adapt to rapid climate changes (especially possible negative agricultural impacts, which could cause great disruption relatively quickly given the international, current lack of significant global surplus – e.g., the observed and continuing expansion of the relatively dry subtropic climate regime poleward by about 200 miles over reason on the the last 50 years, resulting in increasing incidence of and future risk of drought in current breadbasket regions). I welcome discussion of these 21 points. Essay Culture. Of particular interest is L. Carey’s statement that at least “some of us are less worried about how the polar bears will fare, and a lot more worried about the ability of research proposals, HUMAN SOCIETIES to adapt to rapid climate changes.” I am glad to read this, as I think it is a correct concern, and that this is where we should be placing much more emphasis in the discussion of climate change. About mountain glaciers : Of course it is accurate to say that what is happening on Mt. Kilimanjaro does not necessarily reflect what is happening elsewhere. And there lies the culture, key warning. Mt.

Kilimanjaro’s glacier has been used by some as the poster child to warn people about global warming, arguing that its declining glacier represents all mountain glaciers and must be due to global warming. Research. The reality of nature is rarely so simple. We live in a time where we wish for simple answers, and culture international are, as a result, often handed slogan and on the photographs as if these represented to whole truth. Natural ecological systems are complex, and if we hope to culture international business, solve environmental problems we must accept and understand that complexity. In mountains with glaciers, where air temperatures exceed freezing, then the glaciers could be melting back because of local warming. The scientific article that explains why Mt. Kilimanjaro’s glacier has been receding for a long time explains how scientists can tell the difference between temperature-caused glacier melt-back and proposals other causes. Your books are very different. Thank you for exposing your ideas.

As far as I understood them, they clearly reflect this “certainty”: there is not enough scientific data to prove global warming due to human factors is occurring, and if in fact it is occurring, what effects it will have on essay culture international, nature and on human individuals and proposals societies. You will “certainly” agree that there has never been as great an influence from humans on essay international, nature as in our times, and that this influence is increasing. This leads me to a conclusion with “100% certainty”, and it may be so certain because it is not scientific, it comes from common sense: WE CANNOT RISK. We have to do whatever is possible to diminish our influence on the atmosphere, the waters and the soil, especially when this influence disrupts former conditions and we don’t know (and according to your own view, will never know) with 100% scientific certainty what the consequences will be. We have to regain something Thoreau had: unscientific reverence and deep respect for nature. Actually, Thoreau did good scientific research and was both a very practical man (played an important role in the development of the modern pencil and earned most of his living as a surveyor), as well as had a deep respect for how to write proposals, nature. You can read about these dual points of view in another of essay culture international, my books, now an ebook, No Man’s Garden:Thoreau and a New Vision for Civilization and Nature (New York, Croton River Publishers, 2012). (Originally published in 2001 by Island Press, Washington, D.C., and still available from the author in hardback.) As I write in The Moon in the Nautilus Shell , there are a number of media of beauty, major environmental problems we have caused and need to act on, and culture international climate change needs to be placed within that set of priorities.

In this book I also discuss what certainty and uncertainty mean. They have broader and deeper meanings than you seem to indicate. […] la posibilidad de una catastrofe.?- emeritus professor Daniel BotkinMas info sobre este personaje: http://www.danielbbotkin.com/2009/04/11/some-basic-global-warming-questions-and-answers/41. ?La humanidad esta sentada sobre una bomba de tiempo. Si la gran mayoria de los cientificos […] […] posibilidad de una catastrofe.? – emeritus professor Daniel Botkin Mas info sobre este personaje: http://www.danielbbotkin.com/2009/04/11/some-basic-global-warming-questions-and-answers/ 41. ?La humanidad esta sentada sobre una bomba de tiempo. Si la gran mayoria de los cientificos […] I believe we are mostly on the wrong track in the way we try to deal with the an essay of scientific, environment. Everything I do, study, learn, and advise about the essay, environment is different from the status quo. Throughout my career, I have tried to understand how nature works and use that understanding to figure out how we can solve our most pressing environmental problems. My process over write research proposals the past 45 years has been to look carefully at the facts, make simple calculations from them (sometimes simple computer models) and then tell people what I have learned.

It’s surprising how rarely people bother to look at the facts. This has surprised me every time I’ve started a new ecology research project or work on an environmental issue. In the course of my work and studies, I have learned many things and I want to tell you about them. That is the purpose of this website. Jabowa Forest Model for Windows 7. This forest model, used around the essay business, world, was developed first in 1970 by Daniel B. Botkin, James F. Janak and James R. Wallis. JABOWA remains the and power point, most completely detailed and well validated forest growth model available, accounting for 95% or more of the variation in essay business, real forests where it has been tested. The book Forest Dynamics: An Ecological Model (available as an eBook) provides a complete description of the model and the rationales behind its development.

The Bockstoce and Botkin Historical Sea Ice Data Study has a new home at the University of Alaska website. Point. The data include more than 52,000 daily observations in an unbroken 65 year record from 1849 - 1914.

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15 Free File Copy Tools Tested for the Fastest Transfer Speeds. RichCopy is actually a tool developed at culture international, Microsoft and was used internally by them to copy files for portrays the image of beauty, several years before being made available to download. It#8217;s a multi threaded program allowing many files to be copied in parallel and has several of the functions you might want from a 3rd party copy program such as pause, resume, verify, profiles, file / directory filtering, multiple sources at once and culture international full command line support. Multiple file copy test 1: 223 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 233 seconds. Network copy test 3: 64 seconds. SuperCopier is an a good thesis statement about open source transfer utility and is quite similar in culture international business, looks and functionality to UltraCopier apart from this tool seems to be more stable. Most actions are accessed from the system tray including adding a new copy task and it has the standard pause / resume / skip buttons in addition to the image of beauty, the copy list and several options to deal with errors or file collisions. Buffer size and Transfer speed can also be controlled from the Configuration window.

Multiple file copy test 1: 187 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 92 seconds. Essay Business! Network copy test 3: 98 seconds. TeraCopy is one of the most popular tools around because it can completely replace Windows Explorer as the default copy handler and also adds itself to point, the context menu. It can also pause, skip and verify copied files using CRC32 in essay international business, addition to dragging and dropping files onto the copy queue. An Essay On The Meaning Method! A portable version is made available using the installer and users of Total Commander and essay international Directory Opus have options to integrate TeraCopy into those file managers. Multiple file copy test 1: 147 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 110 seconds. Portrays Of Beauty! Network copy test 3: 102 seconds.

We had a few problems with the latest version of UltraCopier 0.4 as it kept throwing up errors during transfers and then crashing. Culture International! The earlier 0.3.1 did work well enough to test though, so bear that in mind. The program will replace Explorer by default while it#8217;s running in how to research, the system tray and one odd thing is it keeps expanding the copy dialog window to fit in long file names. Standard functions such as pause and skip are available as well as a copy queue and several options on what to do for file collisions or issues. Multiple file copy test 1: 184 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 86 seconds. Network copy test 3: 92 seconds. Essay Culture Business! Roadkil#8217;s Unstoppable Copier has been around a while and how to research proposals is a popular tool for culture, copying as much data as possible from a good thesis statement smoking, corrupted or damaged discs and drives. Essay International! The program does have a number of useful features including a batch mode which you can run from the command line, logging, a right click context menu entry and several options on how to treat potentially corrupted or damaged files. A portable version is also available.

Multiple file copy test 1: 435 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 96 seconds. Network copy test 3: 175 seconds. WinMend would certainly win a prize for how to research proposals, its nice looking interface and is certainly a more novice friendly tool because it has no options to speak of apart from a buffer slider and the ability to overwrite or skip matching files at culture, the destination. Thesis About Smoking! The copy process can be paused and resumed, but other than that, WinMend File Copy is pretty much standard. Multiple file copy test 1: 213 seconds. ISO copy test 2: 195 seconds.

Network copy test 3: 118 seconds. Essay Culture! WinRoboCopy is simply a GUI interface for the built in Robocopy command line utility present in Windows Vista and bristol university above. It#8217;s not for the novice because a lot of the buttons and tick boxes are the business command line switches. It does however have a built in scheduler, drag and drop onto slp continuing education, the window, a simple before and after script editor and a settings (or Robojob) saver for different copy profiles. Essay International! Multiple file copy test 1: 162 seconds. Dissertations! ISO copy test 2: 90 seconds. Network copy test 3: Wouldn#8217;t copy over the network. We tested 4 other file copy tools and they weren#8217;t included for various reasons; LD Move was in the top 4 or 5 in culture international business, the ISO copy test but constantly crashed in tests 1 and slp continuing education 3. A similar tool called QCopy, also completed the ISO copy fine, but after 20 minutes of copying the smaller files, we gave up because it reported there was still several hours to finish, even with the network copying which it was designed for. After 20 minutes SchizoCopy and Bit Copier both progressed at less then 1% per minute which meant they would have taken over an hour an a half to finish a test others were completing in under 2 minutes. The Results and essay culture international Findings. And Nature An Essay Meaning! Here#8217;s a table summary of all the results from each software in the 3 tests performed.

To add a baseline and for curiosity, Windows XP, 7 and 8 (both 64-bit) were also included to essay culture, see how their default Windows transfer performs. Do note that the operating systems are clean and at stock settings with nothing turned off to slp continuing education, help improve the results, including Windows Defender. Green is the fastest followed by yellow in 2nd. Red is the slowest and orange the 2nd slowest. In an equal test it was a surprise and disappointment to culture, see Windows 8 perform so poorly after all the improvements Microsoft are supposed to a good thesis smoking, have made to it. This is explained to a large degree though by the Security Essentials antivirus part of essay business, Windows Defender scanning every file and essay point slowing everything down, so you get better security out of the essay business box but slower transfer speeds. How To Write Research Proposals! In a quick test with it turned off, the result was comparable to essay international, Windows 7. Probably the most popular tool TeraCopy was really in the middle of the pack overall in terms of outright speed. The multiple file copy test 1 result was quite good but in both tests 2 and 3, it was distinctly average. For pure copying speed you really can#8217;t look past Fast Copy.

It won both file copy tests and was a close 3rd in the network test. If you don#8217;t want to copy files over a network, Extreme Copy is essay and power, also a very fast tool and a close second or equal to Fast Copy in 2 of the essay culture international 3 tests. But for how to write proposals, network usage, Extreme Copy was consistently the slowest software to complete that test. Essay Culture! Although its disc to disc copying was awful, RichCopy was the clear winner in the network test and was designed with high latency or low bandwidth networks in mind. It#8217;s something you might like to look at if you perform a lot of network transfers. As it#8217;s a popular tool we had to bristol university dissertations, include Unstoppable Copier, but the results may seem a bit unkind because it was one of the slowest overall. The program is more of essay international business, a corrupted file copier though and a good thesis statement about not really built for speed so it#8217;s still a valuable tool to have around, especially the portable version. What the test does show on the whole is that for copying large files between drives Windows keeps up with the 3rd party tools and you won#8217;t get much of a speed boost. Essay Business! Where you do gain though, is in the extra functions like pause / resume, handling copy failures and queuing etc. For copying lots of smaller files many of these tools do make a great deal of an essay of scientific, sense with their improved caching and international algorithms which really can make a sizable difference in about smoking, transfer times. Essay Culture International! Although this isn#8217;t a definitive test it does at portrays the image of beauty, least show how well or badly Windows and international several other tools perform in common scenarios most of us are likely to encounter quite often.

These tests should give you a better idea what free copying tools may be more suited to your needs#8230; linux live distros can read the windows file system if you boot your computer with a live linux cd and copy/move files from one disk to another o disk to usb memory it#8217;s the fastest way to do so most of the time cuts time in the image of beauty, half doing the essay international operation , dont ask me why , i just found out becuase i had to get some data out of a disk that had windows on it and the machine wasnt able to boot up so i tried this method and voila!#8230;i found the best way to copy or move data the fastest way and the time remaining window that appears is about 90 to a 100% accurate on the estimated time for the whole operation , this ..all based on a good state phisical drive not corrupted files of coursetry it out and thesis about see what i mean. total commander is essay culture international, more fast than fast copy and teracopy. opus, freecommander, salamander, xyplorer, ___other commanders etc#8230;. These are all dedicated copying tools, not just any program that can copy a file from one place to another. Hundreds of bristol history dissertations, applications do that. It#8217;s also for free tools, some of what you mention is paid software. but teracopy is paid software, or not? all we want is speed when copiing files, which program we use is important, why restrict only to pure filetranfers. I know that the review will be very big, but slow programs can be excluded. sorry for my english. Teracopy has free and business paid versions. Export reports, edit file lists and commercial usage are the Pro features which you can very easily do without. Media The Image Of Beauty! Adding the dozens of files managers and other tools (even just the free ones) is far too big a task and probably a separate thing. This article is and will continue to be for free dedicated copying tools only. Best copier is essay culture international, Total Copier.

Over a year ago I was looking for a tool to a good thesis, copy numerous large files files on a scheduled weekly basis (for example: 3,000 files averaging 2.0GB each for a total of 6TB) over culture a 1Gb network from a SAN to persuasive essay and power point, a NAS. I#8217;ve tried most of the top-tier freebies out there (FastCopy, RichCopy, TeraCopy) but none of them perform more efficiently and effectively like good ol#8217; ROBOCOPY (with the multi-thread switch) batch file and Scheduled Tasks. Here is an example of essay, my CL: robocopy /MT Source Destination FILENAME*.* /E /MAXAGE:4 /FFT /Z /XA:H /R:100 /W:5 /V /NP /TEE /LOG+:C:BACKUPLOGSDAILY_LOG.txt. Here are the how to write research stats from a recent job (if my math is correct, that is essay international, 3.6GB/min) Total Copied Skipped Mismatch FAILED Extras. Dirs : 2 0 2 0 0 0. Files : 121 57 64 0 0 0. Bytes : 228.417 g 113.876 g 114.540 g 0 0 0. Times : 3:35:28 0:30:45 0:00:00 0:06:24. Bristol University History Dissertations! Ended : Sun May 07 10:16:04 2017. International! I#8217;d appreciate any feedback if you have any real-world testing on other faster utilities like those mentioned above. we use robocopy in large infrastructure to move user data between regions e.g. from APAC to EMEA.

Microsoft also have more user friendly Robocoopy with Graphic Interface, called Robocopy GUI. ALso on Technet ( Microsoft) page some notes, where they refer to use RichCopy instead of Robocopy. Wish you made a functional test too, still today programs have issues with funny characters, links, deeply nested folders etc. Make a test folder tree which includes everything, all kinds of characters in various character sets, file symbolic links, directory symbolic links, hard links, directory junctions. Both locally and over the network.

Now that would be one very useful test. SEVERAL of the programs listed here will fail to reproduce the original folder tree faithfully! I know from bitter experience. Richcopy is education, not seeing my Network. I click on the plus sign next to it, and the plus sign disappears but doesn#8217;t show anything on my network. Running Windows 10. Culture International! Any ideas? You should run your tests with esentutl. E.g.: esentutl /y #8220;sourcefile.ext#8221; /d #8220;destinationfile.ext#8221; /o. For copying over media of beauty the network, I#8217;ve found it extremely fast.

Does FastCopy replace Windows#8217; native copier when doing a drag drop copy/move inside Windows Explorer? No it does not, something like TeraCopy can replace the essay international business Windows copy handler, FastCopy cannot. Thanks for how to write proposals, this, a great and thorough comparison. I guess all things considered Windows 7#8217;s native copier was my favourite. I always install Teracopy but it freezes so often and crashes out entirely extremely frequently. Essay International Business! But the newer betas and the older stable.. I use it as a backup but could never depend on it primarily. I love the look of thesis statement about smoking, Windows 8#8217;s copier, but it too also just randomly stop copying a lot. the transfer speed with just slowly reduce to 0 and never error out or resume. Even pausing/unpausing fails. Honestly for any important copy I just use commandline these days.

It#8217;s ugly and annoying but using copy, xcopy or robocopy depending on the situation pretty much never fails. I really wish Microsoft would just acquire the teracopy guys and make a clean, more reliable filecopy that don#8217;t hang frequently, and international business handled deeply nested folders. Education! Oh can I just add, if you ever find yourself wanting to culture international, copy files from media, damaged or unreliable CDs/DVDs, I spent ages trying and essay culture international testing the various file copiers listed here, as well as cd recovery dedicated programs, and slp continuing education the most reliable and dependable one I found was Roadkil#8217;s Unstoppable Copier. Hopefully that saves someone some headache. Culture Business! Apparently TeraCopy#8217;s #8220;Out of Memory#8221; bug is in a good thesis about smoking, version 2.3, not 2.27 (the version reviewed here. Also, version 2.3 beta 2 is essay culture international business, okay. It#8217;s available on the developers website. It would help if this information were made more public so users don#8217;t waste many hours creating a backup only to find it has failed. Have used TeraCopy for a few years but today it failed with #8220;Out of media portrays, Memory#8221; on a 260 Gb job. Tried FastCopy and it blitzed it.

Still, I do prefer the TeraCopy GUI and its ability to ignore the essay culture international business 255 character limit. I also like the CRC check-sum comparison being displayed during verification. I had a quick look at the developers website. The blog has progress notes on essay and power point version 3 (still in alpha). One of its features will be: Unlimited number of files, the internal file list stored on disk instead of memory.

So I#8217;m guessing the current version stores the file list in memory and thus eventually just run out of space. Culture International! Does anyone have any better information regarding TeraCopy failing with #8220;out of memory#8221;? My team has migrated 100#8217;s of TB from university history, server-based storage to NAS storage. We use RichCopy/Robocopy to do that because it is extremely fast, reliable and recoverable. When using RichCopy, you need to tune it by culture business adding threads.

While it supports multi-threading, the default is 1 thread. I am running a copy right now using 10 threads. Surely, the hardware is the bottleneck and I/O is mostly waiting for something to get done. Multi-threading really makes the reason an essay on the meaning of scientific method difference. I have i7 with 8gb ram but it takes like 2 days or so to transfer 1tb of data, tried with super copier and teracopy. CPU and RAM speeds really aren#8217;t going to make a massive difference to essay culture international business, file transfer speeds, it#8217;s the of beauty speed of the devices you are copying from culture international, and to that are far more important.

All these programs were not able to copy 26.45 GB of files to my external harddrive in statement, less than 1Hour 30 minutes. Atleast iOrbit#8217;s PCtransfer did it in 20 minutes, still to much time because I had actually downloaded 120 GB sized games but did not have the time to transfer them to my external so they got deleted as I use the on international business campus cyberlabs to download. I am assuming you have included the time it has taken you to select all your files to backup in that 1 hour 30 minutes? IObit PCTransfer is essay and power, a personal settings and files backup and restore tool and is no quicker at simple copying than anything else. It#8217;s simply not possible for it to essay, be nearly 5x faster at copying files than every other tool out there. copying Data to an External Drive over USB 2.0 always takes lot of time#8230;. instead you could use a compatible Ext. HDD on how to proposals USB3 interface or a eSata speeds will be 10 times faster !! HDDs generally have a #8220;maximum sustainable transfer rate) around 190 MB/s about double USB 2.0 transfer rate. So ensuring a highspeed bus like USB 3.0 or eSata only doubles your throughput (though SSDs max out at 6 Gb/s same as USB 3.0) I have over essay 300 external HDDs which i have to regularly have to update for our clients. With over 500GB of mp3 files this takes some time so any speeding up of this would be great. I have 2 windows 8 machines but they seem incapable of handing copying 2 drives at persuasive and power, once and the speeds i get are very disappointing (around 40MB/sec).

Would i be best to go with something like these programs tested or is there a better machine that could handle copying 2 HDDs at international business, once at write, good speeds? Look more at OS tweak. At level application it#8217;s hardly possible to do that#8217;s. Just gave Teracopy a go based on essay culture international business the reviews found here and elsewhere. Bristol Dissertations! Tried to transfer 730 GB of music files on a computer with 8 GB of culture business, ram, but the program crashed about 3/4 of the way through with a #8220;out of slp continuing education, memory#8221; error LOL. Click, delete, goodbye. Back to culture, the boring yet reliable Windoze copy dialog, I guess.

I have some problem on Teracopy#8217;s speed in about smoking, transfer file using USB 3.0 copying file from essay business, Drive 1 to Drive 2. I use i7 with 16G ram so it should not be hardware problem. Version I used is 2.3#8242; have not tried 3.0 Alfa yet. I suppose it depends what speed your USB 3 devices are and whether Teracopy is working slower than Windows or other file copy tools you may have tried. Although Teracopy may be at fault, my personal experience is thet Intel implementation of ALL versions of essay and power, USB sucks big time. BTW AMD is even worse. Essay Culture! Only way to reason and nature an essay meaning, reliably use USB ports is to have either VIA or NEC controller. The Seagate drive that my 7 year old VIA C3 based mini-itx Jetway motherboard can handle 24/7 without any disconnection won#8217;t run without interruption even for an hour on Intel motherboard.

Thank you very much !! :) Try another free portable file copier software Exshail CopyCare from below site. Main feature is Preview list of essay international, files before copying with seven options below. Media Portrays The Image Of Beauty! 1. #8220;Source Target Copy Files New and essay business changed from Source#8221; 2. #8220;Source Target Copy Files New From Source#8221; 3. #8220;Source Target Copy Files Changed from Source#8221; 4. #8220;Target Source Copy Files Changed from Target#8221; 5. #8220;Target Source Copy Files having Size Difference#8221; 6. #8220;Delete Files Orphan from Target#8221; 7. #8220;Source = Target Copy Exact to Target Overwrite All (Delete Orphans from Target)#8221; Like the slp continuing education other copier, at least Supercopier/Ultracopier do that#8217;s with the essay business correct options. Try another free portable file copier software Exshail CopyCare from below page. Hi, what is the name of essay and power point, software, that screenshot is at business, the top of the essay and power article?

If you#8217;re talking about the culture one that says 95% complete, that is Windows 8#8217;s copy dialog. FastCopy does have a pause function, while transferring files, there#8217;s a speed slider that you#8217;ve to drag all the a good way to the left, to pause the transfer. Keepinh the slider in essay culture international business, between reduces the speed to a fractions/percentages of the full speeds. How can you ignore tera copy . Dissertations! We haven#8217;t ignored Teracopy, you#8217;ve ignored page 2 of the essay culture international article which includes Teracopy and all the test results#8230;.! Good test. Reason And Nature Method! But always check if the result at essay culture international business, the destination is the same in respect of the education dates/times for files and folders. Some just write the actual values to the destination and not the data of the source. Great Article. Not long ago I had to do some large file transfers. I tried several tools, but most gave inconsistent results. I finally settled on RichCopy 4.0 which worked perfectly.

However, I did notice that for disk to essay international, disk local copies I had much better performance with only 1 thread and increasing the bristol history dissertations cache size, but not to the max. Essay International! I was wondering if you used standard program settings for the procedures or if you tried optimizing the settings to reason method, improve performance. I tested Fastcopy and it is culture business, extreme faster then windows. You did not include teracopy which is the best for me. Portrays! You haven#8217;t looked at page 2, Teracopy, the summary and another 6 tools on the next page#8230;. Thanks to reviwer for essay culture international business, sharing this.

Reliability is more imporntant to me. You copied many files very quickly and slp continuing education deleted the business original files. But#8230; if copied data is broken or loss, what the#8230;. Yeah, I got the horrible memories(twice) like that. For 5 years I#8217;ve used Fastcopy, because it can verify the file by MD5 or SHA in one task.(handy) I#8217;ve tested other copy utils. not all 15s.

Terracopy#8230; only how to, CRC in copying, after copy job, you can check with MD5(unhandy) SuperCopier #8230; seem to be got nothing. RichCopy #8230; has something but unknown. Let#8217;s think about not only speed but also reliablity! Copying nn same disk Fast Copy was faster than Windows 8 when copying 25GB mixed files 1. But copy 3,5GB photo file from international, one disk to another disk Fast Copy was slower than Windows8. Watch out bristol university with Extremecopy. Recently I was creating backups of harddrives with small files and business Extremecopy wasn#8217;t able to handle that properly. There were files missing on the second harddrive without any warning or message. Thesis About! I reproduced the bug multiple times. It#8217;s the essay international business problem, lot of user see ONLY the performance, not the data security. Media Of Beauty! And with Teracopy or Windows copy, you have data lost, lost without any error message if error, no control and error message when error (and the culture business user presume all is ok). Same with lot of software mentionned here too.

Some time, on network cable unplug/hotplug + move, product an error (normal), but when you resume, it destroy the source, and due to not readable source destroy the destination#8230; then source and destination are destroyed. Please consider FASTCOPY as I have found FASTCOPY to have NET SPEED AS FAST. Here#8217;s why: You can tell FASTCOPY to copy and and power you can walk away. When you come back, you will have the job done. If you use windows and you walk away, when you come back, you may see windows stuck at 1% with a question asking you an innocent question like: Are you sure you want to essay international business, copy this file? Imagine you trying to copy 100 gigabytes of files and write research proposals come back in 2 hours and see that message, would you be upset? How about this, after you answer that first question, then, you walk away, thinking#8230;#8221;Okay I told windows to copy already#8230;windows should not have any question.#8221; Guess what? 2 hours later, I came back and another question was waiting for me. After answering that second question, I sat there for over 60 minutes and then windows could not copy another file because of long#8230;file#8230;name#8230;.Then, the international business whole process was stopped by and nature on the meaning windows. Talk about being mad#8230;.Would you be mad, too? I was.

So, I found the essay international answer for us. That#8217;s why FASTCOPY is reason an essay on the of scientific, my favorite software as UN-STOP-ABLE-COPY (like many others). International Business! Wait Wait Wait my friends, another bonus, FASTCOPY can also do the MAGIC of UN-STOP-ABLE-DELETE? That#8217;s right. You want to DELETE 100 gigabytes of how to write research proposals, files and you want to get the essay international job done without any hiccup? use FASTCOPY to delete. You can walk away for 2 hours and you are sure when you come back, all files are deleted. No question will be waiting for you. The job will be done.

Period. A Good Thesis About Smoking! That#8217;s genius design. I highly recommend FASTCOPY for business, NET FAST SPEED for this reason. A Good Smoking! Please seriously consider my recommendation before you, my friends over the net, waste 5 hours like me in the past. Have a good day and please help others#8230;Thank you very much in essay culture business, advance. Most importantly, thank you, Raymond, your articles are always excellent.

Yes, please, don#8217;t consider of and nature an essay of scientific method, data security, the license of the software, the feature. But only the speed#8230; And about the speed: It#8217;s true, Teracopy is too fast, more than 15x more slow than others for network access#8230; If you#8217;re expecting 200,000 files to copy instantly, you#8217;re an idiot. Copying a huge number of small files is essay business, always going to history, be MUCH slower than a small number of huge files, due to the overhead of business, creating directory entries. Under windows +1, but for general OS, the IO scheduler + the a good smoking FS should group the write to culture, improve the inode access, but the software for the copy should allow it (by event or thread, and not sequential list). Fastcopy can transfer large amount of data without problems. I just recently transfer a large folder which has a number of sub folders. Statement About! 202 GB (217,741,109,599 bytes) 7,022 Files, 624 Folders. Essay Culture International Business! Thanks for a good, this nice review. Awesome tests, Raymond.

Thank you. International Business! I do not like TeraCopy (paid version). In two tests, he failed to media, copy. 200 files totaling. In another test, he failed to copy/replace three files in the system folder, totaling 387KB. I ran the same tests with SuperCopier and business have not had any problem. Persuasive Essay And Power! The supercopier have a new version 3.0 who make better transfert than 2.5 beta. Perhaps we can update your exelent test.

TeraCopy dies when you select a large number of files from essay international, a folder to copy. Selected 180,000 files to copy and university history had to kill the process after 5 minutes of waiting for it do do something#8230; TeraCopy doesn#8217;t die. It takes a long time for it to process a large number of files. If you had waited longer it should#8217;ve worked fine. Yes it dies, try to move a directory and while doing it, move it to somewhere else with windows standard move action, when teracopy reaches the missing files it will slow down and culture international business the speed is 1 file/folder per 30 second. At first it looked like FastCopy was doing a great Job but after 2850 seconds it shows major drawbacks in performance, my bet is the verify option! Up until now FastCopy archived. 80mb/s (diff hdd setting) then it stopped because md5sum was slower than copied files (assumption: md5sum in FastCopy is not multithreaded) . Ever since the education copy process stopped once it won#8217;t get faster than. 50mb/s Which kinda sux!

TransRate (current): 42mb/s. Amount of Data to essay culture, be copied 917GB! I say Win7 x64 copy is slp continuing, faster than that! gonna try out teracopy to see if it is good. I Have been using Fast Copy, intergrated with Total Commander, for many years. Never failed me. A nice feature is the ability to detect and create physical Hard Links as well as logical Junction Points. Anyway, you have to study the culture international help file carefully(!) to use these advanced features. Nerd recommandation :) Greetz Duck. Excellent article. Helped me a lot make up my mind.

Congratulations and keep on going! I visit daily your site ;) I think it#8217;s only fair to Win 8 that I mention the cause for a good thesis about, a large part of the slowdown, although obviously the result stands because that#8217;s how it comes by default; better security but slower copy speeds. the part with the Defender being active while testing should be highlighted in the Win8 test results. because in normal work the computer has 1 AV product active, on essay culture international any systems, unless you are asking to get a virus. and so far, all the AV products i use just disable the builtin defender product so at write proposals, the end of the essay business day you don`t get a Xp + filecopy vs Win8 + defender + file copier, instead you get let`s say Xp+Eset vs Win8+Eset. hi folks, happy new year to all. I wanto to ask if robocopy not winrobocopy is a good thesis about, better or worse than fastcopy over network copy? since many years I used to schedule robocopy script for culture business, network files transfer, I want to ask you why don#8217;t you have introduced classic robocopy tool in this review to see if is more reliable or less than others softwares?Thank you in advance for your answer and for your review. Have a nice day, Matthew. University Dissertations! Thank you very much and essay culture international happy new year 2013. Wow surprised at reason and nature on the method, Win8#8217;s poor performance (just another reason in business, my mind to stick with Win7). Also a little disappointed to see my program of proposals, choice, Teracopy, not do better then it did. Culture! I#8217;ll be trying out a couple of these other programs though although I love Teracopy#8217;s shell integration that some of these others don#8217;t have. hey raymond.wel come back. thanks for persuasive, that. I have tried some of these. I liked copy handler the best.

I now use Q-Dir as it does a lot more than just copy and I find it is pretty fast. It is also easy to copy between the essay business four screens. Great review! Just one tip: you can pause Fastcopy if you put the #8220;buffer slider#8221; all to the left i.imgur.com/KOBBD.png. FastCopy is the best but the poor thing is media portrays of beauty, that there is no way to integrate with the Ctrl-C Ctrl-V shortcuts in Explorer#8230; I like to know I’m using a very fast copy software.great article as always, thanks. Year#8217;s end is essay, neither an end nor a beginning#8230;#8230;#8230;..Say Goodbye 2012 today Welcome 2013 tomorrow!

Happy New Year 2013! I have a question Raymond, is it worthwhile to use Teracopy in and nature on the of scientific, Windows 8 Pro 64 bit? I haven#8217;t used it since Windows XP when there was significant improvement over default Windows XP File Transfer/Copy. Essay Culture! Windows 8 seems to have an a good thesis statement about improvement in essay culture, its File Transfer/Copy so is there any significant speed difference? Running a quick test under identical conditions to the article, Teracopy on Win 8 x64 completed test #1 in 205 seconds, 32 seconds up on how to what Win 8 managed by itself. It will improve things slightly but Win 8 is horribly slow compared to essay, Win 7 and write even XP. Win 8 was quicker than Teracopy anyway in tests 2 and 3 so you won#8217;t get much of culture international, a gain if any there. Even Fastcopy took 194 seconds so it seems Win 8 simply struggles with certain file transfers whatever software you use. A Good Statement About! The Win8 result for essay international business, a lot of smaller files is on the of scientific, disturbing, but even though it#8217;s unlikely, I#8217;m hoping that perhaps Windows Update wasn#8217;t current on essay culture it. I know there were two or three major patches for it in addition to the usual security fixes and the like that wouldn#8217;t matter themselves. Unlikely, but worth asking.

At least Win8 has pause/resume! I usually use Total Commander, so I#8217;m wondering how it fares in general and if it also suffers from being in Win8. Unfortunately I#8217;m going to confirm your fears Rick and say that like XP and 7, Windows 8 was fully patched and history dissertations up to date at the time of essay culture business, writing the article with NO 3rd party software installed at persuasive essay and power, all. The only patch since is a minor one for Windows Defender. Just ran test #1 on Win 8 with Total Commander x64 8.01 and it completed in 233s, only 4s faster than Windows 8 itself.

A similar run in Win 7 produced a result 3s seconds quicker than the default copy of 169s. Thanks. Well, that cinches it then, another Win8 disappointment. I have a lot of them, but that#8217;s for another thread. I#8217;ll keep an eye out though in other places to see if this issue has come up and what the explanation might be. If we#8217;re lucky, it#8217;s something that can be disabled. Wow didn#8217;t realized it was this bad! I thought to myself wow look at Win 8 first time ever I seen a different file transfer by Microsoft. Culture Business! So what do you guys suggest I use to slp continuing, replace Win 8 file transfer? FastCopy or Teracopy? Which is more stable hehe#8230; Wait a sec: what if it#8217;s Windows Defender doing it (i.e. the essay culture business renamed Microsoft Security Essentials that#8217;s now bundled in Win8)?

That would make sense, since it would affect all programs, and Win7 doesn#8217;t have AV. Could you rerun your test with Defender#8217;s real-time protection disabled? Yeap, obviously disabling the Security Essentials part of essay and power point, Windows Defender will make a difference and in essay culture, the test it was around 50 seconds faster which is media the image, quite a bit. The thing is now i#8217;m turning off parts of Windows 8 to improve performance where the other 2 weren#8217;t touched to #8220;help things along#8221;. This is culture business, why it was tested with default settings or else I would be here all day just tweaking Windows! I use Teracopy and FastCopy. They both seem stable to media portrays the image, me. FastCopy lives up to it#8217;s name and is faster, but can not (to the best of my knowledge) be set as Windows Default File Handler while TeraCopy can. If I want the extra speed I can choose to use FastCopy, but mostly I#8217;m lazy (ctrl+c, ctrl+v) and use TeraCopy.

Although, there is one thing I do always use FastCopy for, and that is syncing a USB Memory Stick to it#8217;s backup folder on my computer. FastCopy has #8220;Sync#8221; as a copy method option and it is a very fast (from my very limited testing) way of updating the backup. Another nice thing about FastCopy is that you can use it via batch files :-) and while I#8217;m in a curious mood, a not so quick comparison of speed Teracopy and FastCopy vs a large folder with *MANY* files (my PortableApps folder :-) XP3, copying a 1.91GB folder with 35,903 files from one external Hard Drive to another. Way to many programs running in the background. Computer is old enough that it might even be via USB1.1 connections :-o.

Teracopy 2.27: 26.05 minutes. Business! FastCopy 2.11: 17.33 minutes. Windows XP: I#8217;m not even going to try that :-p. I can tell you right now, FastCopy#8217;s Shell Extension is proposals, buggy on essay international Win 8. Reason On The Of Scientific Method! At first it works after few hours seems to stop working . Uninstall and reinstall Shell Extension didn#8217;t seem to help. I will try restart system later but right now to me it is buggy.

Just an international update after several reinstall uninstall shell extension of bristol history, FastCopy it is working again. Essay Business! Weird but still this to me means its slightly buggy. No pc restart was needed. So many thanks for this SUPERB review. I heard time ago about Fast Copy and I change from TeraCopy to it. Slp Continuing Education! I like to know I#8217;m using a very fast copy software. Culture International Business! Nice post Raymond! Never knew Fast Copier had this much potential, Thanks for the article.

Good article, Ray. Oho, this realy what I like, thanx man#8230; great article as always, thanks and keep it up. Nice Article. I am also using TERA COPY. A nice copy software. Thanks for the adtional info#8230;.

Thank you for the review Raymond. Now everything is clear :P :D. Good article. Currently, I#8217;m using TeraCopy#8217;s latest beta version with ease. It#8217;s a breath of fresh air to see some of the new copy file software alternatives. Thanks Ray for the information, it is extremely helpful.

I enjoyed the reading, thanks Raymond. Thank You Raymond this post is portrays the image, very useful for me as i copy a lot of files. Thanks Raymond, this information really is, an #8220;eye opener#8221;. Thank you for the write up Raymond as it makes for interesting reading, i discovered Teracopy awhile back and was initially happy with better transfer speeds. after reading this review im going to give Fastcopy a trial and see how well it does on international business my system.

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Why Culture Is Important In Doing International Business? - Essay

cognos cover letter Glossary of Book Publishing Terms. AP Advertising and promotion, part of the culture business work of the sales and marketing department. A3, A4, A5 etc Standard size cut paper sheets used throughout Europe and the Far East. ISO A0 paper is 1189 ? 841mm in size ( ie one square metre, with an research, aspect ratio of 1:v2), A1 is half that size, A2 is a quarter of A0, A3 an business, eighth, so A4 is one sixteenth of a square metre, 297 ? 210mm. Write Research? B-size sheets are used for posters etc, and C-sizes for essay culture business envelopes. RA and SRA paper sizes are for untrimmed paper sheets, and reason an essay on the meaning are about 5% or 10% larger in culture international, area than the corresponding A size, so SRA4 is 320 ? 225mm (remember, A4 is 297 ? 210). An Essay Of Scientific Method? These ISO 216 paper sizes are not used in North America, where Letter paper – shorter and culture business slightly wider than A4 – is more common. A-format Standard book format (TPS = 178 ? 111mm), typically used for most mass market paperbacks; (US: equivalent typical mass market size is called rack size). AAC Advanced Audio Compression.

Improved system for compressing audio files to save storage or reduce download time. Used for files in media of beauty, the iTunes store. Culture International Business? Sacrifices a little less quality than MP3 compression. AAs (Author’s Alterations) Also known as ACs, Author’s Corrections. Changes in copy or artwork after it has been typeset. Slp Continuing? Additional costs incurred for AAs are in general charged to the client, not the supplier, though most typesetting quotations have a certain level of ‘allowable AAs’ built in. ABA American Booksellers Association; UK equivalent is the BA. Accessible editions General term for large print, Braille editions, e-books and audiobooks that can be used by the blind and partially-sighted, by dyslexics or others who cannot use a conventional physical book. Acid-free paper Higher quality paper treated so it doesn’t yellow as quickly as normal paper. Acquisition Beginning of the publishing process – agreeing the contract and purchasing the rights to publish a work. Acrobat Computer application for viewing PDF files.

Some versions of Acrobat allow (very) limited editing of PDFs. This can include the annotation of the PDF with virtual sticky notes, the combination of multiple PDFs into a single file (called 'consolidation') or deletion of pages from the essay business PDF. Most edits are at page level – the content of individual pages can usually not be edited. Acrobat Distiller Computer application for ‘distilling’ or translating Postscript files into PDF files. The PDFs can then be viewed with Acrobat.

Addendum Extra agreements or clauses added to the end of an existing contract. Adobe RGB An improvement on the sRGB colourspace. It allows for a wider gamut, and particularly extends the bristol history range of greens that can be described, but at the expense of a little precision. However, monitors that support the full Adobe RGB gamut are rare and very expensive in essay culture, comparison to normal (sRGB) monitors. Adshel Poster placed on bus shelter, often illuminated.

Advance Money paid to an author once the how to write author’s book is essay culture business acquired but before it is published. The advance is an essay on the meaning normally paid in several instalments: on essay culture international business signing of the contract, on education delivery of the final typescript, on hardback publication and/or on paperback publication. Culture Business? Advances are paid against future earnings (royalties), which means the author doesn’t receive further royalty payments until the bristol advance has been earned out. Advance copies (Advances) Early finished copies of a book, arriving before the essay international main print run and often used for publicity purposes, reviews etc . AI The native file format of Adobe Illustrator. Essay And Power Point? Preserves all features of Illustrator files, and usually saves faster and culture international business is smaller than an equivalent EPS file, but cannot be imported into Quark layouts. AIFF Common type of audio file. Uncompressed, so the files are large, but like WAV, they retain the how to research full quality of the essay audio. Bristol University? cf mp3 and AAC. AIR 1) See OPI; 2) Adobe Integrated Runtime – a sort of super-Flash for building highly functional websites.

Airside An edition of a book only for essay sale in bookshops in the duty-free area of an airport. This effectively counts as an open market territory. Occasionally. Slp Continuing Education? special editions (particularly TPBs) are produced specifically for airside retailers. AIS Advance Information Sheet. Essay Culture Business? Gives outline information about future publication of a book, including details of the title, author, ISBN, pub date, format, price, a description of the contents and marketing information; (US: title sheet). ALA American Library Association. The largest library association in education, the United States; UK equivalent is international business CILIP.

ALCS Authors’ Licensing and Collecting Society. The company that collects and distributes fees to authors whose works have been borrowed ( eg from libraries), copied, broadcast etc . APA American Publishers Association. US equivalent of the UK’s PA. Application file Computer data stored in a format used only by a specific application rather than a standard, interchangeable format. University Dissertations? Examples include Quark, Word, Excel files. Application files are often more editable and reusable, and essay culture international store features that cannot be retained in the image of beauty, more portable or generic formats – for example a PDF file will not retain the flow of text as a Quark file will, and a TIFF image will not retain the ‘layering’ stored in a native Photoshop PSD file.

Artwork Any illustration or typeset material suitable for reproduction. Often abbreviated to a/w. Generally applies to physical material rather than computer files. Ascender Part of essay business a lower case letter that goes up to reason an essay method the general height of upper case letters – b, d, f, h, k etc have ascenders. Essay Culture Business? cf descender. ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

Simple computer character set (alphabet) comprising 0–9, A–Z and a–z, plus a few basic symbols and punctuation characters. An ‘Ascii’ text file is one that contains plain English text only (‘words and spaces’). There’s no fonts, no formatting, and no accented characters, specialised symbols or fancy punctuation – Ascii does not even allow for proper quotation marks “ and ”. cf Latin-1, Unicode, RTF and other rich text. Assets 1) In finance, items the company owns. This can be stock (books in slp continuing education, the warehouse are assets), or fixed assets ( eg computers, furniture). Culture International Business? Each asset has a value, recorded in the general ledger, and the value decreases as they get older (this reduction in value is ‘depreciation’); 2) See digital asset management. Asterisk The * character, occasionally also called ‘star’. Used to thesis statement about smoking indicate a footnote, or (esp. in computing) mathematical multiplication. Asterism Character looking like three asterisks, often arranged in a triangle like this: ? (your browser may not show this character properly). Usually used to indicate the presence of essay culture business a text break.

More generally, may refer to any ornamental character used to indicate a text break. Assignment (of copyright). Where a publisher buys out bristol history, all the author’s rights in their copyright, so the publisher owns the work outright for the full term of the copyright. This gives the publisher the culture business freedom to how to research proposals use the material in any way it chooses. Essay International? Buy outs can be based on a one-off fee or a royalty contract. cf Licensing. At, Commercial At The @ symbol, most commonly used in e-mail addresses and occasionally used to indicate unit prices (4 bananas @ 41p = ?1.64). ATM Adobe Type Manager. Software installed on old OS 9 Macs (and more rarely on old Windows PCs) that allows them to use high-quality Postscript fonts on screen. There is no ATM for reason and nature of scientific method OS X on newer Macs, as compatibility with Postscript fonts is essay culture built in to the system. Attachment File sent enclosed inside an e-mail.

Attachments are limited to how to research only 1 or 2MB in size, so are quite poor as a method of file transfer. cf FTP. Audible Dominant online retailer of downloadable audiobooks, now owned by Amazon. Also refers to the proprietary DRM software used to control copying of these audiobooks. Audible has an arrangement with Apple to be the sole supplier of audiobook material through the culture international business iTunes store. Audiobook Spoken word on tape or CD, often abridged to fit on a reasonable number of cassettes or discs. Some audiobooks are also available as downloadable e-audio files to play on an mp3 player or iPod. Author Person or corporate body responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a book. Is often specific to the writer of the textual content – a looser and more inclusive term is a good thesis statement about contributor.

Author’s copies Free copies given to the author on publication. Normally, the contract specifies six free copies. Further copies can be purchased at a special ‘author’s discount’. B-format Standard book format (TPS = 197 ? 130mm), slightly larger than A-format, typically used for more upmarket or literary paperbacks. BA The Booksellers Association. Essay International? The Book Tokens company and Batch are subsidiaries of the and power point BA; (US: equivalent is the ABA). Backad Promotional page added at the end of a book (usually a mass market paperback), advertising books by the same author or other similar titles. Backads use up any spare pages left when the te ? t of the essay international book doesn’t exactly fill the extent (because the extent has to be a multiple of thesis statement about 16).

Backlist Books published in previous years that are still in print. Especially in children’s publishing, a book can remain on the publisher’s backlist for many years. Children’s backlist books often outsell new titles and for that reason, many bookshops carry more backlist than frontlist titles. Thorsons is culture international another good example of strong backlist performance. In HC’s financial analysis, products become backlist titles 9–12 months after publication.

Backmatter Material printed after the main copy of the book – notes, supplementary material, index etc , and backads. More usually termed endmatter. Barcode 1) A conventional ‘Bookland’ barcode on a book has the ISBN printed above the stripes, with the EAN at and nature meaning of scientific the bottom. The barcode stripes actually represent the EAN, not the ISBN, and the barcode ‘symbology’ is EAN-13. Essay? See also UPC barcode, a different symbology that sometimes appears on and nature an essay on the method book products for the US market. Essay International? Why ‘Bookland’? EANs typically have short prefixes that indicate the thesis smoking country of issue of the EAN ( eg a 50 prefix indicates a British EAN – though it doesn’t mean the essay business item was manufactured in the UK). How To? All ISBNs are by nature international, so a 978 prefix is used in the EAN to indicate a fictitious country called Bookland; 2) Other types of barcode (different symbologies) can appear on cartons containing multiple products, and on pallets, shipping labels etc , for example ITF-14 and essay EAN-128 barcodes. Barcoder Intranet-based system to create Bookland barcodes (as EPS graphics files), for incorporation on cover layouts. Baseline Imaginary line along the bottom of all characters in a line of typeset text. Media The Image? Characters with descenders – g, j, p, q and so on – extend below the baseline.

Batch Online service company that provides an aggregated invoice and payment system, with the aim of culture allowing small book retailers to deal with publishers more efficiently. Bristol Dissertations? Batch aggregates invoices and payments, allowing the essay culture business bookshop to view a single invoice and make a single payment: Batch then pays all the individual publishers. Batch is owned by the Booksellers Association. BDS Bibliographic Data Services, a company that provides bibliographic cataloguing data and services to the library community. Responsible for maintaining CIP data on bristol history dissertations behalf of the British Library. cf Nielsen BookData. BEA BookExpo America, Chicago-based book fair held in late spring by business the ABA. Best endeavours Legal term indicating a very thorough effort to accomplish something, irrespective of how to proposals any commercial or logistical considerations. cf Reasonable endeavours, which allow for other considerations ( eg the overall cost or difficulty of the effort) to be taken into essay international business, account.

Bibliographic data Information about our products including title, author, ISBN, pub date, price, which is used in brochures, catalogues, stocklists and order forms, and is supplied to how to write Bookdata and passed on essay to the rest of the trade. Without this metadata, no one would know what we have available to education sell. BIC Book Industry Communication, an industry-wide standards setting body, funded jointly by the PA, BA, and essay culture international business CILIP (formerly the LA). BIC is best known for ‘BIC Subject categories’, the media portrays of beauty UK’s standard system of book subject classification, but acts as an umbrella organisation setting and maintaining technical standards for EDI, for bibliographic data including ONIX and for business other e-commerce-related data exchanges within the UK book trade, and acts as an ‘evangelist’ and facilitator for other industry-wide initiatives; (US: equivalent is BISG, the bristol university Book Industry Study Group). BIC subject categories Hierarchy of classifications used to describle what a book is about. In principle, similar to the the essay Dewey system used in many academic libaries. BIC subject categories are standard across the slp continuing UK book trade, and are used in international, Plan G, and in ONIX; (US: equivalent is the how to write BISAC subject classification). BIDS Business Information Decision Support system. On-screen database providing sales information, stock holding and other product and customer-related data.

The original BIDS has now beensuperseded by BIDS II; (US: equivalent is essay culture ISIS). BIDS II Current Intranet-based replacement for the original BIDS, which was retired in media portrays of beauty, early 2007. Binding 1) Action of essay international folding a printed sheet (a signature), then sewing, stapling or gluing several folded signatures into a book block, trimming the pages and attaching the history cover. Essay? 2) Material and method used to bind a book ( eg hardback or paperback). BISAC Book Industry Standards and Communications, the standards setting forum within BISG, best known for reason and nature meaning BISAC subject classification, equivalent of UK's BIC subject categories. Blackberry PDA-like handheld computer providing mobile e-mail and mobile phone functions. Blad A booklet produced by culture business binding sample pages of a book in the intended cover, used for publicity and promotional purposes, most often for illustrated books. Blanket Rubber-coated roller in a good thesis statement smoking, a litho printing press, see offset litho. Bleed Off-page area printed to allow for culture international minor inaccuracies in trimming.

Generally anything intended to thesis statement smoking print right up to the edge of the page is extended, and bleeds about 3mm beyond the intended edge of the trimmed page area. Blurb A short quote or text used to promote a book, often meaning the cover copy, or AIS text. Board Stiff cardboard rather than paper, generally more than 200gsm. Board book Short book where each page is stout cardboard rather than paper, for infants and toddlers. See also rag book. Body copy The main text portion of a page, excluding the running head or footer. BOGOF Buy One Get One Free. A common sales promotion.

Book block Semi-bound book without cover attached. Book packager Book packagers create new titles from concept to bound book for culture international business publishers, as opposed to persuasive point publishers using in-house staff and existing authors to do the same. Packagers do not have their own manufacturing and culture international business distribution – they rely on publishers for that part of the process. Book proof/Bound proof Page proofs bound together with a thick paper cover, usually for promotion/publicity purposes. Book proofs are generally uncorrected. If largely corrected, they are advance copies. BookData (Nielsen BookData) Bibliographic services company, now a part of persuasive essay Nielsen Entertainment, which is itself ultimately owned by international Dutch media and market info company VNU.

Formed through the portrays of beauty merger of the two major UK-based bibliographic companies (the formerly independent BookData company plus Whitaker) in essay business, 2003. Nielsen BookData takes bibliographic information from publishers and supplies it to the rest of the reason an essay on the meaning method trade – wholesalers, retailers etc . International Business? BookData is the primary data supplier to Amazon, Waterstones, Play and thesis smoking virtually all other book trade companies. Bookdata’s database of essay culture international business bibliographic information – for our titles and research those of other publishers – can be checked directly via its BookData-Online service. Culture International? The most direct US equivalent is Bowker, though US wholesalers Baker and Taylor and Ingram also collect and disseminate bibliographic data. Nielsen Entertainment also includes Nielsen BookScan and Neilsen BookNet (operator or TeleOrdering). BookScan (Nielsen BookScan) Service that monitors book sales at point of sale throughout the portrays the image UK, providing valuable market information, including bestseller lists. Business? Represents best estimate of sell-out (or sell-through) ( cf sell-in). An Essay? Originally a part of essay culture international business Whitaker and previously called BookTrack, BookScan is now owned by and nature meaning of scientific Nielsen Entertainment. It relies on the BookData bibliographic database, and aggregates data collected from EPOS systems in a wide sample of retailers.

BOSS Computer-based warehouse management system, responsible for culture business tracking physical stock in persuasive essay, the warehouse. Bowker Leading US-based supplier of bibliographic services, roughly the equivalent of essay international business Bookdata. Bowker also owns and operates Pubeasy. BPIF British Printing Industries Federation. Brackets Correct term for how to square brackets [ and ], esp. in essay, US, though also loosely refers to round brackets ( and ) in UK. Often used to surround a section of quoted text that is not in fact verbatim. cf braces and parentheses. Bradbury Phillips Rights and royalties management software, formerly used in the UK for rights and subrights sales, and still in use in HarperCollins US. British Library Main UK ‘copyright library’, in St.

Pancras, London. A copy of thesis about smoking each book published must be lodged with the essay international business BL (‘legal deposit’); US equivalent is the bristol history dissertations Library of Congress. Broadband Connection (usually from essay culture your home computer) to the internet. And Power? Much faster than a conventional ‘dial-up’ modem, always on, and allows you to use the phone at the same time. It’s usually connected up through an ‘ADSL modem’ or ‘ADSL router’ fitted between your PC or Mac and your old phone line, but sometimes available via a ‘cable modem’ as an addition to your cable TV service. Brochure Monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced around 5 months ahead of pub. Created by Home Sales dept, as part of subscription process and sell-in, but not that widely used these days. See also Sales CD. Browse Inside HarperCollins’ name for business an internet application that allows you to see and read the pages of media of beauty a book online.

The first Browse Inside application was Flash-based, and culture business launched in August 2006. As well as appearing on HarperCollins own website, Browse Inside application can be embedded in retailers’ websites and bristol history dissertations even on consumers’ blogs or MySpace pages. The current version is much improved, JavaScript-based, and offers full text search as well as page-by-page browsing. There is even a version of Browse Inside for the Apple iPhone. Browse Inside is the major application based on HarperCollins’ digital repository at NewsStand.

Other publishers have similar applications – for example, Random House have ‘InSight’, and culture international generically, they are often called book widgets. Bulk 1) The book bulk is the thickness of a book, excluding the binding. cf Spine width; 2) Bulk can also be used to describe the thickness of a single paper sheet, generally measured in microns ( 1 / 1000 ths of a millimetre); (US: caliper, measured in mils [ 1 / 1000 ths of an inch]). See also GSM. Bullet A large dot ( • ) used for media the image of beauty ornamentation, lists etc . A ‘mid-dot’ is much smaller, like a full stop raised off the baseline. Business Objects Software tool to extract and analyse data and create structured data reports from the BIDS database and the data warehouse. Buy-in Where finished copies are imported ( eg from the essay international business US) for essay and power point HC to sell/distribute in the UK. C-format Generally a large-format paperback, though there’s no universal agreement on exact size (commonly it’s Royal-sized, though in Thorsons, it often means TPS = 216 ? 159mm).

Camera-ready copy (CRC) . Material – text or illustrations – ready to international be photographed as part of the printing process. With the increasing use of computer-to-plate setting (CTP), this is now not so commonly used. Cap height Height of the upper case letters in typeset text, most easily measured from the baseline to the top of the cap H. Caret In copy-editing, a mark-up symbol ? looking like a reversed Greek lamda or upside down y, indicating place to insert new text or correction. Cash flow The balance of actual cash received and paid out during a month or year. Cast-off An estimate of the media of beauty number of lines of essay business a column or printed pages that the text will occupy when set in a given typeface and measure. Catalogue Annual/six-monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced 6–12 months ahead of pub. Used primarily by Publicity and International Sales depts. CE 1) In fonts, indicative that the font contains characters and diacritics necessary for Central European languages; 2) The CE logo on a product is a declaration by the manufacturer that the product meets all the appropriate provisions of the relevant legislation implementing certain European Directives; 3) In dates, Common Era (secular equivalent of AD). Chapbook Also Chapter book.

Short booklet, often a children’s book. Point? Originally a small book or pamphlet of popular, sensational, juvenile, moral or educational content sold by street merchants, known as ‘chapmen’. Check digit Final digit of an ISBN or EAN. The check digit is based mathematically on a combination of the other digits, so it can be used to verify the business number – if the check digit isn’t what it’s ‘supposed’ to be, you know there’s an error in the number somewhere. Children’s Book Marketing Code (CBMC) Five-character classification attached to children's titles, developed by BIC and the PA to slp continuing education enable industry-wide market analysis. International Business? The code includes elements that indicate the format of the book, the persuasive essay point target age and subject matter, whether it’s illustrated, and whether it is character-led or tied to TV or a film. Chromaticity Colour, without any relation to essay international brightness. Research Proposals? Slightly bizarrely, black and international white have the same chromaticity, because they differ only in that black has zero brightness.

CIE Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. International organization founded in 1932 that developed a set of universal colour standards and colourimetry techniques. Best known for developing the standard CIE chromaticity diagram on which the gamuts of various colourspaces can be plotted. See also ICC. CIP3 In printing, specific instructions about how to print a job, embedded into the Postscript or PDF file, a type of electronic ‘job ticket’. It specifies the reason and nature on the meaning of scientific method amount of ink needed on the press, for example, and the folding sequence needed to match the culture international business imposition, and in principle – with the most modern robotic presses – allows the automation of make ready and write proposals binding setup. Citrix Software used to provide thin client services to essay international business computers in of beauty, the office and – via Nfuse – on the internet.

CJK Chinese, Japanese, Korean. Essay Culture International? Shorthand term for reason and nature an essay on the of scientific those languages and business scripts, and loosely of other east Asian languages and scripts. CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (or ‘key’, hence the ‘K’). Cyan is a turquoise blue, magenta a deep pink/fuchsia colour. The four ‘process colours’ used in bristol university history, four-colour printing to simulate all other colours, by halftoning them together. In fact there are many colours that cannot be properly matched by combining CMYK, eg metallics and many strong oranges, greens and essay international blues (the gamut of the CMYK colourspace is quite small) – hence the need for special spot colour inks. Co-edition Usually a highly illustrated book, for which the production costs are shared with other publishers in different markets, most often with foreign language publishers. Co-op US: Co-operative advertising, when a bookseller and a publisher share the cost of advertising and promotion.

The publisher usually pays the larger percentage. Coated paper Paper treated to improve its whiteness, opacity and/or smoothness. Codec Compressor/decompressor. Software for compressing or decompressing and reproducing compressed files. JPEG for images, mp3 and AAC for audio and H.264 (which is part of MPEG4) for video are all varieties of codec. Cognos ‘Business intelligence’ software for analysis of sales and customer data held in a good thesis about, the data warehouse. Cognos PowerPlay is the main analysis/reporting part of the Cognos suite. Collate 1) In editing, to transfer corrections from two or more sets of page proofs – eg the culture international proofreader’s set and author’s set – on to one set; 2) In binding, arranging the printed signatures in order to make the book block. Colophon 1) Logo of publisher or imprint; 2) A statement, often on the copyright/imprint page or occasionally at the end of thesis statement smoking a book, giving information about the publisher, printer, typography and design, and production materials and methods used. Colour Management System Software which takes account of the colour profiles embedded in images and the colour profile of the culture international display or printing device, modifying the the image of beauty colours in the image before display to compensate for the characteristics of the output device and ensure the business final displayed or printed image is as faithful as possible to the original.

Colour Profile ICC colour profiles attached to images in TIFF or EPS files define how the numerical data in the image file should be interpreted – effectively, they define the colourspace for the image. Profiles attached to output devices indicate how that device will interpret data sent to it. See also colour management. Colourspace The scale on which colour data (such as that in and nature an essay meaning method, TIFF or EPS files) should be interpreted. The colourspace defines how red is red, how bright is white, what gamma to use and so on, and so defines the gamut of the colourspace and the precision with which colours within the gamut can be described. The colourspace a particular image is defined in can be described with an culture business, ICC colour profile.

The most commonly used standard colourspaces include sRGB, Adobe RGB, and Euroscale. Commissioned work Editors commission or acquire work from authors, often on the basis of an abstract or sample chapter. The author signs a contract and receives an advance, then writes and delivers the the image of beauty manuscript later. Essay Culture International Business? cf slush pile. Commonwealth In territorial rights, the list of countries included in the ‘Commonwealth’ varies wildly – check the contract! Typically covers Canada, Australia and New Zealand, India, South Africa and much of the Caribbean. But Canada is a frequent exclusion, Mozambique an unexpected inclusion. Composite 1) In Postscript or PDF files, where the C, M, Y and K data for a page (and possibly also data for meaning method other plates on that page) is held together in essay culture international, a single page image. cf preseparated; 2) In graphic design, overlaying two images so one can be seen ‘through’ the other. The images are usually composited together in Photoshop. Compositing 1) Action of and nature of scientific typesetting text; 2) In graphics, overlaying multiple images into a single design.

The use of semi-transparent images or soft edges and transitions between images distinguish it from essay simple overlaid cutout images (which have hard edges). Computron In-house purchase ordering and financials system. Content management Software that allows you to manage the text and graphical content of persuasive essay and power websites in essay culture business, a highly structured way, usually witin a database. Contract The contract between author (and/or agent) and the publisher gives the publisher the rights to publish a work, perhaps in a limited set of territories, and specifies the royalties due. Rights licensed or assigned to media portrays the publisher can be exclusive ( ie the author cannot license the same rights to anyone else), or non-exclusive. Contributor Person or corporate body responsible for essay culture international business part of the intellectual or artistic content of a book. A looser and more inclusive term than author, contributors can include photographers or illustrators, compilers, translators, abridgers, indexers and writers of introductions or forewords. Copy-editing Checking a typescript for spelling, grammar and content errors, and marking up corrections to and power be made when typesetting.

Can be done on-screen or on paper. cf Proof-reading. Copyright The right to essay international business perform, reproduce, display, sell, transform into anoter medium or otherwise use original work or other intellectual property that is expressed in text, images, sound – a right enshrined in the Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’, originally agreed in 1886 and bristol university subsequently revised by the United Nations in Berlin in 1952 and in Paris in 1971). The copyright in a work is held by the author or creator, and can subsequently be passed on essay business ( eg to slp continuing education the author’s estate), or licensed or assigned to publishers (and others) in a contract. Essay Culture International Business? Unlike a patent or a trademark, copyright is automatic – you don’t need to register it to slp continuing education gain protection. Copyright in a work persists for up to essay international 70 years after the death of the original creator, and prevents exploitation of the a good thesis about work by essay international those other than the copyright holder or a licensee. Certain groups, eg VIPs, hold a copyright exception and can make copies for their own use without obtaining permission. Copyright notice Every book should contain a copyright notice, usually on the title verso, consisting of the copyright symbol ©, the date of publication and the image the copyright owner.

However, as copyright is automatic, this isn't a necessity for any legal reason – it’s largely convention, and a courtesy to essay international those seeking permissions. Copyright page Also called the imprint page, generally the title verso, often page 4. Core stock List of titles that a retailer tries to keep in stock at all times. Cover 1, 2, 3, 4 US: Cover 1 is the front cover, cover 4 the back cover. Covers 2 and 3 form the cover reverse (the IFC and IBC). Cover boards Cardboard forming the covers of a hardback book, usually hidden by covering them with Wibalin or decorative paper (and on media of beauty the inside, with the essay culture international endpapers). Cover copy The text that is to appear on the cover of media portrays the image of beauty a book, usually written by the editor and/or marketing copywriter. Varieties include ‘flap copy’ and essay culture ‘jacket copy’. Cover proof/jacket proof An early printing of the cover or jacket of a book, produced for sales and portrays publicity purposes. Cover reverse The inside covers of a paperback book, esp. when illustrated in some way, eg with author photo, backlist covers.

See also IFC/IBC; (US: covers 2 and 3). Coverage Total amount of ink on the paper, generally as a total percentage of each of the coloured inks. Particularly dark coloured areas may have more than about 250% coverage, and essay international business make the paper dry too slowly, causing offset. CPM Cost per mille. Cost of advertising/promotion per point, 1000 viewers, copies, impressions, page views etc (depending on medium). Creep In binding, where the middle pages of a folded signature extend slightly beyond the outside pages. Essay? When trimmed, the university history dissertations text is too close to the foredge. The cure is ‘shingling’, where the inner pages in the section are deliberately printed offset slightly toward the spine fold, so that as the signature is folded they will creep back to their correct position.

Critical path The series of processes and tasks leading up to publication of a book, and the idealised timetable for completion of those tasks. Plan G and PM present this as a series of essay milestone events (ms received, ms to the image of beauty typesetter, page proofs to editor etc ), together with target and deadline dates for each milestone. Also called that title’s ‘schedule’. (Strictly, the essay international critical path is the series of latest possible milestone dates that can lead to on-time publication, but schedules are constructed to ensure each stage is completed in good time, with some allowance for contingencies.) CRM Customer Relationship Management, software that provides Customer Services staff with an integrated view of customer information, order, dispatch, delivery and payment history, contact history and other details allowing enquiries and orders can be dealt with effectively, and meaning of scientific method enabling proactive one-to-one marketing. Cromalin A brand name for a system producing a one-off colour proof of a jacket or illustration from separated film using coloured powders, as opposed to a full litho print run of cover proofs. Used to check colour only, not content. Because it is made from separated film, a Cromalin proof duplicates the international business halftone dot structure that will in university, the final job, so it can be used to test for moire. Though it shares a brand name, ‘Digital Cromalin’ is quite different – a digital ink-jet proof that does not require film or powders, similar to an Iris proof.

See also CTP. cf Wet proof. Crop Select part of an image for reproduction, rather than the whole of the original. CRR Contracts, Rights and essay international business Royalties. HarperCollins is slp continuing currently implementing a comprehensive new CRR database system built around an application called PPM from German software company Klopotek. It handles all aspects of contract creation, royalty payments, ISBN issuing and subrights sales. Cryptography Branch of mathematical relating to codes and codebreaking. Cryptographic codes lie behind the security of computer systems like VPN and DRM. CTP Computer-to-plate, ie platemaking without film, using a laser to ‘draw’ directly onto essay international business, the metal printing plate. On The Meaning? Requires publisher or repro house to supply material to culture business the printer as Postscript or PDF instead of film. No cromalin or ozalid proofing stage, because there is a good statement about no film, but digital colour proofs of cromalin-equivalent quality are available ( eg Iris).

Custos rotulorum In latin, ‘keeper of the scrolls’ – archiving working application files and finished PDFs is an essay, important job. Cutout An image isolated from its background. The line cut around the image is called a ‘clipping path’. Dagger The † symbol sometimes used to bristol dissertations indicate footnotes in text. Essay International? Also comes in ‡ (double dagger) flavour. DAM Digital Asset Management. A networked database system for slp continuing storing, managing, retrieving and culture business distributing digital content files – individual ‘digital components’ or ‘assets’ like scans, logos, text files, through to write research complete layouts, documents and finished, ready-to-print PDFs. Most DAM systems integrate to some extent with content creation applications like Quark, Illustrator, Photoshop and simplify workflow while the work is in progress, as well as managing storage and easing the location and reuse of assets after they are finalised and archived. HarperCollins’ DAM system is called Telescope. See also DDR, which is closely linked to DAM.

Note that DAM is a purely internal system, whereas DDR is a purely external system. DAM contains final files for all types of product plus the essay culture business components that were used to persuasive create them, whereas DDR contains only final PDFs. Data warehouse Database that consolidates business information from several sources including Vista, Plan G, and enables analysis with tools such as Business Objects, BIDS II and Cognos. ‘Day and date’ Film industry term for simultaneous release of business a media property in different forms, as when releasing a film to DVD at the same time as the theatrical release (in a normal ‘tiered release’ the DVD would be released several months later). In books, it suggests a film tie-in book should be carefully timed to publish on persuasive essay the same day as the film opens in cinemas (and possibly be embargoed to prevent early sales from bookshops).

DCS Desktop Colour Separations. Essay International? A version of the standard EPS format, developed by Quark, used for slp continuing preseparated colour images, particularly those including spot colours. DDR Digital Distribution Repository. Developing system to build a global database of HarperCollins products, so that you could search for and view the actual pages of HarperCollins books via the essay culture international business internet. Intended to be a promotional tool, accessible via Amazon, Google etc , though with access restrictions to about prevent searchers seeing so much that purchasing the book becomes unnecessary.

HarperCollins has teamed with NewsStand, a Texas-based company to develop the repository. See also DAM, which is culture international closely linked to DDR. Deckle edge Foredge of a book block left rough and untrimmed, or more likely, carefully trimmed to make it look rough and untrimmed. Defamation Any statement, written or spoken, which tends to bristol history lower a person’s reputation or expose them to dislike or ridicule. If untrue and intentional, defamation can be either libelous or slanderous. Demy (occasionally Demi) A standard book format (TPS = 216 ? 135mm), usually hardback, often used for library edition hardbacks and more literary hardback fiction ( cf trade paperback). Slightly smaller than the more common Royal format. Culture? Pronounced as in ‘deny’. Die Metal stamp with a raised pattern, used to emboss eg a cover, apply metallic foil, or to cut out an irregular shape in an essay on the meaning method, paper or board.

Dingbat A non-alphabetic character such as a bullet, star, tick, arrow or flower, usually relatively simple rather than highly stylised or ornamented. ‘Dingbats’ is the name of a particular pi font consisting entirely of useful dingbat characters. Culture? cf ornament. Discount (retailer discount) Books generally do not have a wholesale price, but are sold to retailers based on a discount from the final recommended retail price. Reason An Essay Of Scientific Method? The discount varies from retailer to retailer (bigger retailers get more discount) and from list to list (there’s a bigger discount on mass market fiction than on high-value non-fiction). See also PPG. Discretionary hyphen (soft hyphen) Hyphen inserted into essay culture business, a word to improve the word spacing on media portrays a fully justified line of text.

Distributor Company that holds the primary stock of books, to which the printer delivers manufactured books, and from which wholesalers and retailers are supplied. Some publishers (including HCP) act as distributors too. Generally, distributors are exclusive distributors, at least within one territory, whereas wholesalers are not exclusive. DocBook An XML DTD used for structuring book texts. The text of the book contains XML markup that divides it up into parts, chapters, paragraphs, tables, lists, footnotes and international business so on. The markup is structural and bristol history dissertations semantic, rather than having anything to do with how the text content should be presented, and the docbook can be processed automatically to create e-books, large print, conventional print, synthetic audio versions of the book. Similar to OEB format.

DOI Digital Object Identifier. System of alphanumeric identifers for intellectual property, combining identification (like an ISBN) and business resolution (like a URL). Unlike ISBNs, they can be applied at any scale – whole works, chapters, paragraphs, illustrations, photos – and provide an reason on the method, electronic way of international business searching for that asset. Dot gain Printing defect, where the dots in media, a halftone print larger than they should because the ink spreads a little on the paper, creating darker greys or colours than intended. Printers compensate for dot gain in platemaking: if you want a 50% tint of black, they make a plate with eg 45%, and essay culture business the dot gain on the press brings it back up to bristol dissertations 50% ink coverage. DPI Dots per Inch. The resolution – the amount of detail – in a TIFF or JPEG file. Measured in dots (or pixels) per culture international, inch. Note that the dpi of a scan should be at least twice the proposals halftone screen, so 300 dpi for essay culture reproduction as a 150 LPI halftone. DPS Double-page spread.

A layout or proof showing a pair of facing pages. DRM Digital Rights Management, software which uses some form of encryption to thesis statement protect intellectual property from copyright infringement, and seeks to prevent material being exchanged freely over the internet (as music or film files are with LimeWire or BitTorrent, and once were with Napster). The basic idea is international business that important files are encrypted so that only one computer can decrypt the file, and a good thesis smoking it can never be saved in its unencrypted form – so you can freely copy the essay international business encrypted data around, but it will only be of history any use to the one original purchaser. Drop cap (capital) Large decorative capital letter at the beginning of an opening paragraph. Drop ship Dispatching a book direct from the printer (or perhaps from the distributor) direct to the consumer, without physically passing through the retailer. DTD A Document Type Definition specifies the range of essay culture mark-up tags allowed in an XML document.

Dues 1. Unfulfilled orders – books ordered by wholesaler or retailer but not yet supplied by publisher. Most often this arises before publication, where subscription orders are held as dues – and thesis statement smoking are also known as ‘forward orders’ – but it also happens when a title is out of stock and culture international awaiting reprint (RUC); 2. Can also refer to stocks of books in portrays, the warehouse that are set aside to supply these unfulfilled orders. Dummy Handmade mock-up of a book, usually folded together or bound from unprinted pages. Dumpbin Temporary, free-standing decorative box, usually cardboard, produced by essay culture business the publisher to display face-out copies of books in a retail environment. See POS.

Duotone A two-colour halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph. Generally used to improve contrast or bring out slp continuing education, detail in essay culture international business, the shadows and highlights. Tritones also exist, but are rare. E-audio Downloadable version of an essay and power point, audiobook. Generally an essay business, mp3 file (or similar) with the same audio content as the physical CD or tape audiobook. Portrays The Image Of Beauty? The file is culture international encrypted with DRM software to prevent casual copying of the file. The dominant retailer is Audible. E-book A book that is available in electronic format for distribution over the internet and for reading on screen (of a laptop, desktop computer, PDA, or a dedicated e-book reading device). These books are usually available as data files in Adobe Acrobat, Palm format or Microsoft Reader format, but there are many other formats.

All include DRM encryption to education stop them from being copied and pirated. E-book reader Handheld electronic device suitable for essay culture business – or solely dedicated to – viewing e-books. Bristol? Examples of dedicated devices include the culture unsuccessful 2001-vintage Rocketbook and the slightly more successful 2006 Sony Librie e-book reader. Most PDAs, PCs and Macs can also be used as e-book readers, with appropriate software. Portrays The Image Of Beauty? For example Microsoft Reader software runs on Windows Mobile PocketPC PDAs and some Windows Mobile phones. Epub One particular standard format of e-book file. International? Has no wide support as yet (2007) but is likely to become the single standard format, superseding more proprietary formats such as Palm reader or Microsoft Reader format. The standard was developed by the IDPF (replacing its original Open E-book [OEB] format), and Epub files can be read by Adobe Digital Editions software. ERRP Recommended retail price for a downloadable electronic product such as an e-book or e-audio. Generally set at around 70% of the price of an equivalent ‘traditional’ or physical product on paper, tape or CD.

EAN European Article Number. The Image? Now officially called the EAN.UCC. The 13-digit number at culture international business the bottom of the barcode, which is related to reason an essay on the method the ISBN. All EANs linked to ISBNs (ISBN-10s) start 978… – the 978 prefix identifies a so-called ‘Bookland’ EAN. Why? Because many other EAN prefixes identify countries. ISMNs and future ISBN-13s start with 979…, and ISSNs link to 977… prefixed EANs. Earn out A book earns out when enough copies have been sold for essay the royalties to cover the advance.

No actual per-sale royalties are paid until a book earns out (or rather, they have already been paid in advance). EDI Electronic Data Interchange. Method for research exchanging business-to-business messages such as orders, invoices, dispatch notes, receipt notes through a computer network. Also used for updating BookData, wholesalers and major retailer customers with the latest PA (price and availability) information on our products. EDItEUR International umbrella group coordinating development of technical standards for electronic commerce in the book and serials industries. BIC and BISG are affiliates of EDItEUR. Edition A group of books printed without changes to the content (originally from essay business a single set of printing plates). A second edition would incorporate significant revisions (and so would need new plates) and should get a new ISBN. Originally one edition meant a single print run, but these days an how to write research, edition may consist of essay international business several separate printings, or impressions. EEA European Economic Area, a free-trade area made up of the 25 EU countries plus a few extra (specifically, three of the four EFTA countries, Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein). The EEA agreement provides a ‘uniform internal market’ across these 28 countries – the internal market provides for freedom of movement of people, goods, services, capital, and great uniformity in slp continuing, regulations relating to international trade, including social policy, consumer protection, the environment and company law).

In territorial rights, the EEA is often what’s meant by how to research ‘Europe’ – at other times Europe implies the continent, which would additionally include Switzerland, the culture Balkans, EU candidate countries like Romania and Turkey, plus Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and (possibly) the trans-Caucasus (Georgia etc ). EFTA European Free Trade Association – Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and dissertations Switzerland (though several other countries were previously members and are now members of the European Union). EFTA countries are not EU members, but all except Switzerland have signed the EEA agreement. ELC Electronic Learning Credit. Earmarked money given to essay business schools specifically to fund purchases of educational software. To be eligible for purchase with ELCs, products must be registered on the Curriculum On-Line (COL) website. Research Proposals? The ELC scheme ends in mid-2008. Ellipsis Three dots ( … ) used to indicate an omission or elision. Em 1) Traditional measurement equivalent to 12 points ( ie approximately one sixth of an inch, or a bit more than 4mm). Properly called a ‘pica em’, and occasionally termed a ‘mutt’; 2) Less often, a distance equal to the point size of the type – an essay, em space in 9pt type is media portrays 9 points of essay business space. Of course, these two meanings are the same, because 12-point type used to slp continuing be called ‘pica type’.

Em-dash/Em-rule Long dash character ( — ) about 1 em long, mainly used in the UK for interrupted sentences (a construction called an essay international, anacoluthon). ‘Where was that—Aha, here it is!’ See also en-dash. Embargo Instruction to retailers indicating a book must not be sold before the nominal publication date. Usually an embargo aims to essay protect the value of a serialization deal. See also Release date, Publication date. En Half an em, traditionally 6 points, or these days, half the point size. Occasionally called a ‘nut’. En-dash/En-rule Dash character ( – ) mainly used for a punctuation dash – like this – normally with a space either side. International Business? Usually indicates a parenthetical phrase within a sentence. Also used without spaces, to indicate ranges of numbers, eg 77–85.

En-dashes are longer than normal hyphens, but shorter than em-dashes (see -, – and of beauty —); (US: parenthetical phrases are usually typeset using an em-dash without spaces, where UK typographical usage would be an en-dash with spaces). Endmatter Printed material found in essay business, the back of a book after the main text, eg notes, appendix, bibliography, index; (US: backmatter). Endnotes Notes that come after the main text of the book or at the end of each chapter. cf footnotes. Endpapers In a hardback book, a folded sheet, one half of which is pasted to and power the front or back of the cover boards. The other half, the flyleaf, is pasted along the essay folded edge to the first or last page of the book block. Endpapers can be plain, coloured or illustrated.

Epigraph A quotation in the prelim pages or at the beginning of a part or chapter. EPOS Electronic Point Of Sale. Point-of-sale computer systems used in bookshops – essentially cash tills linked to a computer. Can also cover retail systems that keep track of what’s in how to write, stock in essay culture, the shop and slp continuing what has to be ordered/reordered from the distributor or wholesaler. EPS Encapsulated Postscript file. Computer image data consisting of a set of lines, shapes and text described in Postscript. Essay Culture Business? EPS files come in several different ‘flavours’, depending on the version of Postscript, whether or not they also contain a ‘preview’ for on-screen viewing and so on.

EPS files are often used when saving data from Illustrator as they can be imported directly into Quark layouts, in contrast to thesis about smoking AI files. Epson 1) Brand of essay culture international ink-jet printer, generally quite cheap and cheerful; 2) See ink-jet proof. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning. Computer system covering all commercial applications – financials, stock control, sales order processing, warehouse management etc . During 2007–09, HarperCollins will be installing J D Edwards ERP software to slp continuing replace its various Vista sales order processing applications in Canada, USA, UK and Australia. Errata A loose sheet in which the errors found in a printed book are listed. EU The 27 countries of the European Union: UK, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Cyprus plus from 2007, new members Romania and Bulgaria. Croatia and essay business Turkey are candidates for accession in the future. Euro The ˆ symbol represents the currency used across many of the countries of the EU. Unfortunately, not every typeface contains a proper ˆ symbol, so it doesn’t always print properly (you may not even be able to and power point see it on screen…).

Euroscale 1) Set of industry-standard specifications for inks, separations, proofing, and process colour printing in general use in Europe. Derived from standards set by FOGRA (the Graphic Technology Research Associations of Germany). cf SWOP; 2) A CMYK Colour profile that describes the essay business colour gamut and characteristics of a press conforming to reason and nature an essay on the method Euroscale standards. Excel Microsoft Excel is the de facto standard application for creating spreadsheets. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs. Exchange The e-mail/diary/contacts system HarperCollins uses. You read your e-mails, calendar etc with Outlook, but the central server is Microsoft Exchange. Expert set Supplemental font software containing extra, more rarely used characters ( eg lining figures or small caps), variations of essay business shape for normal characters ( eg swashed capitals) and extra ligatures. Extent The length of a book in essay point, terms of number of pages.

Usually a multiple of 16, because the culture international book block is made up of several 16-, 32- or 48-page sections or signatures bound together. Extranet Range of HarperCollins computer services provided to external customers or suppliers via the internet. Examples include Plan G and Pubeasy. cf Intranet. Fair use Limited exception to copyright, allowing others to use short excerpts or quotations from a good thesis about smoking a copyrighted work without formal permission or payment. FIBF Frankfurt International Book Fair, held in the autumn. cf LIBF. Filemaker Software application to culture manage simple databases. Generally used to persuasive essay and power point access Plan G. Film Stage in making a plate where individual pages of a/w are photographed (or these days, more likely to be drawn by laser in an imagesetter) onto transparent film. Can be single pages or imposed signatures. Film is used to international make a cromalin or ozalid proof, and/or a printing plate. Firewall Barrier protecting the connection between the company’s internal computer network and the global internet.

The firewall controls messages crossing the border, preventing unwanted outsiders getting into and nature an essay on the meaning of scientific method, the system. A home broadband connection should also be protected with a firewall, with either a hardware firewall built into culture international business, the ADSL modem/router or firewall software running on your PC or Mac (or both). Flash Graphic file format developed by Macromedia for the web. Macromedia is now owned by Adobe. Uses vector graphics, and is capable of persuasive point simple animation and (generally low quality) video too. cf SVG. Flattening The process of reducing a layered, composited document or image (typically a PSD) down to a single layer (which could be a TIFF, for example). This gets rid of any transparency in the image. Flattening should be left as late as possible in culture, any workflow.

Flyleaf The half of the endpaper not glued to the cover board. Portrays The Image? The flyleaf forms the first (but generally unnumbered) leaf of the book. Foil Coloured and/or metallic foil used (esp. to highlight lettering) on culture international covers and reason and nature on the method jackets. Foil blocking Process for essay culture international stamping a design on a book cover or jacket, or simple lettering on a hardback spine, using coloured foil with pressure from a heated metal block known as a ‘blocking die’. Folio 1) the university history printed page number on a book’s page; 2) a sheet of typescript. Font 1) See typeface; 2) Computer file(s) which must be licensed and installed on your system to culture use a particular typeface on screen or in printouts. Macs and Windows PCs can use both Truetype and Postscript fonts, though most Windows PCs stick to just Truetype as they don’t have the necessary ATM software to university history use Postscript fonts. Postscript printers – despite the name – always support both flavours of font software. OpenType is a new font file format that is not as yet widely used. The range of essay business characters or glyphs available in a font may be limited to just plain Ascii characters, or even just upper case letters, but more usually it will cover the whole Latin-1 character set or more.

A related Expert set (which is a separate font, but not a separate typeface) may extend this range. How To Write Research Proposals? The most modern fonts – especially OpenType fonts – may use Unicode and contain a wide range of expert and multi-language glyphs in a single font file. Font library The complete set of fonts available or licensed for use on a Mac or PC. HarperCollins licenses the Linotype font library, and international business supplements this with fonts licensed from essay and power other suppliers. Font Reserve Font management application for culture Mac OS, allows individual fonts to be activated or de-activated at persuasive and power will, so that HarperCollins’ full library of several thousand fonts does not need to be active at the same time.

Home Macs may use the essay international Suitcase application, which is slp continuing similar. Footer (Running footer) . Text running across the bottom of every page. Usually just a folio number. Footnotes Notes that appear at culture business the foot of history dissertations a page, as opposed to Endnotes. Force Majeure Legal term, French for culture ‘greater force’, used in contracts to define a circumstance when something is out of the control of either party to the contract and may prevent them from delivering some part of their contractual obligations – things like flood, fire, war etc . In general, force majeure relieves the persuasive essay point party (at least temporarily) of the essay international duty to carry out that obligation. Foredge The outer vertical edge of the page or book, away from the spine. Format 1) Loosely, the trimmed page size of a book, but can sometimes instead mean the physical form – hardback, paperback etc . See A-format, B-format; 2) Used to indicate the readability of computer discs or data – ‘PC-format discs’, ‘Mac-format discs’, ‘that file is in Word format’, ‘Epub e-book format’. Four-colour Almost the full range of colours can be simulated by mixing the four CMYK process colours using halftoning.

Some Pantone colours cannot be adequately matched using four-colour process. FPO For Position Only. A low-quality placeholder image, often used in slp continuing education, a Quark layout where using the full quality, high-resolution image – potentially a very large file – would slow your computer down too much. See also OPI. Free software Computer software that can be used by anyone, modified and redistributed to business others (generally without restriction, or with certain well-defined restrictions that must pass down to derivative software). Free as in ‘freedom’, not necessarily as in ‘free of charge’. Also called ‘open source software’ as the programming code is available to anyone, or ‘GPL software’ after the General Public Licence that is and nature an essay on the meaning of scientific method used to culture international place some restrictions on derivative works.

Free stock Stocks of books held in the warehouse that is available to supply customer orders. cf reserved stock and frozen stock. Frontispiece An illustration facing the title page, or more generally anywhere before the first page of the main text. Frontlist Books published or due to media the image of beauty be published in the current year. cf Backlist. Frozen stock Stocks of books in the warehouse that are not to be dispatched or used at all. Generally, they are being reserved for a particular customer or deal in essay international business, negotiation. FSC Forest Stewardship Council, international organization promoting responsible management of the world’s forests. It provides accreditation and certification standards for forest management and forest products such as pulp and paper. FTP File transfer protocol, a good method for transferring large computer files across the internet, without the reason and nature of scientific size limitations of e-mail attachments. See Porter. Full-colour Colour throughout a book, not just in a small section. G3, G4, G5 Types of Apple Mac produced from 1999–2006, G5 being the most recent and fastest, though now eclipsed by the latest Intel-based Mac Pros.

Galleys/Galley proofs Typeset text proofs that have not yet been divided into pages; (US: ‘galleys’ is often used for what we would call page proofs – which are divided into pages). Gamma Loosely, how bright is a 50% grey? Adjusting the gamma of a display or printer brightens or darkens the midtones of the image without affecting the shadows and highlights. See also colour profile. Gamut The whole range of colours that can be produced by a device or a process.

RGB monitors can only produce a part of the gamut that can be perceived by the human eye, and CMYK printing can reproduce an even smaller gamut. International Business? Gamuts are described using the CIE chromaticity diagram. Gem Collins’ range of small reference books. Also used to mean the how to proposals size of Gems (not all that useful, since this has varied over the years). General ledger Combines the essay business purchase ledger (money the reason on the meaning method company owes to suppliers), the sales ledger (money the company is owed by essay culture customers), plus a record of the company assets (stuff we have bought and a good statement about paid for, or made, and still own, plus cash or bank deposits) and liabilities ( eg loans, or other future commitments we have already been paid for). Taking the purchase ledger and essay business liabilities as negative numbers, and bristol university dissertations the sales ledger and assets as positive, the total of the four amounts is the culture international ‘net book value’ of the persuasive essay point company. GIF Graphic Image File. Pronounced as in ‘gift’. Low-quality raster image file, suitable only for use on the web. See TIFF and culture international JPEG for higher quality image file formats.

Glyph Loosely, a letter or other character in and power, a particular font. Technically, a single glyph may represent more than one letter: a ligature is one glyph but two or more characters. GRN Goods Received Note. Process within Computron purchasing system that authorises payment for goods ordered and received. GSM Grams per essay culture international business, square metre, a measure of the ‘weight’ of reason and nature an essay on the method paper or cardboard; (US: paper weight is measured differently, in pounds per ream – but the size (‘basic size’ or ‘basis size’) of the sheets in the ream varies according to international business the type of paper.

60gsm paper for the text pages of a book is approx 40lbs per and nature an essay on the, ream, and essay international 230gsm cover board is approx 85lbs). A Good Statement About? See also bulk. Nothing to essay culture do with GSM mobile phones… Gutter Blank space between two columns of persuasive point type or, more often, the blank margins in the fold between left and right pages. HJ Hyphenation and business Justification. HJ rules control how text is typeset into lines of type, how words are broken at line ends and whether the column edges are ragged or straight (justified). Half-title Normally in and power point, a hardback book, the first printed page, containing only the title of the book.

Can also be used for a similar page appearing later in the prelims. Can also mean a page separating major parts of a book (generally each part would comprise several chapters). Half-title verso The page following the half-title. It often contains a list of other books by the same author. Halftone 1) An illustration in which the original’s continuous variations of tones are reproduced by patterns of varying sizes of dots. Culture Business? Black ink can be used to simulate a range of thesis about smoking grey shades, or CMYK to essay culture simulate almost the statement smoking full range of culture colours.

The (usually photographic) original is thesis smoking termed a ‘contone’. A halftoned illustration is also called a screened illustration. The dots are generally around 1 / 150 th inch apart (150 lpi or ‘150 screen’) though this depends on the quality of the paper, and they vary in size. Big dots give dark grey, small dots give pale grey. cf Line drawing; 2) The pattern of dots can also be used to print a pale colour with a dark ink ( eg a grey area printed with black ink). Hard copy Material that is on paper rather than on disk. Hard return A permanent return that is typed at the end of a line of text and international marks the persuasive essay point end of a paragraph ( cf soft return, which starts a new line but not a new paragraph). The method of typing a soft return varies. Hash The # character, occasionally called ‘gate’, often an abbreviation for ‘number’; (US: # is often called the essay business ‘pound’ sign. That’s pound avoirdupois , not ? Sterling – it really doesn’t help that # and ? often share a key on a good thesis statement about smoking the keyboard…). Head/tail band A narrow decorative strip of plain or striped material stuck to the top and/or bottom of the spine of a hardback book block. Header (Running header) The heading set at the top of each page of essay culture business some books, often the reason and nature an essay of scientific title of the book or chapter, and the author’s name. cf footer.

Hi-fi colour A printing process using more than the four basic CMYK process colours. For example Hexachrome, which uses two additional process inks, a bright orange and a bright green, to create a wider and business richer range (or gamut) of printed colour. Hi-fi colour systems require FM screening, because using conventional AM screening with more than four colours would produce unacceptable moire patterns. Hi-fi colour is used mostly in fine-art printing – it’s expensive and rare in book work. Hi-res (High resolution) Full-quality scanned image, usually a TIFF, required for any image manipulation ( eg retouching, compositing, colour correction). If no image manipulation is required, a lo-res FPO can be used in place of the hi-res, relying on OPI to put the hi-res in place later. Holding fee Fee paid (usually to a picture library) for keeping loaned material beyond the and power point agreed date. Holographic laminate Thin transparent matt or gloss film incorporating a hologram pattern, to give a sparkly 3D or metallic effect to a cover or jacket.

Home market ‘Home market rights’ generally comprise the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) plus the international business Republic of Ireland. House style 1) A guide for spelling, punctuation, grammatical style and usage produced by slp continuing education a publisher to help maintain consistency in copy-editing and proof-reading; 2) A standard text or cover design, also called a series style. HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The system of mark-up used in documents and websites on the internet. ICC International Colour Consortium. Industry body set up in 1993 to create standardised colour management software, building on the work of the CIE. ICC colour profiles are used in international, software such as Quark XPress or Adobe Photoshop to media portrays enable consistent colour across different applications, computers, monitors, scanners and culture business printing equipment. IDPF International Digital Publishing Forum, formerly the OeBF (Open eBook Forum), a trade and persuasive essay standards association for the e-book and culture international business digital publishing industry. Bristol University History Dissertations? Developed the Epub e-book file format.

IFC/IBC Inside Front/Back Cover. The ‘back’ of the front cover, and culture the ‘front’ of the back cover. See also endpapers and write research proposals cover reverse; (US: Cover 2 and Cover 3). Illustrator Adobe Illustrator, application software for essay culture international business drawing maps, diagrams, logos and other complex mechanical illustrations. These are saved as AI files, or as EPS files for incorporation into page layouts. There are versions for both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is far more widely used in professional publishing. Imagesetter (filmsetter) Type of RIP which uses a laser to expose photographic film. In CTP, being superseded by ‘platesetters’ which draw directly onto the printing plate. Imposition Pages (esp. pages of film) arranged so they can be folded together to create part of a book.

Page 3 will not be imposed next to page 2, but will sit next to it after folding (folding is part of binding processs). Page 1 will be printed on the back of sheet where page 2 is printed. While pages 2 and slp continuing education 3 are a ‘reader’s pair’ or a ‘spread’, in that they lie together after folding – pages 2 and 15 could be a ‘printer’s pair’ in essay culture international, that they lie together in the imposition. Slp Continuing? See also signature. Imposition of Postscript or PDF files implies modification of the essay international files so that the slp continuing education text and essay graphics in the files are rearranged into an imposed pattern.

Impression A single print run of write research proposals a book, as in ‘third impression’, the third batch of copies to be printed and business bound. The impression number is usually marked on the copyright/imprint page, often with a sequence of numbers such as ‘4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3’, where the lowest number indicates the impression (in this case, the third). All books in thesis, an impression are manufactured at the same time and are identical. There can be several impressions in an edition, all sharing the essay business same ISBN. Imprint ‘Brand name’ used for a range of slp continuing books, eg Voyager, Flamingo.

Imprints are the ‘public face’ of culture a publishing company, and are much more visible to consumers than the persuasive essay point company name. cf list or business unit, which are purely internal to the publishing company. In print The book is available, though it may be temporarily out of stock at culture the warehouse (awaiting a reprint). Indemnity Contractual agreement which agrees to education compensation should a particular situation arise, eg breach of any warranties given in the contract. InDesign Adobe’s InDesign software application is culture a competitor to Quark XPress, though is and nature on the of scientific has a smaller market share. Inferior/Superior In typography and business design, archaic (but perhaps more correct) names for subscript and superscript. Ink-jet 1) Printing system where text and graphics are printed by persuasive essay point firing tiny drops of liquid ink at the paper, an alternative to offset litho; 2) A kind of proof, sometimes also known as an Iris, Digital Cromalin or Epson. Ink-jet can be very high quality, and colour fidelity to the final litho-printed work can be excellent, but they do not reproduce the halftone dot structure of the final job so cannot be used to judge the likelihood moire, for example. Integrated An integrated book has text and illustrations printed together on the same pages, rather like the page layout of essay business a magazine – as opposed to slp continuing education having illustrations in separate plate sections. Intellectual property A bundle of rights held over information or ideas, something intangible ( cf property, which is a bundle of rights conveying ownership of something tangible). Intellectual property rights give their owners some exclusive rights to culture international business exploit the underlying information or ideas. IP rights can take the form of research patents, designs, trademarks and copyrights.

A good overview is given in the recent Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. Internet Worldwide computer network, used for inter-company e-mail, web browsing and FTP. Intranet Collection of computer services available via a web browser to staff within the company ( ie on the internal company network). Examples include the Your HC intranet magazine, Plan G, Barcoder. International? cf Extranet. IP 1) Intellectual property; 2) In print; 3) Internet Protocol, a technical standard in computer networking. IRI Industry Returns Initiative.

New(ish) set of conventions and processes aimed at simplifying and automating the handling of returns, which have been widely adopted across the book trade since 2002. IRI covers the authorisation of returns, the issuing of credit notes, the physical handling of the returned products etc . Iris Brand name for high-quality ink-jet colour proofing system from Scitex. The digital equivalent of a Cromalin, and similar to Digital Cromalin. ISBN International Standard Book Number. Unique identifier for a book, or more specifically, of a tradeable item within the education book trade. A different ISBN is required not only for each title (or work), but for each edition and business binding (or manifestation) eg hardback, paperback, revised second edition all need different ISBNs. Different impressions, however, share the same ISBN. ISBNs use hyphens (or sometimes spaces) to divide the identifier up into media portrays the image of beauty, fields – one field indicates the language group, another the publisher or imprint, and the last digit is a ‘check digit’. See also EAN and barcode, and ISTC. ISBN-10 Old-style ten-digit ISBN, used to distinguish the previous system (pre-2007) from the new ISBN-13 scheme. ISBN-13 Revamp of the ISBN numbering system introduced in January 2007, where the old-style ISBN-10 has been replaced with its equivalent Bookland EAN – 978 EANs as at present, plus a new range of essay business 979 EANs.

Since EANs are 13 digits, the new scheme is called ISBN-13. By convention, the thirteen digit number is called an ISBN-13 or just an ISBN if it is hyphenated, and an EAN if it consists of digits only. ISDN Obsolete type of digital telephone system, used in the past (1990s) to transfer files from publisher to printer. Faster than a home modem, but much slower than today’s home broadband or corporate internet connections. Has generally been replaced by FTP for file transfer. ISMN International Standard Music Number – ISBN-like system for numbering published sheet music. ISSN International Standard Serial Number. While ISBNs are for monograph publications, ISSNs are their equivalent for media the image of beauty serial publications (magazines and periodicals). Culture? See also EAN. ISTC International Standard Textual Work Code. Dissertations? Proposed standard identification scheme for essay works, will come into use during 2008.

ISTCs are 16 hexadecimal digits long (the digits themselves can include 0–9 and A–F). Proposals? All versions of a particular work – hardback, paperback, versions by different publishers etc – share an ISTC, whereas their ISBNs vary. Abridgements, translations and essay culture revisions (new editions) acquire new ISTCs, but also retain the ISTC of their ‘parent’ work. Italic Slightly sloped type, usually used for emphasis or for foreign words. Oblique is portrays synonymous with italic: serifed typefaces have italic weights, whereas oblique is sometimes preferred with sans serif typefaces. Typically, the characters in culture international business, an italic serifed typeface are not quite the same shape as normal roman or upright type. cf Slanted type. Jacket Illustrated dust cover wrapped around a hardback; (US: wrapper). JDE (J D Edwards) HarperCollins’ planned new ERP system, due for rollout in 2007–09. And Nature An Essay On The Of Scientific? JDE will be a shared system with HarperCollins US, and will replace the Vista order-to-cash system.

JPEG Common data file format for a scanned image. It’s compressed, so usually a much smaller file than a TIFF, but sacrifices some quality – JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, whereas TIFF is ‘lossless’. JPEG 2000 is a completely different and essay culture international business incompatible format for lossy image compression. JPEG 2000 Less common, more modern image file format. Not many applications can yet read JPEG 2000.

Generally makes smaller files than ordinary JPEG for a given image quality, and does not show the typical ‘quilted’ artifacts that JPEGs are prone to display. Justified (fully justified) Text typeset so that both left and right edges of the column are straight. See also HJ. cf ragged text. Kerning Reducing the space between letters that fit together, to improve the look of the setting. As in ‘WAVE’, where the A fits nicely between the W and statement the V, so the three letters can be closed up a little. One of the distinguishing marks of better-quality typesetting is the number of ‘kerning pairs’, combinations of letters that have been individually spaced like this. cf tracking, which is reducing the space between all letters equally, to essay culture international business reduce the length of a word or line. Key account One of the reason an essay on the of scientific method major retailers or chains – WHSmith, Waterstones, Amazon, Tesco etc . We generally focus sales effort at the chain’s head office rather than upon individual retail branches. Key title One of the most important titles published by a division. A division will publish – at culture business most – a handful of Key titles per month, and the image these will receive significant AP spend, marketing and sales support. Key titles are more critical than Lead titles.

Laid Paper retaining a textured finish from the essay culture international business wires or rollers used in the papermaking process. Slp Continuing? cf wove. Large print Books printed in essay international, bigger than normal type and a good about smoking often in a specially-designed typeface, one type of accessible edition intended for visually impaired readers. There is no widely accepted definition of how large the type has to be, as the degree and essay culture international nature of impairment varies from reader to reader. ‘Traditional’ large print is a good thesis statement about often 12–14pt in an open typeface like Plantin, but this is business barely suitable for essay point many VI readers and is perhaps more properly termed ‘clear type’. The RNIB recommends ‘large print’ is least 16pt in a specially designed, high-contrast typeface like Tiresias LP, which covers most VI reader’s needs (only a very small proportion of VI readers would actually need Braille). Latin-1 ISO-standard for enhanced version of the Ascii computer character set. In addition to the usual Ascii characters, Latin-1 includes all the essay international main alphabetic and puntuation characters required for major western European languages such as French, German, Italian, Spanish ( eg a, ?, e, i, o, n, ?), but not for Welsh, Scandinavian, central and eastern European – Latin-2, -3 and an essay meaning -4 cover those – or for Cyrillic scripts. Note that many Mac and Windows applications use character sets that are close to but not identical to Latin 1 – MacRoman and Windows-1252. cf Unicode. Launch 1) External event ( eg party) to mark publication of the culture international business book; 2) Internal meeting to brief Marketing and Sales departments on proposals plans for essay culture international business book. Layout The overall design of a page or a cover, including typeface, running heads, page number and graphics, showing how the page will look when printed; a guide for the repro house or junior designer.

Can also refer to the fully-finished page. Creating layouts using Quark XPress is the main work of the design and art depts; (US: scamp if only a sketch, comp or mechanical if fully finished). Lead title One of the persuasive essay point more important titles published by a division. Typically, a division will publish only a handful of Lead titles per month. Lead titles get significant promotion and publicity effort, but no large AP spend. cf Key title. Leading The (extra) spacing between lines of culture international type. Bristol History Dissertations? Pronounced ‘ledding’. Culture Business? Typical body copy in a book might be ‘10 on 12 point’, meaning 10 point text with 12 points spacing between lines, measured from baseline to baseline.

In common usage, this is 12 point leading, though strictly it’s just 2 points of leading. Type set without leading ( eg 10 on 10 point) is said to be ‘set solid’ – very rare in books, as it’s difficult to read with a wide measure. Legal, Letter paper Common US paper sizes for education office use. Letter is essay culture international 8 1 / 2 ? 11 inches (or 216 ? 279mm), roughly equivalent to A4 but shorter and wider. The US Legal size is 8 1 / 2 ? 13 1 / 2 inches, taller than A4 (and roughly the same as the obsolete ‘foolscap quarto’ beloved of those who also fondly remember pre-decimal currency, the Light Programme, and rickets). How To Write? The difference between Letter and A4 paper can cause problems in formatting and printing documents. LIBF London International Book Fair, held in the early spring. cf FIBF, BEA. Libel Publication of an intentionally untrue statement about international a person that will harm their reputation, or tend to make them the target of ridicule, scorn, dislike or contempt. cf slander, which is the oral equivalent. Library edition Book supposedly (or actually) printed on a better quality of thesis smoking paper or with a stronger binding than the essay business standard edition. Bristol University History Dissertations? Often, a hardback edition printed in small numbers at the same time as a mass-market paperback or trade paperback edition, where the hardback is primarily produced for international the library market (but is how to write research proposals otherwise unremarkable). Library supplier A wholesaler that specialises in selling books to libraries (both academic and public), such as Askews.

Licensing (of copyright). Where an author or other copyright holder grants a publisher limited rights to exploit a work, rather than assigning all rights to the publisher. Licensed rights can be limited by territory, by time period ( eg audio rights are often for culture international business seven years only), by format ( eg book rights only, excluding digital or other rights) etc . Ligature Character groups like fi, ffi or fl, redesigned as a single symbol (or glyph), where the conventionally-shaped individual letters may overlap in media portrays the image, an ugly way despite careful kerning. The number of ligatures varies from typeface to typeface. Ligatures are much more important in eg Arabic typesetting, where the individual letters change shape radically depending on the letters on either side – as if an ‘s’ at the end of a word was a completely different shape to an ‘s’ in the middle of a word. Limp Limp covers include paperbacks and essay culture business other flexible bindings in on the, vinyl etc ; not hardback. Line art 1) An illustration that consists of culture black lines and solid areas, but no greys; 2) You can also have coloured line art, so long as there are no tints – the important factor is that all the portrays of beauty process colours are printed solid and culture international it can be reproduced without halftoning. cf Halftone. Lining figures Arabic numerals of equal height, usually same size as cap X. Numerals also usually have the same width, to make tabular material look neat. Reason Of Scientific Method? cf Non-lining figures. List The books a publisher or imprint has available for purchase or soon to be published.

Within a publishing house, there are usually separate lists for different types of books. cf Imprint. Literary agent People who represent authors and culture international illustrators for a percentage of their client’s income. Logotype, logo Graphical device, emblem or text used to persuasive essay identify a company, brand, imprint etc , usually printed on the spine or title page. Long grain Paper where the majority of the culture business fibres line up parallel to a good about the longest edge of the sheet or web. Culture International Business? cf short grain. Lorem ipsum Latin sample text used in an design for a page layout. Traditional versions of the reason and nature of scientific Lorem ipsum text are based on a passage from Cicero, but Quark XPress can produce mock Latin automatically (via a feature called Jabberwocky). Loupe Magnifying glass on small folding stand, generally providing about 5x magnification. Sometimes (and maybe more correctly) called a linen tester.

LPI Lines per inch. The fineness of the screening in a halftone, a measure of how far apart the halftone dots are. Culture? Typically images are printed at 133 to bristol university history 175lpi (depending on international the quality of the paper). cf DPI. LZW Lossless data compression technique named after its inventors (Terry Welch, Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv), used in TIFFs, mathematically making files smaller without sacrificing any quality. LZW TIFFs are almost always much smaller than the uncompressed originals, but do not lose any quality. cf lossy compression systems such as that used in JPEG or mp3, which sacrifice quality in order to make files smaller. Mac, Macintosh Apple Macintosh computers are widely used in graphic art and design, particularly to thesis about run the three main graphic art and design applications, Quark XPress, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

Macs use Mac OS 9 or OS X as their main system software (‘operating system’), instead of Windows on other PCs. cf MAC (in upper case), 48-bit Ethernet hardware address. Mac OS 9, X The main system software used by Apple Macintosh computers. The OS provides the software framework within which applications such as XPress, Illustrator or Photoshop run. Mac OS X is very different from its predecessors: not all older Macs can use it and it cannot run all software originally written for OS 8 or 9. Newer Macs (G5s and essay Mac Pros) will only education run OS X. Essentially all Hammersmith and Glasgow Macs run OS X; as yet, a couple of Cheltenham Macs do not. OS X comes in versions including 10.3 (‘Panther’), 10.4 (‘Tiger’) and 10.5 (‘Leopard’). These major versions are further divided into essay business, releases like 10.4.5, 10.4.11 and so on, where the differences are minor and relate mostly to security and bug fixes.

MacRoman Character set used generally by portrays the image older Mac software applications, similar to Latin-1. Newer OS X applications tend to essay business use UTF-8 instead. Make ready Time spent preparing the printing press for the next job – wash-up (cleaning), changing the plates and bristol history adjusting the essay culture international business press to optimise print and colour quality for the new run. Manifestation In the context of intellectual property, technical term for ‘different versions of the same work’. For example, a hardback, paperback and history e-book of the same title are all different manifestations. Manuscript Unedited text delivered by an author, these days usually a Word file on disk, but may be typewritten or even handwritten. Abbreviated MS or ms ( pl MSS or mss).

These days, the term is being replaced by Typescript. Mark-up 1) Marks made on a typescript or page proof to indicate typographical instructions, corrections, insertions and essay business deletions. BS-5261 part 2 (1976) describes the standard set of marks to be used for copy preparation and university correcting typeset proofs. Download a good reference for the most common marks; 2) tags inserted into text to indicate its structure. For example a heading may be surrounded by tags like this: headHere is the heading/head. See also HTML and XML.

Mass market Small-format paperback edition of a book, usually commercial fiction, intended to sell in large numbers. International? Generally a US term, but is increasingly applied to A-format paperbacks in the UK. Matt laminate Thin film coating used to give covers and jackets a matt finish. Also available in gloss, and with holographic patterns. cf UV varnish. Measure The width to which a complete line of type is set, or the width of a single column on media the image of beauty multi-column pages.

MECS Marketing Expenditure Control System, computer application for tracking AP costs. Memory In computing, the amount of essay culture space within your computer for slp continuing education temporary storage of data while your applications are running. cf storage – note that when people say ‘My computer has run out of memory’, they often mean they have no permanent storage space left. Metadata Literally, data about data. In the context of the book trade, refers to bibliographic data, title, author, ISBN etc , as well as richer, more descriptive data such as found on essay culture business an AIS. Moire pattern An unwanted striped or checkerboard pattern in halftoned images, frequently caused by halftoning something that already has a halftone pattern. Akin to the distracting interference patterns seen in rows of railings ( eg on motorway bridges) or when someone on TV wears clothing with a small pattern ( eg a check jacket). Also loosely called ‘screen clash’. Mono (Monochrome) A book published in black and white only, with no colour (though it can still have line drawings and halftones). Monograph A publication that’s complete in one part (or occasionally, in a small number of separate parts). Individual books (or occasionally, series of books) are monographs. Portrays Of Beauty? cf serial publication.

Moral rights protect the author’s integrity and reputation, and are separate from culture international business copyright which protects the author’s commercial interest. Moral rights include the right to a good thesis be identified as the author. MP3 Common computer file format containing sound data, for example music or an essay culture international, audiobook – the audio equivalent of JPEG: lossily compressed to save storage space or reduce downloading time, but sacrificing quality. cf AAC. MPEG A range of data file formats for moving images (video). For example, MPEG2 is the meaning data format used on essay international business commercial DVDs, MPEG4 is used in some cable TV systems and on mobile phones. MPEG files are very complex, and each version has may different flavours, so an MPEG4 file is media portrays the image of beauty not just playable on culture international business all MPEG4 players – you need to university history dissertations ensure the international ‘profile’ and particularly the ‘codecs’ used are appropriate. Note that mp3 is not MPEG3 (it's actually subsection 3 of MPEG1). NBA Net Book Agreement, former retail price maintenance agreement to education prevent discounting of essay culture international books. How To Write Research Proposals? Inoperative since the mid-1990s. Books are now widely discounted from their RRP to encourage sales, albeit at a lower profit per copy.

Net receipts Author’s royalty based on culture business percentage of publisher’s income, not the retail price. Uncommon for main volume rights, but fairly common for subrights and audiobooks. New cover reissue/reprint A book reissued/reprinted in a new cover design, but with no other substantial changes ( ie the reason meaning of scientific size and culture international binding stay the same and the content of the book remains unchanged), often as part of the repackaging of an author’s backlist. Does not need a new ISBN, as there is no change to the content of the book. News Corporation (News Corp, NWS) Originally Australian, but now US-based company that is the ultimate owner of HarperCollins.

Though it’s a public company with many other shareholders, News Corp is controlled by Rupert Murdoch and other Murdoch family members. News Corp also has interests in satellite and slp continuing cable TV, film, newspapers and online, via Sky (satellite TV in essay culture international business, Britain and Italy), Star TV (satellite TV in university, India and China), DirecTV (satellite TV in essay business, US, in process of being sold off to persuasive and power point Liberty Media), Fox (US film and culture TV programming, plus news), News International (UK newspapers), News Ltd (Australian newspapers), New York Post (US newspaper), News America Marketing (newspaper and magazine promotions), TVGI (EPG data for cable and persuasive essay satellite systems and TV Guide Magazine, sold 2007 to Macrovision), NDS (smartcards and set-top boxes for cable and satellite systems) and Fox Interactive (which includes MySpace). Essay International? For more information about News Corp, you can register to use TheNewsCore website (NB only persuasive essay and power available to HC and international business other News Corp employees). NewsStand Company that runs HarperCollins’ digital distribution repository, through its Libre Digital division. Other publishers ( eg Bloomsbury, Faber). Reason And Nature An Essay Of Scientific Method? NewsStand also provides e-book conversion and other services to essay culture HarperCollins and thesis statement about smoking many other publishers. Nfuse System that allows you to connect to the HarperCollins network from anywhere with internet access. Essay International Business? Requires an ‘RSA keyfob’ to enhance security. You get – in effect – the same thin client system as you would have if you were physically in the office. cf old-style RAS access and newer VPN access which is gradually replacing both Nfuse and RAS.

Oblique Synonymous with italic, but oblique is bristol history sometimes preferred for sans serif typefaces. cf Slanted. OCR Optical Character Recognition. Turning a printed page back into essay culture international, plain text, by scanning the page and using computer software to inspect and recognise the shapes of each letter. A Good Statement About? Generally not very successful… OCR-A, OCR-B Fonts optimised for OCR readability. Used as part of the culture business barcode on a book, even thought the text above and below the media bars is not intended to be machine-read.

OEB format An XML DTD sponsored by the OeBF and used for structuring e-book texts. Conceptually similar to DocBook, but simpler, as it’s based on XHTML. Essay Culture? Superseded by Epub format. Office Suite of Microsoft applications – Word for wordprocessing, the Excel spreadsheet and Powerpoint for about smoking presentations. Offset 1) To produce a book by reproducing from an already-existing book – eg an American edition – as opposed to typesetting the text from scratch. Essay? Originally offsetting was done using a duplicate copy of the film used to create printing plates, but now involves a set of application files or PDFs; 2) Printing fault where ink rubs off one page onto another, caused by media too much ink coverage or poor drying; 3) see offset litho. Offset fee Fee paid to the originating publisher when publishing an offset edition.

Part of the essay culture fee covers a share of the original typesetting costs, and a (small) part pays for delivery of the material used to create the offset edition ( eg the PDF file or application files). Offset lithography (litho) The printing process used to create almost all our book products. The distinguishing feature is that after ink is applied to the plate, the plate does not then touch the paper directly – ink is transferred from plate to paper via an intermediate rubber roller known as the reason and nature on the of scientific ‘blanket’. See also sheet and web. ONIX Standard XML data format defined by EDItEUR for transmitting bibliographic data, for example to BookData, Bowker and elsewhere. OP Out of Print. An out-of-print book is no longer in stock in the warehouse, will not be reprinted in essay international business, future, and on the meaning of scientific cannot be ordered. See RUC.

Opacity Different grades of paper have different degrees of international business opacity of show-through. Open market Parts of the world where the normal territorial sales rights and restrictions do not apply – any publisher with rights to a title can sell its copies in the open market. This means countries outside the major controlled markets of North America and the Commonwealth, though often Europe is considered a controlled market too. Important OM countries for English-language books include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and write research much of the Middle East. OpenType Latest computer font format that combines the culture features of Truetype and of Postscript fonts. Education? Only OpenType fonts work fully with Unicode. Essay Business? Mac OS X supports OpenType fonts as well as original Postscript and Truetype, whereas OS 8 and 9 did not. However, note that not all OS X applications support OpenType or Unicode, even though the underlying OS does – for example Quark XPress 6. OPI Open Prepress Interface, also termed APR or AIR (Automatic Picture or Image Replacement). A system whereby designers can use FPO images while designing the layout, which are then replaced automatically with the hi-res versions when making film or plates. OPS Out of Print, Substitute.

A book that’s OP, but where another equivalent book ( eg a revised edition with a different ISBN) can be substituted. Option Clause A clause in a publishing agreement that requires the author’s next work to be offered to the same publisher before being offered elsewhere. An option must usually be exercised by the publisher within a short period of time, or the author is then free to offer it to a new publisher. Ornament Decorative character or design, often an statement about smoking, ornate star or flower ( cf Dingbat), or a patterned border or rule. Orphan The first line of a paragraph falling at the foot of a page or column of type. To be avoided in high-quality typesetting.

See also Widow. Outdoor Outdoor advertising on posters and billboards. Overprint In four-colour printing, where two inks are printed one over the other. For example, to print a dark blue circle inside a pink box, a cyan circle would overprint a larger magenta square (cyan + magenta = dark blue). The opposite essay culture, is knockout, where the cyan circle punches a hole in the magenta box, resulting in a pale blue circle in the pink box. Bristol Dissertations? See also trapping. Overs/Unders The amount of printed materials that is over or under the originally specified print run.

Ozalid Proof for checking imposition only, as the content should have been signed off before the film was made. Business? Originally an ozalid was a blue dyeline proof made from imposed film, but these days is bristol university history dissertations often used loosely to mean an inkjet print produced (without film) immediately prior to platemaking; (US: blue). PA updates The latest Price and essay international business Availability information on our products. Generally distributed daily to slp continuing bibliographic agencies ( eg BookData), wholesalers and major customers by EDI. PL Profit Loss. On-screen system for raising costings and evaluating likely sales for potential acquisitions. PAF Postcode Address File. Data file available from the Royal Mail containing postcodes and all 27 million postal addresses in business, the UK. Used to verify delivery addresses etc . Page proofs The text of a book typeset and laid out in pages (but not bound), ready for media the image of beauty proof-reading and collating. Pantone Proprietary colour matching system consisting of many hundred individually numbered colours, eg PMS 546 C is essay culture business a particular shade of teal green. Used to specify spot colours and inks.

Many Pantone colours cannot be matched accurately using halftoned CMYK process colour inks. A better match, but still not perfect, is possible with hi-fi colour systems. Paper over boards Using plain or printed paper to cover the cover boards of a hardback, rather than the education more common clothlike material known as Wibalin. Paperback Book with a paper or flexible card cover. Sir Allen Lane, founder of Penguin Books, was credited with inventing the modern paperback when he published Ariel by essay international business Andre Maurois with a paper cover in 1936. cf Hardback, with rigid board covers.

PBO Paperback Original. Book published straight into paperback, without a previous hardback edition. PDA Personal Digital Assistant. Small handheld computer providing diary and contacts functions. The most common PDAs are Palm Pilots, Psion Organisers and Blackberries. PDF Portable Document Format. Persuasive Essay? Computer language for describing printed documents, like Postscript but generally more sophisticated (and usually smaller files too). Business? PDFs can be previewed on bristol university history dissertations screen using Acrobat, and are a common format for delivery of finished work to business printers. PDF comes in various ‘flavours’, PDF 1.3 being the most common and PDF 1.7 the bristol history most recent. PDF files can be composite or preseparated, and may include just one or multiple pages.

PDF files are in culture business, many ways similar to EPS files, and increasingly are used instead of media portrays of beauty EPS as images that can be imported into essay international business, Quark layouts. PDF/A Proposed variant of standard PDF aimed specifically at archival applications. PDF/X Highly standardised variant of PDF, which ensures the PDF file contains all data required to print the product. Slp Continuing Education? PDF/X-1a is based on PDF 1.3. Perfect binding Binding method in which the pages are bound together with glue (as opposed to international business being sewn with thread or stapled). PerfectBound 1) HarperCollins’ global e-book imprint, which also has its own e-book shop. Currently being phased out in favour of a plain ‘HarperCollins eBooks’ branding; 2) Rather imperfect way of binding paperbacks, by glueing the leaves together along the spine. Perfecting Type of printing press which can print on both sides of the paper at once. Permissions Acquisition of a right in return for a permission fee, in order to reuse all or part of point existing, copyrighted material within another work. Permissions are typically sought, for culture instance, when a publisher wants to media excerpt part of a book to business use in an anthology, or when a teacher wants to compile part of media portrays a book into a coursepack. Authors who wish to incorporate a portion of someone else’s work in their own creation are obliged to secure permissions.

Contracts normally require such authors to obtain and pay for permissions, and to warranty that they have done so. Photoshop Adobe Photoshop. Computer software for manipulating scanned images and international business saving as TIFF or JPEG files for use in essay point, page layouts. There are versions for both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is culture international more widely used in professional publishing. Pi font Typeface consisting of non-alphabetic characters, or sorts. They can be useful or decorative, usually with a particular theme eg a collection of chess piece and playing card characters, arrows, road signs. Dingbats is one particular pi font which contains a general collection of history dissertations useful symbols. Picture library Photographic agency that collects images and licences photographs for essay international use in persuasive essay and power point, books, newspapers and magazines.

Hulton-Getty and international business Corbis are the proposals two largest. Pilcrow Correct name of culture international paragraph symbol ( ¶ ) looking like a backwards P. Plan G On-screen database of write proposals bibliographic data, used to manage publication schedules, AISs, catalogues, and to send data to BookData. Essay Culture International Business? Plan G data is accessible using Filemaker, or in history, a more limited read-only way via the intranet. Essay Culture? Some of university dissertations our major customers also have limited access to Plan G data via our extranet; (US: near equivalent is PIX). Plant Up-front costs of creating a book – editing, typesetting, repro and so on. cf PPB costs. Plate 1) Metal printing plate, usually a thin sheet of aluminium with a special surface coating. Oil-based ink sticks to part of the plate (‘oleophilic’), and is repelled from other parts (‘oleophobic’), and culture business this forms the media portrays the image of beauty patterns of letters or halftone dots on the surface of the culture business plate. The ink is how to proposals then transferred onto essay culture business, the paper to print the text or image (see offset litho).

In CTP, the oleophilic and bristol university dissertations oleophobic patterns are drawn onto the plate by a laser. Formerly, the patterns were formed on the plate photographically by exposing the chemical coating on essay business the plate to and power point strong light through the film; 2) A halftoned illustration, usually bound into a book in culture business, a separate plate section. Plate section Set of pages bound into a book containing halftoned illustrations. Usually printed as a separate signature on better quality coated paper; (US: insert). Portrays Of Beauty? cf Integrated. PLC Printed Laminated Case, a decorative variation of a plain paper over boards hardback. The printed design on the cover boards is varnished or laminated. PLCs often don’t have separate jackets. PM Vista Production Manager. Software system used by essay culture Production department to manage physical manufacturing of books and delivery into warehouse. Also provides costings to PL system, and interfaces with Computron to research proposals create purchase orders. Not to be confused with Vista’s sales order processing system.

PO Purchase Order. Essay Culture International? These are created within the Computron system, but POs can also be created within PM. POD Print on demand. Generally implies very-short-run printing – a print run of fewer than about 200 copies – using xerographic rather than litho printing. In the extreme case, can be a print run of one copy to write research fulfill a single customer order, drop shipped from the printer to the consumer. Point 1) (also Full point) A full stop; (US: period); 2) Traditional typographical unit used to measure the size of type, equivalent to about 1 / 72 nd of an inch. Typical body copy might be 10 or 11 points high, measured from the lowest descenders to the highest ascenders. Porter The friendly face of FTP (file transfer protocol), used to send large files to suppliers over essay international, the internet. E-mail attachments can only cope with files up to around 1 or 2MB, whereas Porter can easily do 500MB. Used instead of ISDN. Portrait Page oriented normally, so that it’s taller than it is wide. cf landscape.

POS 1) Point-of-sale – ultimately, the retailer’s till; (US: POP, point of purchase); 2) Point-of-sale promotional material such as posters, dumpbins, bookmarks. Postscript Computer language used to describe pages containing images and text, or more specifically, the instructions sent to a laser printer or CTP platemaker, to make it ‘draw’ the images and text on education the page. The Postscript instructions are interpreted by a RIP. International Business? Postscript files cannot be edited (easily), so any corrections must be made in the original application files, and then the Postscript recreated. Postscript comes in education, different ‘flavours’ known as Level 1, Level 2 and essay international business Level 3, with 3 being the most sophisticated. Beware – many existing devices (laser printers, RIPs etc ) are limited to Level 2. Postscript is a close relative of PDF. See also EPS. Postscript font One kind of font software. Helvetica and Times are two common Postscript fonts – Arial and Times New Roman are the Truetype equivalents.

Postscript fonts come in two parts, a ‘screen font’ and a ‘printer font’, and are often of a good thesis smoking higher quality than their Truetype counterparts. Essay Business? Sometimes called Type 1 fonts. PowerPoint Microsoft PowerPoint is the de facto standard application for history dissertations creating on-screen presentations. There are versions for essay international both Mac and Windows PCs, though because of differences in fonts, there are significant compatibility problems if a presentation is moved from slp continuing education Mac to Windows, or vice versa . PP 1) 384pp means 384 pages; 2) per pro Signed on behalf of. PPA Periodical Publishers Association, trade body for magazine publishers. PPB Paper, print(ing) and essay bind(ing), used to describe one of the major areas of cost in manufacturing a book. cf plant costs. PPG Product Price Group, or discount category. An Essay On The Meaning? Different product categories such as trade hardback fiction, paperback fiction, illustrated non-fiction etc attract different discount rates, and of course different retailers may get different discounts on the same product. Each product belongs in essay, one PPG, and a retailer’s standard terms link each PPG to write the discount that the retailer receives on products in that category; (US: equivalent is TDC, title discount code). Preflighting Checking all details of an culture international, application file (esp.

Quark or PDF file) to write ensure it’s technically complete, correct, and is ready to go to the printer. An essential quality assurance step before dispatch of essay culture application files to repro house or printer. Premium sales Sales of customised versions of existing products, usually to portrays of beauty customers outside the normal book trade. Unlike normal book trade sales, premium sales are not on essay a sale or return basis. cf special sales. Prepress Taking application files and making them ‘press-ready’.

This can include pre-flighting and corrections to the application files, creating final Postscript or PDF, imposition and making the the image of beauty printing plates. Most prepress work is essay international business carried out at repro houses, but a growing proportion of printers are incorporating prepress departments to support CTP. Preseparated Data file or files (esp. Postscript or PDF) where the and power point C, M, Y and K data for a single page is held in separate page images. cf composite. A preseparated PDF file of say, four pages would contain sixteen images, p1 C, p1 M, p1 Y, p1 K then p2 C, p2 M and culture business so on. This is more common than having the CMKK data seperately in four separate files. Presenter Folder or single sheet, usually colour and illustrated with the cover image, containing information on a particular book and possibly some sample pages, produced for sales purposes. An Essay On The Meaning Of Scientific Method? cf blad.

Press marks Trim and registration marks, colour bars used for business press calibration, marks used for checking the slp continuing collation of folded signatures before binding, etc . All are printed outside the international page bleed area on each signature. Print run The number of copies of a book printed at one go in an impression; that printing considered as a whole. Printer Company that operates a printing press and manufactures books (and generally does binding too). Progressives A set of colour proofs where each of the CMYK process colours is persuasive essay and power printed separately and in combination with the other colours – so you get a C proof, a C+M proof, a C+Y, a C+K, and so on. With four process colours, there are 15 combinations in a full set of progressives, but you don’t often get all 15 though – just the set that mirrors the order inks are applied on the press (often K, then K+C, K+C+M, and a full K+C+M+Y). These proofs are used to determine the density of each colour and essay international each colour’s effect on the other colours. Proof Printed test version of material for checking and correction. Proofs are produced for different purposes – Cromalin proofs for checking colour quality, page proofs for checking and correcting typesetting, ozalids for checking impositions. Proof-reading Checking and correcting typeset material such as page proofs or cover/jacket proofs for typographical errors, and marking up to indicate the corrections that need to be made. cf Copy-editing. PSD Photoshop’s native file format.

It contains layer and transparency information, but isn't as widely compatible as image formats like TIFF. Pub date/Publication date The date, fixed by the publisher, on which a book can supposedly first be sold to the public. Media Portrays The Image Of Beauty? In reality, most books go on sale in retailers as soon as they arrive, usually only essay culture international a day or so after they are dispatched from the warehouse, and frequently up to a fortnight before the nominal pub date. Bristol University? Only in essay culture international, the case of a serialization do books first go on sale to the public on the actual publication date, simply because there is an embargo on sales prior to the serialization appearing. cf Release date, Bound stock date. Pubeasy Extranet system allowing customers to check book availability, place and track orders via the slp continuing internet. Originally set up by Vista and Whitaker, now under the ownership of Bowker. Publisher Person or organization responsible for the production and essay international dissemination of a book.

Pulp 1) To destroy unsold books that are no longer wanted. The final alternative to remaindering the copies; 2) The raw material for making paper, made from bristol history wood or recycled paper. Purchase ledger Financial record of essay culture business all money owed by and nature meaning of scientific method the company for culture goods or services we have bought. Purchase orders generated in Computron create entries in the Purchase Ledger. Quark XPress Dominant computer application for on-screen design and layout. Pronounced to rhyme with ‘dark’, not with ‘quart’ (“…three quarks for persuasive and power point Muster Mark.” Finnegan’s Wake by James Joyce). Essay Business? The latest version is education XPress 7. Quark XPress Passport is the multi-language version, and there is also a separate US English edition and others for Arabic and CJK languages.

There are versions for both Mac and Windows, though the Mac version is more widely used in professional publishing. Often just called ‘Quark’, although XPress is not the company’s only product. Not to international business be confused with a German brand of soft cheese. Quire 1) Twentieth of a ream ( ie 25 sheets). Proposals? Originally, a quire was 24 sheets; 2) Library quire, semi-bound book block, sold to specialist library suppliers who add a more durable than normal binding. Quotes Quotation marks, inverted commas. Can be double or single. The preferred choice is culture international business one of the common elements of a house style. University History Dissertations? In Europe, the usual rule is international business ‘Double within single’: ‘I heard him shout “Help!” as he fell,’ said Gerald. Common US typesetting style would be different: “I heard him shout ‘Help!’ as he fell”, said Gerald. Note also the difference in placement of the comma.

Rack size US equivalent of A-format, used for mass market paperbacks. Usually 6 3 / 4 ? 4 3 / 16 ths inches. Rag book Short book for infants and portrays toddlers, where each page is printed on culture international business textile rather than paper. See also board book. Rag paper Expensive paper made from textile fibres (cotton, linen) rather than from weed pulp. Ragged left, ragged right Unjustifed text. Ragged right text is ranged against a straight left margin, and vice versa . cf justified text. RAS Remote Access Server. Computer system through which you can dial a Glasgow phone number with your computer and modem, and connect to the HarperCollins network. Generally poor performance because of the slow speed of media portrays the image of beauty modems, and international replaced by speedier internet-based NFuse access.

However, unlike NFuse, RAS gives you the reason an essay on the meaning method option to synchronise files or e-mails – effectively this copies them on to your laptop so you can access them off-line later ( ie without having to dial in). RAS is used less frequently now, having been replaced by BlackBerries, by NFuse and by VPN. Raster Computer image data consisting of a regular grid of essay culture international business pixels, generally stored as a TIFF or JPEG file. cf vector. A vector illustration such as a logo, diagram or map can be rasterised to write proposals turn it into a grid of culture international business pixels. Ream 500 sheets of paper. Portrays? Originally, a ream was 480 sheets – 20 24-sheet quires. Recommended retail price (RRP) The price put on essay the cover or jacket of a book by reason and nature an essay on the of scientific method the publishers. These days, not necessarily the business price for how to write proposals which it is essay business sold to the customer – though it used to be, when the on the meaning method NBA was in force. Royalties are generally based on business the RRP rather than the the image discounted price. Recto A right-hand page.

Always carries odd number. See verso. Reflow Undesirable occurrence in which the line breaks in typeset copy change due to alterations in the layout, the fonts used, or some other factor. Register In four-colour printing, the essay international business four CMYK images need to be aligned exactly so that combined multi-coloured images look natural. Portrays The Image Of Beauty? Registration is the action of ensuring this precise alignment. To print a red circle, for example, you need to print a yellow circle and a magenta circle exactly in the same place – ‘in register’. Culture International? Any mis-registration would cause a pink fringe to the image show on one side of the circle where the culture international yellow doesn’t quite overlap with the magenta. Registration marks Target marks (often a cross) printed outside the page area, beyond the bleed area, to aid registration.

The reg marks must appear on all plates, so the individual crosses printed in each colour can be lined up. cf trim marks. Reissue As a reprint, but usually with additional AP, renewed efforts to history dissertations sell the book in, and essay usually after the book has been unavailable (out of stock, or even OP) for a period. Most reissues are in fact new cover reissues. Relaunch Like a new cover reissue, but the book is additionally given a new ISBN (contrary to best practice). Dissertations? This is done to encourage the belief that it is a new product and to stimulate sell-in, when in fact it is simply a new cover reissue of an existing or old product. Relaunches cause problems with retailer’s core stock lists, and international make longitudinal sales analysis more difficult. Release date The date on meaning method which books can be released from the warehouse and sent to customers. Generally around three weeks prior to the nominal publication date. See also bound stock date. Remainder Dispose of unsold books by selling at a low price to specialist bookseller (who cannot return them). An alternative to pulping.

Reprint Manufacture a new print run, identical to the previous impression, to essay replenish stock in the warehouse (does not get new ISBN). cf new cover reprint. Repro house Company that turns illustration a/w or trannies into film separations or data, usually a TIFF; (US: engraver). Repro houses scan, do colour proofs, retouching, colour correction, and often are responsible for media portrays of beauty turning illustrated page layouts into Postscript or PDF data required for CTP printing. Many repro houses can also do printing, and conversely, many printers also have prepress departments that are repro houses in all but name. Rerun To typeset a book by taking the electronically-held text of a book that has already been set and culture business reflowing it into a different layout. Media Portrays The Image? So, for example, the text of a hardback book is often rerun for international the smaller paperback edition. Reserved stock Stock in the warehouse set aside for purposes other than fulfilling dues or new customer orders. It may be reserved for an anticipated large order or special deal, for portrays the image example. cf free and frozen stock. Resolution Loosely, the quality of the image or printing process, expressed in dots per inch (dpi). A laser printer is generally 300–600 dpi, typeset and litho printed material is essay international generally 1200–2540 dpi.

Also used to and nature of scientific describe the essay international business quality of TIFF and JPEG files. cf halftoning and lpi – the resolution is not the same as the a good thesis smoking halftone screen (it must be much higher). International? For a printing device such as a laser printer, the resolution in dpi should be at several times greater than the persuasive lpi so that the essay halftone can reproduce an research, adequate range of grey shades – so a 600dpi laser printer can do decent halftones at 106lpi, but cannot reproduce subtle grey shading at 150lpi. An offset litho press working with plates made at culture 2540dpi can easily produce good halftones at slp continuing education 150 or 175lpi. For printing an essay international business, image such as a TIFF or JPEG, you should aim for dpi about twice the lpi – 300dpi for portrays the image of beauty 150lpi printing. Returns Unsold books returned by retailers to the publisher, resulting in a credit to culture the retailer. See also Industry Returns Initiative. Reverse out For example, white text on a dark background image or solid colour area. Revert, Reversion A publisher’s rights to publish a work revert back to the author on termination of the contract.

The contact may terminate at the end of a fixed time, or it can lapse when a book goes out of print. Revises Revised proofs. Page proofs in reason and nature an essay of scientific, which the corrections marked on the original page proofs have been made by essay culture international the typesetter. A Good? Revises (or second proofs) have to be checked against the marked-up page proofs (or first proofs). RFID Radio Frequency Identification. A tiny programmable computer memory chip bound into a book at manufacture, carrying data about the book – its ISBN, price etc . The data on the chip can be read, modified or added to, without physically touching the book, as the chip can communicate by radio. This could simplify many supply chain processes: for example, the essay business chip could be programmed with the slp continuing sales order number and the actual discounted price as it leaves the warehouse, then the price read and credited to the customer if the book is returned, or the contents of a carton could be checked without even opening the box. The technology is not yet in use in the book trade, but has already caused privacy concerns in other industries. RFIDs are in use to track library books in essay culture business, some libraries. RGB Red, Green and Blue. Colours used on how to research proposals computer screen to simulate full range of possible colours.

But an on-screen RGB image can never properly match the final printed effect created by essay international business using CMYK inks on paper. Rich black In colour printing, large solid black areas are printed ‘blacker-than-black’: in education, CMYK, 100K plus between 60–100C, or possibly 100K plus 60–100M for culture business a ‘warmer’ effect. Making a rich black with more than about 250% total ink coverage means the ink will not dry properly, causing offset. Rich text Generic term for a text file that contains accented chararacters, proper punctuation such as curly quotes, en- or em-dashes and other non-Ascii characters. The important thing with any rich text file is to understand the character encoding or character set – UTF-8, UTF-16, Latin-1, MacRoman or Windows-1252 are all relatively common, and a rich text file in one character set will not look right if displayed in a system that uses a different character set. Save an apostrophe ’ on a Mac, and then display it on a PC: unless you control the character set properly, you would see i instead. Rights Conditions and university terms of a licensing agreement (the contract) between a copyright owner (generally the essay business author) and and nature on the method a publisher.

See also volume rights and subrights. Culture International Business? Generally, these rights will be limited to slp continuing specific territories, eg the Home market, Commonwealth countries, or to market sectors like the Educational market. RIP Raster Image Processor. Device that takes Postscript or PDF and creates film or plates. A laser printer is a kind of small scale RIP too, except it transfers the culture international image to paper. Royal A standard book format (TPS = 234 ? 153mm), usually hardback, used for most hardback fiction and general non-fiction. Slightly larger than Demy size. See also trade paperback. Royalty The payment specified in the contract that’s made to an author for every copy sold, usually based on a percentage of RRP but occasionally on a percentage of the publisher’s net receipts. Part of the a good thesis statement about royalty is usually paid in advance. RTF Rich Text File.

A particular type of rich text file format that contains additional formatting such as font, colour and culture international limited page layout information in addition to the wide character support of other rich text formats ( cf Ascii files). It’s sometimes suited to converting documents between applications and smoking platforms, but isn’t as useful as it sounds. RUC Reprint Under Consideration. Indicates book is unavailable: orders may still be taken and culture business build up as dues, and may result in a future reprint or reissue. See OP. S/S (Same size) Reproduce at slp continuing the same size as the original. Sale or return Most books sold by publishers are on sale-or-return terms. Non-returnable books are ‘firm-sale’. Sales CD Monthly on-screen ‘multimedia’ presentation of culture new products, formerly created around 5 months prior to publication and used primarily by Home Sales dept as part of the subscription and sell-in process.

No longer used. See also the monthly brochure. Sales Ledger Financial record of all money owed to an essay on the of scientific the company for essay culture business goods we have sold. Invoices generated in persuasive and power, Vista create entries in the sales ledger. SAN 1) Standard Address Number, unique seven-digit number used to identify the address of a company in the book distribution trade. HarperCollins’ SAN in Glasgow is culture international business 0091073. The GLN, or Global Location Number is like the SAN but is expressed as a 13-digit EAN, and is a more modern global system rather than being limited to the book trade. UK-based GLNs can be derived from the SAN by adding 503067 to history dissertations the front and essay culture business recalculating the and nature of scientific final check digit, so HarperCollins’ Glasgow GLN is 5030670091072. The list of all UK-based SANs and essay GLNs is administered by Nielsen BookData; 2) Storage Area Network, a huge central pool of portrays the image of beauty hard disc storage used by various servers on the computer network. Scale out Retailer’s head offices allocate order volumes to their branches depending on the branch’s profile – its size, customer base etc . A small branch may be told to order ten copies, and a larger branch 15 copies. Scan 1) Action of essay international turning artwork or trannie into a separation or data file; 2) The resulting data file, usually a TIFF or JPEG.

Scatterproof A (colour) proof where images are not ‘in position’ on the page, but arranged together without regard to the (eventual) page layout and without the surrounding text. Screen reader Test-to-speech software that reads text on a computer screen aloud, so the computer can be used by education blind, visually-impaired or other reading-impaired users. Screening Conventional halftoning where the dots are all the same distance apart in a regular grid, but vary in size to simulate dark and light tones. This is culture business called ‘AM screening’. Specified in ‘lines per inch’ (LPI), the number of halftone dots per inch in the grid. Essay Point? cf FM screening (also called ‘stochastic screening’), where the dots are all the same small size but are varying distances apart in a random pattern. FM screening is rare in essay culture business, offset litho printing (though you see it in domestic ink jet printers), but can give very good quality results, as it’s completely free of moire and can be used with more than the statement about smoking basic four process colours.

Section 1) In binding, see signature; 2) In typography, the essay correct name of the § symbol. Self cover Bound without a separate cover, so the first page of the book block is the front cover. Thesis Statement Smoking? The cover is of the same material as all the essay culture business other pages. Sell-in 1) Wholesale sales to bookshops – not real sales, as books are still returnable. In principle, sell-in = sell-out + returns; 2) Frequently used to mean subscription sales to slp continuing bookshops, ie sales specifically in essay culture, the pre-publication period.

Sell-out Retail sales from bookshops to customers – real sales as books cannot then be returned. Also occasionally termed ‘sell-through’. Sell-through 1) Ongoing sales of frontlist titles after the slp continuing education initial sell-in period ( ie during the first few months following publication); 2) See sell-out. Separation (colour separation) 1) Single film or plate element (or the equivalent data) making up a set of separations, each containing the culture business part of the image to be printed with one of the process inks. Four plates are used to and power print a full-colour CMYK image; 2) The action of creating these separations by scanning. Essay Culture Business? Originally this was a photographic process using coloured filters. Serial publication Regularly published items such as monthly magazines, scientific journals and other periodicals. cf monographs and series.

Serialization Where extracts of a book are licensed to a newspaper or magazine for publication, usually immediately prior to the publication date. If a book is serialized, publishers and booksellers must prevent copies going on education sale prior to the agreed pub date. Series Group of linked titles sharing a common series title ( eg seven titles in international, C. S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia ). Technically a set , not a serial, because there is (or will eventually be) a fixed number in a set whereas serials are ongoing publications. Series style Graphical design or typographic style used throughout a series or set of books. Serif A serif is a small line at a good thesis statement the extremities of a main stroke in a type character.

Serifed typefaces include Times, Sabon, Baskerville etc . cf Sans serif. Server A computer offering some centralised service to other ‘client’ computers on essay culture business the same network. The Image Of Beauty? So a file server stores client’s files, a web server delivers a website, and an e-mail server provides e-mail services. SGML Stanardized General Markup Language. Culture International? Highly complex technical standard for mark-up. Effectively the essay and power point predecessor of XML, but rarely used because of its complexity. Sheet Paper cut into essay international, single sheets before printing, and each sheet passed through the persuasive essay press individually. Each sheet is the same size as the essay international printing plate, and is folded and trimmed to create one signature or section of a book. cf web. Sheet-fed press Printing press using cut sheets rather than printing on a continuous web of paper. Short A-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 165 ? 111mm), the same width as standard A-format, but reduced in height. And Power? Does not mean A-format printed short-grain.

Short B-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 185 ? 130mm), the same width as standard B-format, but reduced in essay culture business, height. Short Demy Non-standard book format (TPS = 203 ? 135mm), the same width as standard Demy, but reduced in height. Short grain Paper in which the majority of the fibres lie parallel to the shortest edge of the sheet, or across the slp continuing education web. Culture? cf long grain. Short Royal Non-standard book format (TPS = 221 ? 153mm), the how to proposals same width as standard Royal, but reduced in height. Shoutline Promotional text added to front cover of a book.

Often a review quote, or ‘By the author of…’. Show through Where text or images are visible through a page, because the paper is culture international too thin or not sufficiently opaque. Sic In Latin, sicut , ‘Just as is’. Mark inserted in text (often in brackets in quoted text) to show that an apparent error is media the image of beauty deliberate. Signature 1) The pattern in which pages are imposed, a characteristic of the culture business press and binding system used; 2) the folded section that you get after the sheet has been printed and how to write folded ( eg a 48-page section of a book). SIT StuffIt file, a type of culture business compressed file.

StuffIt is essay and power point suitable for compressing both Windows and Mac files, and essay international is used by Porter. SITX files are a special form of write proposals SIT file that can only be used by OS X. Culture International? cf Zip files. SKU Stock Keeping Unit. Unique number associated with a product, used for bristol warehouse and inventory management. Culture? For books, the ISBN or EAN can act as an SKU, though finer-grained control may be required ( eg where the same ISBN is used for a new cover reissue, the warehouse control system would have to use an extra ‘lot control’ number to identify the two batches of books). SLA Service level agreement, the agreed quality of service (often quoted in terms of time to react, time to complete a job, acceptable technical standards etc ) to be provided by a service department or an external supplier to the company. Slanted Faux italic type produced by statement skewing normal roman type slightly. Slipcase Box to hold book(s), often containing a complete series of books. Slippage 1) An unexpected delay in publishing a title, due to culture international business late delivery from the author, for example; 2) the cost of persuasive essay and power point this delay in postponed cashflow rather than any loss of sales. Slush pile Unsolicited typescripts that are received from authors, sometimes more politely called ‘speculative submissions’. Slush pile material almost never gets published. cf work commissioned from an international, author.

Small caps Capitals the same height as normal lower case letters. Of Beauty? Proper small caps are slightly bolder than they would be if they were simply proportionally reduced from upper case characters, but they are often simulated using normal capitals at two-thirds size. Soft proof On-screen display that mimics the culture business appearance of a printed proof. And Nature An Essay On The Meaning Of Scientific Method? Generally, text and layout issues can be proofed this way, but colour issues cannot, as computer screens are not colour-accurate enough. Solidus Correct name for / sign (especially when used in fractions), more commonly called a slash. Essay? cf the character, usually called a backslash. Solus Alone, separate, dedicated, as in media the image, ‘solus advert’ or ‘solus review’ (major review of a single book, rather than an article containing shorter reviews of several works). Special sales Sales of existing books through non-traditional book outlets. Unlike normal trade sales, special sales are often not on a sale or return basis. cf Premium sales. Spine brass Metal die or stamp that impresses the foil lettering onto the spine of a hardback book, ie onto the board itself, not onto the jacket. Spinner A free-standing, usually metal, rotating display stand used to essay culture international business hold books in an essay meaning of scientific, retail environment.

Spot colour Premixed ink colour ( ie colour not made up of essay international business four-colour halftoning). And Nature Meaning Of Scientific Method? This is usually specified as a specific Pantone colour. sRGB ‘Standard RGB’, the colourspace that Windows assumes all RGB images are in. See also Adobe RGB. Stet An instruction that countermands a previously-marked correction, usually indicated by international a broken underline. In Latin, ‘Let it stand’. See mark-up.

STM Scientific, Technical, Medical – HarperCollins is not an STM publisher. Stock 1) As-yet-unsold books in warehouse; 2) Paper or board to media portrays of beauty be printed on. Stocklist List of all products in print, used by sales depts to administer and encourage backlist sales. Does include titles that are RUC, but not OP titles. Storage In computer terms, this is generally the amount of space on your hard disc or network for permanent storage of documents and other files. cf memory.

Strip and bind To remove the cover from a bound book and rebind it in essay international, a new cover. Strippable In the US, low-value books that can be returned by stripping off the media the image of beauty cover and returning only the cover instead of the whole book, thus saving on shipping. Strippable books carry an S in a triangle printed next to the barcode. Stripping Assembling, especially imposing, film ready for platemaking. Structural editing The first stage of editing, paying particular attention to overall style, pacing, plot etc. cf Copy-editing. StuffIt Files can be compressed with Allume StuffIt, a software application to make files smaller (and thus easier to e-mail or send via FTP) and to combine multiple files into a single ‘.SIT’ archive file. StuffIt Expander is used to reconstitute the original files. Essay? There are versions of StuffIt for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Submission A book or project submitted to a publisher, normally by an agent or author, for possible acquisition. Subscription Initial pre-publication sales process.

Orders taken at this stage build up as dues, and are fulfilled upon publication. Occasionally also termed sell-in. Subscription orders taken can be used as guidance for setting the reason and nature meaning method initial print run. Subsidiary rights (subrights) Rights set out in business, the contract allowing the publisher to exploit the work in ways other than the slp continuing education main book form, eg audiobook, serialization, translation, book clubs. Essay International Business? cf Volume rights. Superior/Inferior In typography and slp continuing design, the correct names for superscript and subscript.

SVG Scalable Vector Graphics. Graphic file format developed for culture international business the web that uses vector graphics, can be thought of as ‘a simplified version PDF expressed in XML’. Not yet as popular as Flash. Swatch Colour sample, sometimes printed on a small square of card, called a ‘chip’. Pantone colour samples are available in booklets of swatches, and some booklets contain many chips to tear out and attach to thesis about layouts. SWOP Specifications for Web-Offset Publications. A (generally American) industry standard that provides the specifications for separations, proofing, and essay culture international business printing process colour using web-offset. cf Euroscale. TeleOrdering System whereby bookshops submit orders to publishers electronically (not on university dissertations internet but via a private computer network). Formerly administered by Whitaker but now a part of Nielsen BookNet.

Telescope DAM software from North Plains Systems. Telescope is used by international HarperCollins in both the UK and slp continuing education US. Territory A geographical limitation on the extent of the essay culture international business rights covered in a publishing contract. Text black Text set in a special spot colour, so that it appears on an extra separation, separate from the normal black used in any illustrations, rules, folios etc . But the ‘text black’ is not printed with a spot ink – the separation is combined with the ‘graphics black’ in order to make the black plate. Bristol University? A text black or fifth black is generally used in culture business, illustrated co-edition books.

The advantage of keeping text separately is that the persuasive essay and power graphics black film need not be remade (or more specifically in a CTP scenario where there is no film, the graphics black does not need to be repeatedly proofed for international business colour quality) for each translated edition – only the text black needs to persuasive point be changed for each different language edition. And if several co-editions are printed at the same time as the main edition, only the single black plate need be changed for culture each subsequent language. Thin client PC connected via network to powerful Windows server system, on which you can use all the major PC applications. The thin client provides only display and media the image keyboard, while the processing is done on the server. May look old, but can be faster and more reliable than thick clients. cf Thick client.

Thin client software can also be run on a Mac, so the Mac can be used to run PC software. Third party In ‘third party’ business, HarperCollins acts as a distributor for essay culture international other publishing companies ( eg Simon and Schuster, Letts and several others). Thesis Statement? Their books are kept in essay business, the Glasgow warehouse, and distributed to method wholesalers and retailers alongside our own titles. Tie-in Special version of a book produced to benefit from promotion of essay business other media products, eg a film tie-in may use an image from the film on the cover. TIFF Tagged Image Format File – a high-quality (‘lossless’) data format for scanned images. Can be mono, greyscale or colour, and can be a very large file. Slp Continuing Education? A single A4-size colour TIFF at suitable resolution for culture printing can be up to 48MB. Bristol University? TIFFs can be uncompressed, or can contain LZW-compressed image data to make the file smaller. Essay International Business? cf JPEG, which creates much smaller files by sacrificing some image quality (‘lossy’). accent, the diacritical mark used in Spanish señor , and also (loosely) of bristol university dissertations a ‘swung dash’.

Tint Pale version of a colour: grey is a tint of black, pink is a tint of red, generally specified by percentage of the essay culture base colour and printed with a halftone. You can also have tints of spot colours, eg 50% of a teal colour such as Pantone 2476 is reason and nature an essay on the meaning a pale minty green, but unless your choice of Pantones is culture international severely limited, it’s better to avoid halftoning by using 100% of and nature a similar hued but paler spot colour like PMS 5493. Tip-in Extra leaf glued into a book after it’s bound, often used for separately-printed illustrations or plates, errata sheets, gatefolds and essay culture other pages that are not the same size, or sometimes for forms to be removed and returned. Title ISBN Sometimes also called the ‘head ISBN’. ISBN of the primary version of how to write proposals a book, usually the initial hardback. Culture International Business? All the bristol dissertations different bindings and editions of a particular book – hardback, paperback, audiobook and so on – share the business same title ISBN. It is, in effect, an identifier for the work, though it’s imperfect because audiobooks and special sales often do not share the same head ISBN as the essay main trade versions of the work. Essay Culture International Business? The ISTC is a much better work identifier, when it is introduced. Title page Page in the prelims (often the third page and always a recto) on which the university history dissertations author’s name, the title of the book, the series title and subtitle (if any) and the imprint logotype all appear. Title verso Page in the prelims backing the essay title page (often the fourth page) on portrays the image of beauty which the essay international copyright notice, publisher and imprint details, the slp continuing education ISBN and impression number, and other details about the essay culture publication of the book appear. Also called the copyright page or imprint page.

Tivoli Software application used to slp continuing make tape backups of culture international business computer data stored on our servers and and nature on the method SAN. TPS Trimmed page size (also trim size and essay international trimmed leaf size). The outer dimensions of a page of a finished book, so for A-format, 178 ? 111mm. Trade paperback (TPB) A large-format paperback, usually Royal or Demy size, with the implication that there is slp continuing education (or will be) a separate smaller A- or B-format paperback for business the mass market. In fiction publishing, a trade paperback version is reason on the meaning often published after the business hardback but before the main mass market paperback version.

In Australia, a trade paperback is often published instead of and power a hardback. Although a paperback, a TPB often earns the author royalties more in line with a hardback; US: trade paperback is often used to mean what in the UK would be a B-format paperback, and essay culture business contrasts with an slp continuing education, rack-sized mass-market edition. Trademark The rights to the use of a specific symbol or words connected to a specific product or service, to differentiate one business, product or service from culture business another. In the media the image of beauty UK, trademarks can be registered with The Patent Office, and international unlike copyright, trademark rights can be renewed indefinitely. Trademark owners object strongly if their mark is used to mean a generic business, product or service ( eg Hoover, Filofax, Coke, Xerox still defend their trademark rights, whereas nylon and escalator have lost their former trademark status). Trademarks can be noted as such with the slp continuing education ™ symbol, and registered trademarks with the ® symbol. Trapping Range of methods to prevent obvious printing errors caused by imperfect registration between the process colours. Essay Culture International? If you wanted to write proposals print a light blue circle within a pink box, and the cyan circle were exactly the same size as the knocked out ‘hole’ in the magenta, any mis-registration between cyan and magenta would show as a white line around half the circle. Since a narrow dark blue halo around the circle where magenta and cyan overlap is culture business less visually intrusive than a white line, the circular ‘hole’ in the magenta is choked – made slightly smaller, typically reducing it by less than 0.25 point – to create a deliberate overlap (overprint), so that any mis-registration between cyan and yellow does not create a white line. Alternatively, the size of the cyan circle could be spread. Whether to choke or spread depends on the visual strength of the colours – generally the weakest colour is increased in area.

Transparency (trannie) 1) Photographic slide; 2) Objects in some Postscript, PDF, EPS and application files can be ‘coloured’ as semi-transparent. These can only be printed after flattening. Transparency is supported from Illustrator version 10, Quark XPress 7, PDF 1.4. Trim marks L-shaped marks printed just outside the page area showing where the page should be cut to media the image of beauty the correct trim size after printing. Culture? Also called crop marks, and occasionally cut marks and tick marks. To allow for some tolerance in the trimming, items intended to how to proposals print right to essay culture international the edge of the university history dissertations page don’t just stop at the trim marks, but extend out into the bleed area. Essay Culture? cf Registration marks. Strictly, trim marks need only be printed in one colour ( ie they only slp continuing need appear on one plate, usually black) but if they are printed on all plates, the same marks can be used for both trim and registration. Truetype One kind of font software that can be used on both Macs and PCs.

Arial and Times New Roman are common Truetype fonts – Helvetica and Times are the Postscript equivalents. Essay Culture International Business? They can provide better cross-platform compatibility than Postscript fonts, but Truetype fonts are often of slp continuing lower quality. Typeface A set of characters (glyphs) that share a distinctive and consistent design, eg Times Roman, Helvetica Oblique or Stempel Garamond Italic. These days, synonymous with ‘font’, though originally font (or fount) meant the characters were also all the same size ( eg Times Roman 12 point). Typefaces come in families of differing weights – Times Roman, Times Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Condensed, Bold Condensed etc . Typescale Special ruler for measuring type sizes, marked in points and essay culture ems instead of inches or centimetres. Typescript Unedited text delivered by an author, usually a Word file on disk, but may be typewritten. Abbreviated TS or ts. The term is now used more commonly than Manuscript, though they are synonymous. Typesetter Company or person that typesets text and lays out pages, creates proofs, does revisions etc (US and traditional UK: compositor). UCC 1) Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’ as agreed in and nature meaning, 1886, and revised in Geneva in 1952 and Paris in 1971) gives legal protection to authors or originators of text, photographs or illustrations etc , to prevent reuse without permission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright mark , the name of the originator and the year of essay culture publication, although this isn’t vital as copyright is automatic – it doesn’t have to be ‘applied for’ or registered with any central agency.

For further details, see The Patent Office website; 2) Uniform Code Council, company that administers the UPC barcode system. See also EAN. UCR/GCR Undercolour removal/grey component replacement. Education? In CMYK printing, removing cyan, magenta and yellow ink from areas where all three overlap and replacing the dark area with black. Essay Culture? This reduces the ink coverage and speeds up drying of the ink. Unders/Overs The amount of persuasive point printed materials that is essay under or over the originally specified print run. Unicode Computer character set. Hugely improved over education, Ascii and Latin-1, because it includes accented characters, fancy punctuation and a wide range of specialised symbols ( eg for maths). In principle – and in contrast to Latin-1 – it also includes all the characters required for essay international business all other written languages, including non-European scripts like Arabic, Devanagari or Chinese, and a vast range of mathematical and other symbols.

Obviously this is font-dependent too – your data may be in Unicode, but if your font does not contain the right characters, you still can’t see it! Again in principle, a single font file could contain glyphs for all the Unicode characters, but in education, practice only essay culture business a subset are included. And Nature Method? OpenType fonts are based around Unicode, and generally contain a much wider selection of glyphs than older Postscript T1 fonts based around the Latin-1 or MacRoman character sets. International? Unicode is relatively new, so not all software can use it. This web page is write research proposals composed in Unicode, which allows it to include special characers like v (square root symbol), (Cyrillic letter de), ? (Arabic character sheen) or ? (Chinese word fang) – but you might not see them correctly if your web browser, font and operating system don’t all support Unicode. Each character in Unicode has a 32-bit number (cf Ascii, which allows 8 bits per character), so Unicode files are four times the size of Ascii files for the same text content. Essay Business? UTF-8 and UTF-16 are special forms of Unicode that reduce the file sizes to something more manageable. UPC Universal Product Code.

Special barcode used on and power books for the US mass market. Generally these books have a conventional ISBN/EAN barcode as well. UPCs on books have been deprecated since the beginning of 2005 and essay have mostly disappeared – they’ll be phased out completely over the next couple of bristol history years. Upper case Capital letters, so called because when type was cast blocks of metal, the capitals were kept in a wooden case on business the top shelf, and lower case letters were kept in a case on the lower shelf. URL Uniform Resource Locator, the portrays internet's equivalent of an essay international business, address – what you type in the location field in persuasive essay and power, a web browser.

Typically starts http://… but other protocols can also be included in URLs ( eg ftp://…). UTF-8, UTF-16 Practical encodings of the Unicode character set. A rich text file could be saved in UTF-8 and be understandable on essay any machine that can deal with UTF-8. More useful than ascii because of the bristol university history dissertations inclusion of accented characters and proper punctuation marks, yet UTF-8 files are roughly the same size as ascii files. UTF-16 is more practical for CJK and other Asian text: it’s rarely used for English text because the files are unnecessarily large (twice the size of the essay international UTF-8 equivalent). UV varnish / UV coating Often just ‘UV’ or ‘spot UV’. Varnish coating used to add shiny finish and make colours richer on covers and jackets. Persuasive? It’s dried using ultraviolet light. Spot UV is applied only to parts of the cover, to international highlight part of an education, image or some text.

See also matt laminate. VAT Value Added Tax: the international business standard rate is currently 17.5% in the UK. Books are zero-rated, whereas e-books, audiobooks and other products such as CD-Roms carry standard rate VAT. Tax on packs containing a mixture of zero-rated and standard-rated items ( eg a book-tape pack) are part-vattable: the proportion of the price that is vattable should generally be worked out from the relative production costs of the items. The exception to this is where one of the university history items can be considered a ‘free gift’ promotional item ( eg includes free CD), or is international of no value whatsoever without the accompanying zero-rated product ( eg an audio CD intended for read-along use with a children’s book). Vanity publisher Publisher who charges (rather than pays) the author to publish the media author’s book; (US: subsidy press). Variance Difference between budgetted amount and actual amount. Negative if sales didn’t meet budget or if costs were greater than expected. Vector Computer image data consisting of lines and shapes, such as (typically) maps, diagrams, logos. Generally quite small files, often stored as an essay culture business, EPS file. cf raster. Vignette 1) illustration in which the how to write research proposals background fades gradually away; 2) gradual change of essay culture colour, also called graduated fill, graduated tint or blend; (US: fountain fill).

VIP Visually Impaired Person. Blind, low-vision and how to write research proposals partially-sighted people. See accessible editions. Business? Note that VIPs hold a legal exception to copyright – they can make copies, scans or other electronic version of media portrays books for their own use. Vista 1) Sales order processing system used to control stock levels and generate invoices; 2) Software company responsible for this sales order processing system and for Production Manager, and original developer of PubEasy. Volume rights Loose term indicating the main rights to publish a book in hardback and paperback acquired in a contract. cf subrights. Voucher copy Free copy of a book given to a contributor, editor or agent. Voucher proof Single proof sent by or to culture international the printer, for confirmation purposes rather than for correction. cf proof. VPN Virtual Private Network.

A way of media portrays the image of beauty securely connecting your computer to essay culture international HarperCollins’ internal network, via the internet, so that while physically you can be at of scientific method home, or in a hotel or some other company’s office, your computer acts just as if it were connected to business the network in slp continuing education, Hammersmith or Glasgow. Through the culture international business VPN, you have access to the intranet or the main servers ( eg Pickup), which are not normally accessible from ‘outside’. Has generally replaced RAS and increasingly is replacing Nfuse as a method for accessing the internal company network remotely. Warning level Stock level set within a stock control application such as BIDS, which triggers an alert and ensures a decision can be made to reprint in a timely fashion, ensuring new deliveries ( ie a new impression) can be delivered to the warehouse before going out-of-stock. Warranty A guarantee given in a contract, usually that an item or service is as stated in the contract. For example, an author usually warranties that they are the original author, that they have the legal power to a good smoking license or assign the copyright to culture international the publisher, and that they agree to indemnify the publisher against this not being the media of beauty case. WAV Wave file, a common type of uncompressed audio file. Essay? Like AIFF and unlike mp3 and AAC, it retains the full quality of the audio.

Web 1) Very long roll of bristol history dissertations paper used on a printing press where the paper is drawn through the press continuously, and only cut into sheets after printing. The web of paper is the same width as each printing plate. cf sheet; 2) The ‘world wide web’ – one of the main uses of the Internet. Web-fed press Printing press which uses a continuous roll (web) of paper rather than individual pre-cut sheets. Essay Culture International? Generally print much faster than sheet-fed presses. Weight A single member of a typeface family. Times Roman and write proposals Times Bold are two weights within the essay Times family. Wet proof Proof printed on a printing press, often a specialised proofing press rather than a litho press, and generally on the stock to bristol dissertations be used in the final product. cf Cromalin, Iris. Essay Business? As wet proofing requires making plates, it’s more expensive than Cromalin or digital proofs. Whitaker Formerly independent bibliographic data aggregator, now merged with Nielsen Bookdata.

As well as supplying bibliographic data to how to write research (among others) WH Smith, Whitaker ran BookScan, was publisher of The Bookseller magazine, and operator of TeleOrdering. Business? Whitaker’s online bibliographic information service, LibWeb, can be checked via the intranet – both for essay our titles and those of other publishers. Whitaker was purchased by VNU in 2002, and in early 2003 combined with its former competitor BookData to essay culture international business form Nielsen Bookdata, under the ownership of portrays the image Nielsen Entertainment. Wholesaler Intermediary between publisher (or primary distributor) and culture international business smaller bookshops, whose orders are generally too small for the primary distributor to deal with efficiently. Wibalin Brand name for the clothlike material used to cover the boards of a hardback book.

Widow The short last line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column of type. Sometimes used more generally, any very short last line of a paragraph (esp. a single word). To be avoided in high-quality typesetting. See also Orphan. Windows Microsoft Windows is the main system software (or ‘operating system’) used by most PCs (but not by Macs). Windows comes in different flavours, including 95, 98, NT (all obsolete), 2000, ME, 2003 and Vista, and provides the framework within which applications such as Word and Excel work. Windows-1252 Character set used by slp continuing default in most Windows software, similar to Latin-1.

Wire stitched Simple binding method where folded sheets are stapled together where they fold. Wiro Type of spiral wire binding. Useful for manuals/atlases as it allows a book to open flat. Without prejudice Legal term used during negotiations between parties. Statements made ‘without prejudice’ cannot generally be held against the party making them – for example, offering to international business make a payment to settle a claim without prejudice cannot be used as an indication that the claim is valid. WOB White out of persuasive point black. White text on black background.

See also reverse out. Wood-free Type of paper made from chemical pulp only. Word Microsoft Word, the de facto standard software application for word processing. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs. Work The single element of intellectual property from which several products (or manifestations in intellectual property terms) may be derived; roughly synonymous with ‘title’. For example, hardback, paperback and e-book manifestations all represent the same work. While ISBNs identify manifestations (at least loosely), there is no equivalent, standardised, global identification scheme for works yet, though see also title ISBN which gets close, and essay business ISTC, which is intended to be such a global work identifier. Work and turn Imposition method. And Nature An Essay Meaning Of Scientific Method? Involves passing paper through a (non-perfecting) press twice, but using the same plate each time, to print two complete signatures on each sheet. Essay Culture International Business? The sheets are split before being folding into sections.

Wove Type of paper with a smooth finish ( cf laid). The process that produces the smooth finish is calendaring. X-height In typography, the an essay on the meaning height of the lower case letters in a font, measured from the baseline to business the top of the x character. cf Cap height. Xerography Printing technique using toner rather than ink, such as in a laser printer or photocopier, or in a ‘digital press’ such as a Xerox Docutech or IBM InfoPrint – presses which are used in POD applications. XHTML A more developed type of HTML used to mark up modern web pages on the internet, but redefined slightly in slp continuing, a more rigorous XML form. A simple example of the difference is essay international business that the research br tag in HTML becomes br / in XHTML. XML eXtensible Markup Language. Modern technical standard for mark-up, allows highly structured, granular documents, and makes data easily reusable.

Often used to communicate data between databases. Originally conceived as a simplified and more usable subset of SGML. See also DTD and XSL. XSL eXtensible Stylesheet Language. Stylesheets ( ie specifications for the appearance – fonts, sizes, colours and so on essay culture international – of the data) used to media the image typeset XML-structured data. XSLT XSL Transformation – method for processing XML documents, for example translating from one DTD to another or into an XHTML format for culture international business output on the internet. Yapp binding Soft cover that extends a few mm beyond the edge of the page (like hardback boards do), often used for media of beauty bibles, vinyl-cover dictionaries. Can also be fitted with a zip, to keep the book closed. Your HC 1) Umbrella term for HarperCollins’ corporate communication and cultural change project; 2) more specifically, the essay culture Your HC intranet news magazine and portal site, gateway to all that is media of beauty HarperCollins. Your Product Intranet-based business information system and replacement for BIDS, now more usually known as BIDS II. Your Product shows product and sales information, and allows direct linking into Cognos for more detailed analytic work.

Zero-rated Books do carry VAT, but are zero-rated – the rate of tax is 0%. This is different from being VAT-exempt. Audiobooks and e-books are not zero-rated, and carry standard rate (17.5%) VAT. Zip 1) In computing, type of removable storage disc a bit like a thick floppy disc. It holds 100MB or (in more recent versions) 250MB of data. Not ultra reliable, but a reasonable way of transferring large files between systems; 2) Type of compressed file, generally created with the PKZIP or WinZip applications. Essay International? Usually only suitable only for Windows files, not Mac files, but Mac OS X can use a special form of Mac-compatible Zip file. And Power? cf SIT files. 2-colour 1) Printing in black plus a spot colour; 2) In graphics, see duotone.

2-up, 4-up 1) Printing two or four copies of something ( eg a cover) at once. This halves the effective print run, but can make more efficient use of essay international business larger presses; 2) More generally, printing two or more items at once ( eg two different covers). 2-for-10, 3-for-2 Common retail promotions, two mass market paperbacks for ?10 or three books for the price of two. 4-sheet Common advertising poster size. It’s 1524mm high and 1016 mm wide, pasted together from four sheets 762 ? 508mm. Why such a seemingly odd size? The individual sheets are 30 inches by media the image 20 inches. 48-sheet Billboard-sized advertising poster, also the largest sized poster used on the London Underground, pasted together from 48 762 ? 508mm sheets. In total, it’s 3048mm high and 6096mm wide. 48-sheets is also the most common large outdoor billboard size, but 96-sheets also exist.

5-colour, 5th colour, 5th black 1) In co-editions, see text black; 2) More loosely, printing in essay culture international business, CMYK plus a spot colour. approx 700 entries. Last updated 18/6/2007. Please report embarassing errors and suggestions for useful words and definitions to include to media the image publishing.systems@harpercollins.co.uk. Desperately seeking definitions – (none at present)

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