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This is for our lit class under Ms. Jeanette Grajo. Chabela Wedding Cake is an excerpt from the novel "Como agua para chocolate/

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Boston University Arts Sciences Writing Program. Many in our modern culture have become concerned with the idea of authenticity. Some argue that we have lost our sense of cake, authenticity and on a dollhouse, can no longer find a “center of self” (Erickson 122). This argument about authenticity is of special interest in the art world since “authentic” artwork is increasingly sought. No longer is it enough for a piece to employ special craftsmanship or an artistic touch, but it must be “authentic” to be worthy of exhibition (Phillips). But what makes a piece of art “authentic”? According to professor and philosopher Dr.

Larry Shiner in his article “Primitive Fakes,” the meanings of words like “art,” “artist,” and “aesthetic” have changed since the eighteenth century. By classical definition, “#8217;art#8217; means any skilled handicraft, #8216;artist#8217; means any skilled maker of an artifact, and #8216;taste#8217; means any set of values for ranking artifacts” (225). However, Shiner explains, these common words have come to take on different meanings: when used in modern discussion, #8216;Art#8217; suggests a distinct realm of works or performances of elevated status, #8216;Artist#8217; implies innovation, individualism, and a devotion to Art as a vocation, and #8216;Aesthetic#8217; suggests disinterested appreciation” (225). Chabela Wedding Cake! This change in our understanding of art over the past two centuries is significant because it illustrates our developing desire for authenticity. In art, we look more for essay culture language individualism and originality—that is, authenticity—and, in the process, we devalue craftsmanship.

But what is authentic art, and, even more, what makes an authentic artist? In his recent documentary Exit Through the Gift Shop (2010), British street artist Banksy weighs in. He tells the story of French videographer Thierry Guetta, who begins to wedding, film Banksy for a potential movie about street art. Instead of creating the revealing film that he promised, however, Guetta ends up becoming an greek aspiring street artist and then the center of Los Angeles pop art hype for several weeks after the opening of his 2008 art show, “Life is Beautiful.” As director Banksy tells this story, he reveals how our quest for authenticity collides with our standards for art evaluation in modern culture. In order to properly discuss the concept of “authenticity,” a term which has evolved over the course of many years, it is necessary to properly define it, and to look at chabela wedding essay some recent developments in research about the subject. Sociologist Andrew Weigert suggests that our modern conception of assertive discipline termpaper, authenticity took hold about chabela wedding cake, 70 years ago (qtd. in Erickson 123), although he points out that conversations about it have taken place for several centuries. According to professor and sociologist Rebecca Erickson, the easiest mistake when attempting to define “authenticity” is to confuse the term with “sincerity.” In Lionel Trilling’s book Sincerity and Authenticity , he defines sincerity as “a congruence between avowal and actual feeling,” which suggests a specific relation to others (qtd. in Erickson 124).

Sincerity, in statement on abortion research, other words, has to do with one’s feelings and thoughts being in agreement with what one says. Authenticity, however, is simply being true to oneself. As Trilling says, “A work of art is itself authentic by reason of its entire self-definition: it is chabela wedding essay understood to plan, exist wholly by the laws of chabela wedding cake, its own being” (qtd. in Erickson 124). Thus, authenticity is a concept of self-reference; it has nothing to do with one’s relationship to bowling, others. Although deeply rooted in many classical and academic fields, authenticity as a social aspiration has only mainly evolved over the past few decades (Erickson 121).

Our interest in authenticity today is cake a result of several factors that have influenced its change in recent years. According to essay about high school vs college, Jeanne Liedtka in her article “Strategy Making and the Search for Authenticity,” theories about the “driving forces behind this interest” are in great supply and come in two categories: those that focus on external factors and those (adopted mostly by psychologists) that concentrate on chabela, internal development (237). Several external factors, Liedtka explains, include a desire to greek mythology, fight back against chabela the mass media and create a unique identity, the rise of “consumer culture,” “fears of loss of meaning and freedom amidst the compare and contrast essay about high vs college, rise of instrumentalism and institutionalism,” and cake essay, the reduced influence and significance of family and other traditional norms in our increasingly tolerant society (238). On the other hand, many developmental psychologists attribute the rising significance of authenticity to a “natural human urge that seeks psychological health, rather than as a reaction to external factors” (238). In other words, our desire for authenticity is assertive discipline termpaper motivated not by environmental reasons but by biological ones. In addition, Erickson argues that, most importantly, our increased attention to authenticity is a result of “the transition from industrial to postindustrial society and from modern to postmodern culture” (121). Whatever the cause, scholars and psychologists alike agree that our modern culture does indeed place great value on authenticity—especially in the Fine Arts.

Liedtka explains that a dominant theme of the authenticity discussion in the art world is “the notion of the authentic as both highly original and simultaneously rooted in familiar traditions” (239). In other words, art critics and analysts bestow authenticity on chabela cake essay, artwork based on both its originality and its relation to compare about school, culture and tradition. This method of art analysis could be a result of many of the aforementioned influences, but the importance of both originality and essay, rootedness suggests that it comes from both external factors (finding individuality and uniqueness) and internal ones (seeking psychological health). Banksy uses his film to contribute to assertive, this conversation about art and authenticity. A street artist since 1992, Banksy is known throughout the world as one of the primary proponents of wedding, graffiti art. He is plan also known for his contempt towards those who label graffiti art as “vandalism.” In Exit Through The Gift Shop , the British street artist focuses on chabela wedding cake, the life of Thierry Guetta, a French cameraman who crosses paths with Banksy and ends up documenting a large amount of Banksy’s work with the intention of creating a documentary about street art. On A! However, as Exit progresses, it seems to turn upon itself, as it focuses on Guetta’s entry into the street art world and his success as a copyist of Banksy. Ultimately, through the wedding cake essay, use of specific scenes and characteristics of the and contrast essay about high, film, Banksy reveals the inauthenticity of Guetta’s art.

In the very opening of the movie, we see a montage of clips of street artists creating art, set to the tune of Richard Hawley’s “Tonight The Streets Are Ours.” This brief foray gives us a privileged look into essay the worlds of famous “masked” artists and their craft. We see everything from artists making detailed paintings, to tagging, and even to spraying paint onto the side of a train. The viewer can almost feel the compare essay, attitude and emotion of the chabela cake essay, artists as they express themselves in culture, such a public and rebellious fashion. However, a significant question to ask is: is this authentic art? More importantly, what does Banksy think? With our previous definition of authenticity in mind (being “true to oneself”), it follows that street art’s authenticity, or inauthenticity, has much to do with the artists’ motivations.

In her article “Writing on chabela cake, Our Walls,” Marisa Gomez, editor of the University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform , says, “Different motivations drive different types of graffiti, and graffiti cannot be understood or controlled without an understanding of the motivations behind its creation” (634). Essay! According to chabela wedding cake, Gomez, because artists’ motivations distinguish graffiti art from vandalism, they are extremely important when seeking to language, understand street art. In “’Our Desires Are Ungovernable’: Writing Graffiti in Urban Space,” Dr. Mark Halsey and Professor Alison Young consider some of these motivations, which they call “the hitherto hidden aspects of graffiti culture.” They argue that graffiti is, first and foremost, about pleasure—whether the wedding essay, emotional pleasure of expressing oneself in a public place, or simply the physical pleasure of assertive discipline, holding a can of spray paint (276). They explain that, initially, motivations for chabela wedding street art included its aesthetic appeal and shared peer activity. However, as this art continued, its motivations began to include pride, pleasure, and recognition.

Ultimately, street art is on abortion paper a form of “Identity Art” which reflects the motivations of its creators (Fine 155). Wedding Cake Essay! By definition, then, street art seems to be authentic—and, indeed, one of assertive termpaper, Banksy’s main focuses in Exit is to establish it as such. After a brief background into Guetta’s life prior to the film, Banksy shows him as he starts to film street artists, beginning with his cousin, “Space Invader.” Guetta documents the street artist’s work incessantly and starts to follow the paths of other artists like Shepard Fairey—best known for his Obama campaign poster—and Borf. These stories of real street artists, who have perfected their craft, emphasize to the viewer Banksy’s appreciation for street artists like himself, who have spent years and years developing their own styles and devoting their time to expressing themselves. This characteristic of street art—true self-expression on the part of the artist—is what makes much of it authentic, according to cake essay, Banksy. However, although Banksy argues in favor of the authenticity of art made by street artists like him, he calls into question Guetta’s art.

While we enjoy secret shots of other street artists at work, Banksy creates an atmosphere of contempt surrounding Guetta, the filmmaker. Each time Guetta pushes his camera into the face of and contrast essay high school vs college, a celebrity or artist at work, we cringe. Tacky music plays as Guetta talks about wedding, how he wants to record every second possible, and Banksy includes a testimonial from the videographer’s wife about how Guetta privileges his filming over his family: “We worry, but he doesn’t care. We need him. He doesn’t think!” We’re similarly overcome with discomfort as Guetta begins to plaster all over on a dollhouse, town drawings of himself holding a camera, copying the styles of Banksy and chabela cake, the street artists he has followed for so long.

We wonder if Guetta is doing this for fame or for self-expression. Plan! At this moment, we begin to chabela cake essay, understand Banksy’s point of view: not all street art is authentic. Another point that Banksy raises about the question of authenticity is street artists’ emotional motivations. One example of this theme is the essay about vs college, street artist Borf, whom Guetta interviews early in the film. Borf explains that his art is in memory of his late best friend, and it holds great emotional value to him. Laidtka points out that, since emotions are such a critical reflection of wedding cake essay, self, they are important to consider when judging authenticity: Social psychologists…emphasize the on a dollhouse, role emotion plays in their discussions of authenticity. Because of the primary role that self-knowledge plays in uncovering the authentic self, emotions are seen as delivering critical messages to chabela cake, the cognitive mind about the self’s true state.

For them, such ‘‘undistorted perception of immediate psychological reality’’ serves as the discipline termpaper, foundation of the chabela cake, authentic. (239) In other words, because emotions are such basic indicators of self and identity, they reflect authenticity. The emotion of pleasure, one of the primary motivations behind graffiti, seems to speak to street art’s authenticity. However, Banksy’s opinion differs with that of Laidtka. Discipline! Guetta clearly has emotional motivations, mainly that of pleasure, as he pastes those printouts and stickers that show him holding his camera. However, Banksy still calls into chabela wedding cake question the essay on a dollhouse, authenticity of chabela wedding cake essay, Guetta’s art. He believes that merely the essay culture language, artist’s pleasure while creating art does not make it authentic; there must be something more that establishes its authenticity. In his article “Crafting Authenticity: The Validation of Authenticity in Self-Taught Art,” Gary Allan Fine, an American sociologist and author, explores how self-taught artists’ identities affect their art. Especially relevant is his discussion on how authenticity is chabela wedding essay bestowed and, specifically, how an artist’s personal legitimacy is used to support his artwork’s aesthetic authenticity in the minds of the cultural elite. This idea is specifically referenced in language, relation to an artist’s biography. Fine says that, in addition to motivation and inspiration, artists’ biographies prove the authenticity of their work: Closely tied to the motivations and inspirations of artists are the presentations of their biographies.

The biographies of cake, self-taught artists justify their authenticity, serving as a primary criterion of evaluation. To be sure, the work itself matters, as many people have interesting biographies, but the biography invests the material with meaning. (162–3) In other words, the essay on a, biography and experience of an artist, not just his motivations, define the authenticity of his art, and an artist’s background gives his work meaning. Banksy’s biography, and those of the other street artists that the film follows, is lengthy. Wedding Cake! However, Guetta’s biography, as an greek mythology artist, is a short one. Prior to his work as a street artist, he was a videographer with hardly an artistic desire, but now he suddenly rises to wedding, prominence. Banksy objects to Guetta’s lack of artistic experience; this, he claims, is an important part of an artist’s identity and must be taken into thesis research account when we judge the authenticity of his work. Ultimately, Banksy feels as if he and other street artists have been cheated.

And it only gets worse, as Guetta (or Mr. Brainwash, as he begins calling himself) becomes famous and chabela, opens an enormous art show in Los Angeles (called “Life is Beautiful”), making almost one million dollars on an artistic style that he has developed in almost no time at all. One art enthusiast at the show says of Guetta’s art, “It’s a triumph, it will go down in history—I’m glad my friends turned me on culture language, to this.” All the glowing praise of Guetta’s artwork, according to Banksy, just shows how eager we can be to believe in chabela cake essay, an art piece’s authenticity. Mr. Brainwash, Banksy claims, is nothing but a hoax—he’s in essay on a dollhouse, it for the money and the fame. As critic Peter DeBruge says, “Clearly, Banksy#8217;s big beef with the essay, contempo art scene is the idea of selling out.

Like many modern artists, Banksy began as a renegade, whereas Guetta aims straight for the iconic status of guys like Andy Warhol and Salvador Dali” (28). Mythology! The fact that Guetta succeeds so easily in the art world raises questions about Banksy’s film itself: Is it real? Is it authentic ? Many reviewers suggest that the film is just an elaborate, if entertaining, hoax—a “prankumentary”—created by Banksy to essay, get artists and thesis, art critics alike to reconsider their methods for placing value on artwork. Not only does Banksy address this issue through the events of the film, but he uses a new artistic medium, the chabela wedding, documentary itself, as well. A central problem of the essay culture language, documentary form is the wedding cake essay, question of authenticity versus entertainment; in the same way that collectors desire authentic artwork, we desire an business authentic experience when we watch a documentary.

As Barry Grant says in his book Documenting the Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video , “The question of the performative has always dogged documentary. Traditional wisdom maintains that one should not stage or imitate reality; instead, the cake, documentary filmmaker is supposed to capture it” (429). In other words, we don’t want a fake, or a copy: we want to watch a film that authentically captures reality—a film that is true to the event it depicts. However, reality is, in fact, boring. What we ultimately desire, then, is an culture language experience that is authentic to us : relevant, interesting, and true. Yet we are so quick to believe in chabela wedding, the authenticity of Exit that we ignore its hints of artificiality—namely, the success of the bumbling and easily distracted Guetta seems too coincidental—and believe that it actually happened. By the culture, end of the cake essay, film, it seems that Bansky has played a trick on us: the authenticity of the film itself is about called into chabela cake essay question. Banksy is drawing a parallel between our approach to visual art and our approach to his film. In the same way that our eagerness to bestow authenticity on Exit causes us to miss the point of the film, our eagerness to call art authentic results in the success of sellouts like Guetta. If Banksy has created his ultimate hoax in research paper, this film, there’s no way to know for chabela wedding sure because, as he avows in compare and contrast about high vs college, interviews, it’s a true story. However, if Guetta’s career was just an elaborately created, filmed prank, it takes Banksy’s questions to a whole new level: essentially, he calls on us to chabela wedding cake, question the thesis on abortion paper, way we evaluate art.

He illustrates that, just as our desire for an authentic experience when we watch a documentary influences us to place value on what may only chabela cake essay, be a complicated hoax, our desire for authenticity in art influences us to sometimes ascribe value to objects that we probably shouldn’t. At the end of the film, in Banksy’s last interview, he mentions one of the consequences of placing value on inauthentic art: its influence on other artists: I don#8217;t think Thierry played by the rules, in some ways, but then . . . Essay! there aren#8217;t supposed to cake essay, be any rules. Discipline! So I don#8217;t really know what the moral is. I mean . . . I used to encourage everyone I met to make art. I used to think everyone should do it.

I don#8217;t really do that so much any more. In other words, because of modern standards for art evaluation, people like Guetta stifle the chabela wedding essay, creativity and motivation of compare and contrast essay about high, other artists because they rise so quickly—and yet their art isn’t authentic. Banksy has been led to question even his own art as a result of Guetta’s fame, and he no longer encourages other artists. Banksy alludes to these consequences but doesn’t come up with a concrete answer: “I don’t know what it means, Thierry#8217;s huge success and arrival in the art world. Chabela Cake Essay! Maybe it means Thierry was a genius all along, maybe it means he got a bit lucky. Bowling! Maybe art is all a big joke.” However, this somewhat disappointing conclusion doesn’t take away from the importance of the issues that Banksy raises.

He has influenced us to consider why we call a piece of art authentic and how that affects the livelihoods of chabela cake essay, other artists. Greek Thesis! In an increasingly changing fine arts culture where it seems as though artists learn the cake, rules to break them, it is becoming more and more important for us to assess our standards for art evaluation, especially in the context of our quest for authenticity. This assessment may well affect the vitality of street artists—and all artists—for decades to come. Debruge, Peter. Thesis Statement Research Paper! “Exit Through the Gift Shop.” Variety . 15–21 Feb. Wedding Cake Essay! 2010: 28.

Web. Erickson, Rebecca. “The Importance of Authenticity for Self and Society.” Symbolic Interaction 18.2 (Summer 1995): 121–41. Print. Exit Through the Gift Shop . Dir. Banksy. Paranoid Pictures, 2010. Netflix. Web. 29 April 2011. Fine, Gary Allan. Greek! “Crafting Authenticity: The Validation of Authenticity in Self-Taught Art.” Theory and Society 32.2 (April 2003): 153–80. Web.

Gomez, Marisa A. “The Writing On Our Walls: Finding Solutions Through Distinguishing Graffiti Art From Graffiti Vandalism.” University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 26 (Spring 1993): 633–707. Web. Grant, Barry. Chabela Cake Essay! Documenting the Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video . Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998. On A! Print. Halsey, Mark and Alison Young. “’Our Desires Are Ungovernable’: Writing Graffiti in Urban Space.” Theoretical Criminology 10 (2006): 275–306.

Web. Leidtka, Jean. “Strategy Making and chabela essay, the Search for Authenticity.” Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2008): 237–48. Web. Phillips, David. Exhibiting Authenticity . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998.

Print. Essay On A Dollhouse! Shiner, Larry. “’Primitive Fakes,’ ‘Tourist Art,’ and the Ideology of Authenticity.#8221; The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52.2 (Spring 1994): 225–34. Web. Writing Consultants are available for all CAS WR classes. Appointments can be booked online. The Writing Program recently announced its competition for Fall 2018 Graduate Writing Fellowships. The Fall 2017 course catalog is chabela cake essay available to view on the Curriculum page.

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odyssey essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to cake, me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut. i.) Background: The Cornell School

Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the attention of a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in culture his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in cake essay Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the culture publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the wedding cake two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature.

He once explained the bowling business term thus: I'll try to say for the last time why I invented this term to begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of chabela cake essay high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for the Real. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the essay dollhouse tale of chabela a world-weary traveler who has been on greek mythology a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in chabela wedding Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall.

But while the assertive termpaper blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to confront the wedding injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to talk about what he has seen. Bowling Plan? Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is morally paralyzed by his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and chabela wedding essay, escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the assertive termpaper Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the chabela wedding cake essay novel is awash in allusions to The Odyssey. The entire novel, especially the essay culture language geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in Upstate New York, home of Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to chabela wedding cake, Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to assertive discipline, the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the cake labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge. The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and essay culture language, the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and chabela cake, angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to compare and contrast essay about high vs college, recognition scenes in chabela cake essay drama. Gnossos is on a dollhouse, one who has gained a painful knowledge from chabela wedding cake essay his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into essay dollhouse wisdom.

As with the absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the chabela wedding cake essay past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the thesis on abortion research academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the wedding loss of greek mythology meaning in the jumble of modern life. Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. Chabela Cake? But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world. Assertive Discipline Termpaper? Like Kurtz sprawled on cake essay his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Dollhouse? Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of enervated cultures, the chabela essay weary terminal of history, an essay, ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in chabela wedding postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by compare and contrast essay about, young discontents. Wedding? It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the on a dollhouse Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement.

But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by noting that it coincided with the invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in man-made materials, especially plastics. Chabela Cake? It was a music that glorified in and contrast essay about school the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in chabela cake 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley). But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of greek Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. He shares with both the beats and the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the superficial, the mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity.

His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms. His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of cake essay his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the realm rather than paper representations thereof. Explaining his use of thesis statement on abortion silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the chabela handling of dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out her heart and eat it raw. More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the essay assertion of an ancient archetype to muscle out the present, the ephemeral, the corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before.

The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and cake essay, ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in plan a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Ech. Immunity not granted to all. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at chabela wedding cake, a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in essay culture love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in all literature: . while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to chabela essay, soothe his agitated nerves.

But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in bowling plan his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and cake essay, lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Gnossos' craving for paper an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to chabela wedding cake essay, the image of Simon sucking on and contrast essay high vs college an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the other. The reference to oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to wedding, deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in essay dollhouse a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to essay, sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to statement on abortion research, pace away his guilt by roaming the streets, and he finds the epiphany of his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and chabela wedding, reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the culture language steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones.

Was Faria haunted by wedding essay, the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of his companions at sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of and contrast Stone. In the short story he quotes the poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura,

Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at essay, a frat party: Dear to me is sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is discipline termpaper, sleep, and chabela cake, dearer to be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh! Speak softly.

The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in essay dollhouse his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and chabela wedding cake, this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to on a dollhouse, me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from each other in the novel. Chabela Wedding? Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and greek mythology, Gnossos too ridicules such patness. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the chabela wedding cake perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is dollhouse, a yearning for quiescence, for wedding cake the quelling of his conscience. The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead.

And yet death is mythology, his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. Chabela Cake Essay? He went in quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of on abortion research paper such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of myth and history, and most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in Gnossos' travels. He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an chabela wedding cake essay, atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of on a dollhouse quest, I've seen fire and chabela wedding cake essay, pestilence, symptoms of a great disease. I'm exempt. Essay? (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an inversion of cake a deeper, unresolved fear. Compare And Contrast High School Vs College? Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of chabela cake essay exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to avert by superstitious rituals, such as the Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of thesis paper clutching the testes.

When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the dangers of the cake essay underworld. (131) These are not the thesis statement on abortion paper actions of one who truly believes he is immune from death. Chabela Wedding Essay? Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump. There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and dollhouse, along the way we have to put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying.

As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an outdated effort now useful only as a document of its time. A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an cake, early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and culture language, revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in an interview with Patrick Morrow that the wedding cake essay composition of the novel spanned two continents and greek thesis, two marriages. Essay? (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the culture language extraordinary success of wedding essay two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to and contrast about school vs college, his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the cake conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of its major innovations, the use of on a illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to cake essay, in the business text itself, was rejected by the publisher. The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Chabela? Your were trying to bowling, write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of wedding later novels to on a dollhouse, cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage.

Guessing at his literary potential from his novel is chabela wedding cake essay, a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive. June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique.

Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an entirely different typeset. Therefore, the page numbers in this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. Discipline Termpaper? New York: Farrar, Straus and chabela essay, Giroux, 2001. Statement On Abortion Research Paper? Pages 10-11.

6.) When Faria was writing the book in the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. Wedding? However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. Greek Mythology? p. Chabela Cake Essay? 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Thesis Statement Paper? Mr. Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie.

Urban Spacemen and chabela essay, Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Stone. Reprinted in Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the language countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Gnossos' urge to chabela essay, depart from essay language society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to wedding, return to greek, earth, one always had to come down. Wedding Cake Essay? Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to greek, him first and put him in jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army.

In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment. The theme of exemption also arises in wedding cake essay Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Long Time Coming and bowling, a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Wedding Cake Essay? Faulkner: A Biography.

Revised one-volume edition. New York: Vintage, 1991. Essay On A Dollhouse? p. 223.

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10 tips for writing a job-winning developer resume. By Justin James | in 10 Things, November 28, 2007, 4:40 AM PST. As seasoned job hunters know, the first step on the road to finding work is to write a resume that gets you the interview. Unfortunately, some of the traditional resume writing rules just do not work well in the software development industry. Here are 10 tips for writing a programmer resume that will increase your chances of getting the interview. Note: This information is also available as a PDF download. For a more detailed look at this topic, see the blog post Write a resume that will land you a programming job. The hiring manager wants to know if you have the skills the company is looking for. An experience section gives managers a good idea of how much experience you have, but if you have a skills section at the top of the resume, their eyes go there first.

Sure, you may be making it a bit easier for them to weed out your resume. But on the flip side, you might bring to their attention some skills they would otherwise overlook. At the very least, the hiring manager will appreciate the skills list. Wedding Cake? #2: Make the plan experience interesting. Most developers on the market have written a data-driven Web site or desktop application. To give a bunch of wedding cake essay, examples of these on your resume is not impressive. What does impress a potential employer is experience that has something unique about it, showing you've done more than just Hello World level work.

If you've been working under unique constraints or in environments with high levels of greek, transactions or zero tolerance for wedding essay failure, that looks very good to the person reading the resume. So show me how your experience is thesis, different, and I will see you as different. #3: Root out grammar, spelling, and other common mistakes. Over the course of my time hiring, I have seen all sorts of grammar and wedding essay, spelling mistakes on essay culture language resumes. One of the most embarrassing was when someone misspelled the name of the college he graduated from. Wedding Cake Essay? Resumes do contain some unique grammatical conventions, and software development work in particular often revolves around acronyms or oddly spelled words. But that is really no excuse. Check your spelling and your grammar. This tip appears on just about every resume advice article I have ever read, but it clearly needs repeating. Compare Vs College? #4: Education counts, but not for much.

Unless you are just entering the job market for programming or are applying for chabela wedding essay a very specialized position, your education is not terribly important. Discipline? Sure, you need to put it on chabela your resume, but list it last, please. The hiring managers who need or want to know about dollhouse, it can find it, and the others won't have to spend time on it. The world of programming changes often enough so that somewhere around seven years later, most schooling (except for principles and theory subjects, like mathematics or pure computer science) and certifications have little in chabela wedding, common with the current working world reality. Essay Vs College? The traditional resume format includes a lot of information that's just not needed, in the mind of the chabela development manager. Compare And Contrast Essay About High? Your summary and possibly even the chabela wedding objective are two such sections. There really is no way to provide a summary that describes most programming pros in a way that is accurate, yet shorter than a resume itself.

This is why most summary sections read like so much useless drivel: Seasoned programmer with 10 years development, followed by highlights of the essay on a skills section. Thanks, but no thanks. The objective is often (but not always) just as useless. If you are looking for a change of pace, it offers a great way to keep the reader from chabela wedding cake essay, pigeonholing you based on your skills and experience. The intermediate programmer looking to slide into a senior developer position can safely skip the objective. The senior programmer who wants to become a software architect or a DBA needs to state an objective.

So avoid the summary at all costs, provide only on a dollhouse useful objectives, and let the reader get to your skill set as quickly as possible. The formatting of your resume is important. While the chabela wedding cake essay days of mailing resumes printed on essay dollhouse premium stationery are long past, it is wedding, still a document that someone needs to read on a computer screen and on paper. On A? That can be quite a balancing act, believe it or not. This is not the time to show off your inner Picasso, unless the wedding essay position you are applying for is of a visually artistic nature. This is the time to enhance readability. That means using a larger font (10 to 12 points), a common font that all computers have (if your document format does not bundle fonts within it), and one that looks good both on the screen and off.

My recommendations are Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, and termpaper, Helvetica. Use enough whitespace so that the wedding essay document does not seem too dense, which will turn readers off. At the same time, don't waste so much space that it takes eight pages to print 200 words. Of course, the format of the file itself is important. My experience has been that 99.9% of the recruiters out essay on a there will ask for wedding your resume in Microsoft Word format if you send it in any other format, so make sure that you can provide a document in essay dollhouse, the standard .doc format. Always keep in mind that the resume is your primary tool for essay selling yourself.

If readers can't consume the information in it, whether due to technical issues or readability problems, they will quickly move on to the next resume. Regardless of how your document is thesis on abortion paper, formatted, try to keep the length between two and four pages, unless there are extremely special circumstances. People who spend a lot of time doing short-term contract work can have longer resumes, and cake essay, people just entering the job market can have shorter resumes. Overall, it is tough to properly highlight your technical skills and more than one position in the traditional one-page resume format. Two pages should be the discipline termpaper baseline for chabela essay any intermediate or senior developer. Greek Mythology? But after about four pages, the reader's eyes start to glaze over. Much like your education, the experience you had more than seven or eight years ago is not terribly relevant, but the hiring manager does like to see an arc of increasing responsibility or project difficulty. Programming is wedding, not like most fields when it comes to employment history. For one thing, many programmers are contractors, which leads to an employment history that can look like a train. In addition, the essay language dot-com bust is not too far behind us, and IT has always been an industry with a lot of bankruptcies, mergers, and acquisitions. The problem is, no hiring manager likes to see a long list of short-term jobs.

If your resume has a string of chabela essay, such jobs, with job titles that get bigger and bigger, you look like someone who has no loyalty. On the other hand, if the jobs seem basically the same (or worse, get lower on the totem pole), it makes the reader think that you may simply be unemployable. If you have a legitimate reason for the short-term jobs, make sure that the reason is obvious. For example, mark the compare and contrast high contracting/consulting positions clearly. #9: Don't put the chabela wedding essay reader at compare about high school legal risk. Chabela Cake? No hiring manager likes to be accused of prejudiced or discriminatory hiring. Not only is it unethical, but it is illegal. So hiring managers who are trying to do the job right will be familiar with the essay dollhouse list of questions they can't ask an applicant.

Your part of the equation is to exclude this information from your resume. The hiring manager does not need to know your marital status, ethnicity, nation of origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation. There are a lot of other things the hiring manager does not need to know, either. If you include these irrelevant details on your resume, the hiring manager will feel scared and skittish. Leave these details out, please. Chabela? In high school, you may have hated being called a geek. But today, you are trying to find work as a programmer. Geek is essay on a, gold to hiring managers.

Find a way to show them that you are smart, love programming, and are constantly growing, learning, and exploring new ideas. Cake Essay? Talk about your relevant hobbies if you have any, like contributing to open source projects or volunteering to teach local kids programming. Let them know if you like programming or computers enough to deal with them outside of work. It is business plan, a really simple equation for essay the hiring manager. While two candidates may be equal today , the compare and contrast essay school candidate with passion will be far more advanced tomorrow than the candidate who treats it as just a job. Chabela Wedding Essay? Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the greek thesis Lead Architect for Conigent. We deliver the essay top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the statement research planet.

Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and cake, videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.

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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on chabela wedding, June 6, 1944, the Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the essay culture language, choppy waters of the English Channel to France. None of those who took part in D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the chabela wedding cake essay, air was breathtaking. Many pilots said later that the sea was packed so full of ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on deception operations. Greek Mythology Thesis? Typhoon and P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to attack German reinforcements coming to chabela wedding cake help defend the coast. Termpaper? Layered screens of Allied fighters between the Parisian region and the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and essay, B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and Brittany.

To the assertive termpaper, great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by sinking two German submarines in the Bay of Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the chabela wedding cake, invasion fleet had sailed at all on the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma. Assertive Discipline? On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of a bad storm. The invasion was put back by twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve.

Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for morale, and the Germans might well have discovered the Allied plan. Told that there might be a break in the bad weather on June 6, Eisenhower assumed the huge responsibility of his position and decided to go. General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the chabela wedding, Second British Army in plan the invading force said later that Eisenhower’s decision was the bravest act of the whole war. Chabela Wedding Cake Essay? It is statement on abortion research easy for us to look back and think that D-Day was bound to succeed, but it could have been a disaster. Operation Overlord, the cake, invasion of Normandy, was an termpaper, intensely emotional event for all the Allies—Americans, British, Canadians, and men from thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in chabela 1940. For the French, this moment of bowling plan, setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant.

For the British, it marked their return at last to wedding the continent of Europe after the assertive discipline termpaper, bitterness of their evacuation from Dunkirk. For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of selfless duty. The United States was once more coming to the rescue of war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. Chabela Wedding? All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the war, the sooner they could go home to their families—assuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for everyone was considerable. Keith Douglas, one of the great soldier poets of the termpaper, Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the following lines shortly before D-Day:

Actors waiting in the wings of Europe. we already watch the lights on chabela, the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge. how much our conduct owes to fear or fury.

The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and discipline, Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed “like freight cars” over the heads of the soldiers packed into landing craft, or bombers coming in from the sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to wedding cake essay block the routes by which German reinforcements would arrive. French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to D-Day, and another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by British and American bombing and thesis on abortion paper, artillery, an cake, even higher figure than the 69,000 British killed by the German air force. It is a terrible irony that the armed forces from democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by the pressure of research paper, public opinion at home to reduce their own casualties as much as possible. Preceded by flotillas of minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and Gold (where two British and one Canadian division were landing), and wedding cake, Omaha and Utah (where the leading battalions of three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at Utah at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, was to head inland to meet up with the paratroopers of the 82nd and essay culture, 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night. Heavily weighed down by wedding cake essay arms and ammunition, some had drowned in flooded areas.

Others landed on German positions and essay, were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on trees or on rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of them survived to join up in improvised groups and cause terror among the German defenders, who thought they were everywhere. Chabela Wedding Essay? They were reinforced by more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft. It was a frightening journey for even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing.

The objective for the American 1st and essay high school, 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Approached from the sea, the beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. Four miles farther around to the west was the essay, Pointe du Hoc promontory. Business? This was where a battalion of chabela wedding essay, US Rangers had to scale a sheer cliff to silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from bowling business, their mother ships at 0520 hours. They had over an hour’s journey in heavy seas to land on the beach at H-hour (the time the chabela, attack was to begin).

The larger ships were anchored at least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. During the long and tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the landing craft were swamped or capsized. The bomber formations appeared at 0605 hours. They flew in essay from the sea to cake reduce their vulnerability to flak over the target area, rather than following the greek thesis, line of the chabela wedding cake essay, coast. As they reached the greek, beaches, their crews delayed an chabela cake, extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. As a result all the ground commanders’ hopes that the air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the defensive positions were utterly dashed. Thesis Statement On Abortion Research? In the essay, thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the B-24 Liberators and B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. “The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did,” one officer in the 1st Division observed angrily later. To compound the problem, the forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the essay culture, beach defences. At a given moment, the landing craft, which had been circling offshore to cake essay await H-hour, headed in toward land.

The absence of fire from the shore aroused hopes that the warships and air force had done their work as planned. And Contrast High Vs College? The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in front of them and the tall landing ramp at the front. The assault craft were still “bucking like an unbroken horse,” so many just shut their eyes against the queasy sensation of motion sickness. By then the landing craft “reeked of chabela cake, vomit.” Because of the termpaper, smoke and dust thrown up by the shelling, the coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. “Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us,” wrote a US Navy lieutenant, “and when a couple of men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the fact that we were being fired at with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy.” When the ramps were dropped, the German machine gunners concentrated their fire on the opening. “Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of chabela wedding, a conveyor belt,” wrote a sergeant from Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the landing craft had come to business a halt on a sandbar short of the beach. The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels. The craft were still bucking with the waves, and wedding essay, “if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down.” In some places men leaped off and essay, found the wedding essay, water over their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of their equipment to survive. Some of those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of language, their equipment, panicked. “There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the tide take them in.” The prospect of crossing the essay, stretch of beach in front of them seemed impossible.

Any idea of trying to run through the shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and boots seemed like a bad dream in business plan which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance. Chabela Essay? There were cries in assertive all directions: “I’m hit! I’m hit!” With many of wedding cake essay, their officers and noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the thesis statement on abortion paper, shock of their reception realized that they had to get across the chabela wedding essay, beach, if only to survive. A soldier from Minnesota in the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in thirty-yard sprints. “I’ve never in thesis statement on abortion research all my life prayed so much.” He looked back at the remnants of his squad. “It was awful. People dying all over the place—the wounded unable to move and being drowned by the incoming tide and boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. . . . I’ve never seen so many brave men who did so much—many would go way back and try to gather in the wounded and themselves got killed.” Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. “At least 80% of our weapons did not work because of chabela wedding cake essay, sand and business plan, sea water.” In their desire to be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of stripping the waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of seawater, and this contributed greatly to the chaos. An artillery officer described the soldiers he saw. “They were beat up and shocked.

Many of them had forgotten that they had firearms to chabela wedding cake use.” It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. A number were barely out of high school, and this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and company officers ordered their men to assertive discipline termpaper clean their rifles. Those who had lost their weapons took them off the chabela wedding, dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to provide the leadership critically needed at this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to start breaking through the essay on a dollhouse, wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to attack the German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory. Once the chabela cake essay, Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to prevail with their overwhelming superiority in air power and artillery. German plans for a massive tank counter-attack against the British Second Army on mythology thesis, the eastern side came to chabela nothing when the Germans were hammered by the heavy guns of the US Navy and compare and contrast essay about school vs college, the Royal Navy off the coast. But the success of D-Day was not enough.

American, British, and Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of chabela wedding cake, vicious fighting ahead in the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and the rest of the country from destruction. Every year on the anniversary of greek, D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in memory of their comrades’ sacrifice. Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in the 11th Hussars in wedding essay Germany. Assertive Discipline Termpaper? He is the author of Crete: The Battle and the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the Liberation, 1944–1949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the Wolfson Prize for History, and essay, the Hawthornden Prize for bowling Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the first Longman–History Today Award; The Battle for Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the RUSI Westminster Medal. His books have appeared in thirty languages and essay, sold just over five million copies.

A former chairman of the Society of culture language, Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Kent and Bath and is a visiting professor at Birkbeck College and the University of chabela wedding cake essay, Kent. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an assertive, Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today!

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