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auditor pwc resume Les notes recentes. Les commentaires recents. montreal tax preparation on FAQs - Tax v. Audit SukLing Yeung on Top 5 ways we inject flexibility at work Anu on Highly Recruited Profiles Faire de l argent en ligne on PwC Wishes You a Happy Holiday Season Graham Smithkort on The Interview Process at cold conclusion PwC – How to Succeed Before, During and school exit exam essay, After the Interview! Francis on cold conclusion, Why did I pick Calgary? Sheza.A.Rizvi@gmail.com on Enhanced working practices at PwC Eileen on federal resume service, Eileen in war essays South Western Ontario Lauren on Why did I pick Calgary? Lillian on Eileen in South Western Ontario. How to make your application to PwC stand out.
Recruiting season has officially begun! This is probably one of the most exciting times of the year for PwC and obviously for students and your conclusion, recent grads. Many students have asked me over the past several weeks how to stand out amongst the competition. My answer is simple. Invest in your personal brand.
Sounds complicated? Not really! Your cover letter and resume is a representation of your brand printed on paper. War Essays Conclusion. The more effort you put into your resume and cover letter now will pay great dividends in the long run! Trust me, I used to detest spending endless hours scrutinizing each and integrated service delivery, every word on conclusion, my resume, but I managed to california school exit exam essay get through and here I am doing what I do best, helping you! Read on for my personal set of cold tips and tricks to help make your application to PwC this fall stand out from the rest of the competition! The cover letter, in my opinion, is as important as your resume, if not more. Students tend to downplay the cover letter, but believe me, a powerful cover letter can propel you to land numerous interviews. Writing Service. What make a powerful cover letter? #0160;I am glad you asked!
Make your prospective workplace want you by talking like “one of them” Simply put, you want your cover letter to make the company you are applying to want you. The easiest way to do this is by using words that makes it seem like you already work there. What I used to cold conclusion do when applying to firms was that I used key words and phrases to make it seem like I did more than just online research about the organization I was applying to. I strongly recommend that you speak to any contacts you have within the firms you are applying to service delivery and regional coordination a literature get an inside scoop of what the firm is all about and any keywords that employees use at war essays conclusion the firm to reflexive essay help make you stand out! With their permission, it is cold war essays also a smart idea to mention their names in your cover letter as this shows that you already have a personal network within the firm! What are some keywords and phrases that you can potentially include in your cover letter when applying to high essay PwC? Flexbility, work-life balance, non-specialization, PricewaterhouseCoopers Canada Foundation, “teach don’t tell,etc. These are just a few. There is no point just listing these down in your cover letter unless you understand the true meaning behind them and how it ties in with you so that you can exercise the words/phrases on your cover letter!#0160; Address the organization’s needs, wants and desires. An elaborate and illustrative job description is going to be your best friend in any job application.
If you have checked out any of PwC’s latest postings on the Brilliant Futures website for conclusion positions in Audit, Tax and/or Consulting, you may have noticed that the words used are unique and inviting. Not only submission, does it mention what you may be doing at the firm, but it also goes over on a very high-level as to what the firm values. Use this information in your cover letter by tying it back to your personal experiences and how your values and the firm’s values align. Cold War Essays. Every great novel has an impeccable theme. If you want your cover letter to be an thesis tiac interesting read, make sure it has a unique theme. I usually like to tie the theme of my cover letter to cold war essays an organization’s core values. For example, PwC’s core values are teamwork, leadership and excellence. Writing Dc. Why not discuss these three topics in your cover letter to further demonstrate why PwC is the right fit for you? Writing a strong cover letter is like playing a tricky game. A common mistake students make in cold their cover letters is making it sound like a wordier version of their resumes. Your cover letter is not your resume.
Think of it like a table of contents. You want to captivate the reader’s attention by highlighting key areas of interest in service delivery a literature review your resume that is unique to you and the firm. Cold Conclusion. If you are absolutely confused as to how to start writing a cover letter, use the following approach. Think of writing the cover letter as a game. There are two main players: you and the recruiter reading your application. The aim of this game is writing your that you have to try to answer the cold war essays conclusion, million dollar question that the recruiter has in his/her mind: “What is in it for me/the firm?” If you can demonstrate, via your cover letter, how the firm will benefit from hiring you in gmu thesis submission the long-run, you are well on your way to winning the game! Reading an applicant’s resume can be smooth sailing for the recruiter, or it can be his/her worst nightmare.
The best resumes are those that are easy to follow and organized. You want to cold do the federal writing service, hiring manager a favour by ensuring that your resume is formatted correctly (clean headings, right and left justified, etc.). Similar to cold laws of attraction between humans, the best looking resumes are a catch in the recruiter’s eyes!#0160; Let me help you get the hiring manager to notice your resume. Gmu Thesis Submission. You have probably been told this numerous times by now, but you want to ensure that your bullet points follow the “STAR” format (situation, task, action, result). Conclusion. This will not only help you structure your answers, but it will make the recruiter’s life a lot easier in understanding what you exactly did on the job and thesis tiac, what key skill you extracted from it. If possible, always quantify any results of certain tasks you performed and share success stories! Gardner? Cashier? Painter? No problem! Many students are afraid to cold war essays conclusion include certain positions they have held in their careers because they feel like it will downplay their chances of your conclusion getting selected by top accounting firms.
Speaking in behalf of PwC, we do not care about the “title” of your job. We care more about what you got out of it! I know several students who have landed interviews at PwC that have only held jobs as city landscapers, cashiers and even bartenders. Think about these three positions for a moment. What do they all have in common? I will give you a hint, it is the cold war essays conclusion, main driver of PwC’s business. Clients! People! Whenever possible, always tie your experience to how you catered to client needs and writing your dissertation, how you worked with people! Did you increase the cold, efficiency of serving drinks to your customers as a bartender, which resulted in greater profits for the restaurant?
Or did you work with your team members on a daily basis to ensure that the city’s landscaping objectives were met ahead of schedule? So remember, include any related work experience on your resume that can attest to the fact that you have dealt with either working in teams, leading a team or catering to reflexive essay client’s/customer’s needs. If you have no work experience, no problem! As long as you have extra-curricular experience that can support to any of the three characteristics above, you are good to go! Resumes are boring without a personality. In my opinion, a resume is war essays probably the more boring document when compared to the cover letter. Writing Your Dissertation. How can you add a little bit of “umph” to war essays yours? Try these tricks: - Use illustrative/captivating vocabulary in your resume (ie- instead of saying “dealt with customers on a daily basis”. Writing Your. write “ passionately dealt with customers on a daily basis”) - Have an “interests” section as this showcases a bit of personality. - Sell yourself. Through your experience, demonstrate what makes you unique!#0160; As always, I wish you the best of luck during the war essays conclusion, recruiting process. Remember, confidence is key.
If you don#39;t believe in yourself, you cannot expect anyone else to. So believe in yourself and high school exam, keep in mind that whatever happens this recruiting season is for the better! Feel free to war essays conclusion post any comments below and/or ask any questions, comments and/or concerns that you might have! Thank you so much for writing dissertation your post again! I#39;ve always feel so pumped after your blogs. I especially like your tip on incorporating the key words into our cover letters. Cold War Essays. I am just wondering if you could please provide some quick advice on my resume and cover letter, if you have the time? I would love to connect with you personally too! Thank you so much for posting this!
I think it is interesting that you mentioned, for the cover letter, to make the prospective workplace want you by talking like one of thesis tiac them. That#39;s really good advice on tailoring the cold war essays conclusion, cover letter by thesis tiac, making it more personal for the company. I agree with you, about adding some personality on the resume such as interests, and so what do you think about adding a link to linkedin profiles on cold war essays, the resume? You made many helpful points, for both cover letter and resume, and I will definitely be applying them! Wow, this is one of the amazing guide to the cover letter and resume. I really like how to high school exit exam essay rubric explained the cover letter as a game to answer the recruiter#39;s most important question. The explanation on how to write resume is also wonderful. Thanks for cold conclusion the post. This is definitely a stressful time for most of the students and I wanted to get my Resume and Cover Letter edited by reflexive essay, as many people as possible before applying. Your post included some excellent tips which I can add to my Resume/Cover Letter. Muhammad Rafay Usmani.
Thank you very much everyone for cold war essays conclusion such positive and encouraging comments! Ujala, I have not seen anyone actually do this and personally, I do not think it really adds any value because your profile on LinkedIn is gmu thesis submission probably just a summary of what you have on your resume. However, if you have something that stands out on your LinkedIn profile that you cannot include on cold war essays conclusion, your resume, it would then might make sense to add it in there. Kathleen/Rafay, add me either on LinkedIn, Facebook, and/or Twitter and your conclusion, let#39;s keep in touch :) Can you confirm that the application deadline for Ryerson University is indeed tomorrow at cold war essays 11:59pm ? It says on our school#39;s website that it is at 9am. and thanks for your great post, very helpful as always. Like always, your blog is very inspiring and useful. I actually just submitted my PwC application and ensured that my resume and cover letter were the best portrayal of my personality, by thesis tiac, using the tips you highlighted above :) Thanks very much for cold conclusion the post I shall be very thank full if sir you , provides a dummy kind of reflexive essay Cover letter ( a more practical way how to conclusion start and finish where to write what. Thesis Tiac. ) and if possible dummy style of CV please. and secondly if I may have no practical work experience how it may possible to demonstrate team work. Thank you so much for cold war essays taking the time to resume service dc write your blogs! Targeting a resume and cold war essays, cover letter is delivery and regional a literature review challenging and your blog provides all the necessary tips to cold war essays conclusion make this process smooth and easy for students like myself.
If you had some time, would you be able to take a quick look at my resume and cover letter? I would really appreciate any advice or tips you may have for improvement.
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The Cold War (1945-1989) essay part 2 - Essay ws
my valentine essay Ben Cardew , January 13th, 2014 08:13. Following the appearance of war essays conclusion, their self-titled third album in our end of year list, Ben Cardew looks back over My Bloody Valentine's catalogue to exit essay rubric find a band as innovative with drums as they were with guitars. When rumours surfaced in the mid-90s that My Bloody Valentine's Kevin Shields had got heavily into cold war essays conclusion, drum bass many observers were surprised. Submission. Shields may well have been one of the foremost modernisers in contemporary music but his innovations were considered to be based firmly in the trebly, guitar-ridden domain of indie rock, a world away from the revolutionary rhythmic fury of drum bass. Except, of course, there is an argument that My Bloody Valentine have innovated a great deal in the world of drums, rhythm and war essays percussion over their 30-year career, but this has been overlooked in the race to reflexive essay acclaim their guitar progressions. Indeed, it was arguably only with the release of mbv in 2013 that My Bloody Valentine's rhythmic invention has come to any kind of prominence, largely thanks to one track – 'Wonder 2' – which clatters along at a moderate drum bass clip (of which more later). Even so, many reviewers overlooked this innovation as they obsessed over cold, whether mbv 's guitar sound was a significant step on from Loveless . Take 'If I Am', mbv 's fifth track: the unusual drum rhythm that kicks off the track is laden with echo that seems to reverberate in reflexive essay, time to the beat, creating extra percussive layers that cradle the gauzey guitars. They pull this trick again on 'In Another Way', giving the song's semi-baggy beat a furiously unseated edge. It's not that putting echo on drums is a new trick, of course, but here it's done in a way that makes it hard to tell what's a drum hit and what is echo, with the effect synched perfectly to the beat in a way that's both unsettling and feverishly funky. But it is on conclusion, the album's last two tracks that the drums really come into service coordination, their own. 'Nothing Is' uses a short drum sample and loops it to create a breakneck beat that sits halfway between 'The Funky Drummer' and an advancing army.
The loop shifts almost imperceptibly as it becomes increasingly freighted with volume and effects, carrying the war essays, song over its three-and-a-half minute length. The album ends with 'Wonder 2', the song that brings the writing your conclusion, band's sound closest to their interest in drum and bass all those years ago. There's one drum and bass song, from cold conclusion, that era when we were doing drum and bass music, which never came out, Shields told the reflexive essay, Quietus in cold war essays conclusion, May 2012, presumably in reference to 'Wonder 2'. We were actually inventing a new sound – and this song doesn't really represent it, but – we were doing slowed down drum and bass music around 1993, 1994. But it just came to nothing, mainly because we didn't know how to do it…. “We got some really good things, but the lesson we learnt was that without the element of spontaneity, without the california high school exam essay, element of chance we used to cold conclusion get from live playing, it doesn't work for us. Just making music on the computer isn't really what I'm into. But there's one song that survived from that period, that approach. Like slowed down drum and resume writing dc bass. Except, um. it's really fast. 'Wonder 2's rhythm track thunders away at a (slow-ish) drum bass tempo with an 'Amen Brother' shuffle (Shields told journalist Simon Reynolds in 1995 that he liked the way the cold war essays conclusion, rhythms on integrated service delivery coordination a literature, drum bass tunes “shift and cold inverse on themselves, the way there'll be ten different beats at reflexive essay, once”).
But there's a massive difference here: whereas the individual sounds on drum bass tracks are typically distinctive, with the listener able to make out every sampled cymbal crash and snare hit, 'Wonder 2's drums are as blurry and conclusion indistinct as the resume writing dc, guitars that surround them. A rhythm is indiscernible, but it sounds as if lost in heavy fog. As a result, it is near impossible to work out what might be drums, what is effects noise (there's a lot of echo here too) and what is war essays actually guitar or some other instrument. Gmu Thesis. 'Wonder 2' uses a drum and war essays bass rhythm, in other words, but it's a rhythm that resonates almost without drums and the effect is remarkable. Drums, clearly, count for reflexive essay, a great deal with Kevin Shields and he goes to significant lengths to get them right. Cold. In a 2012 interview with Drowned In Sound, My Bloody Valentine bass player Debbie Googe revealed that the thesis tiac, drums on mbv had been “added then taken off at cold conclusion, least once”. “His [Shields'] brother did them at one point, then Colm (O'Ciosoig) came in and redid them,” she added. For the band, their innovations with rhythm go right back to 1988, and 'All I Need' from their landmark Isn't Anything album. Integrated And Regional A Literature Review. The song unfurls over war essays, a muted rhythm, one that is more like a heartbeat than a regular drum track, helping to integrated service a literature review emphasise the song's womblike qualities (a description that is cold war essays both cliched and true). Kevin Shields told Tape Op , the california school exam essay, music recording magazine, in 2001 that the drums for the track came from “a drum machine beat just going like a heartbeat effect” used alongside a reverse reverb programme on an Alesis Midiverb II digital effects processor. “It reverses the conclusion, envelope,” Shields explained. “It creates a sort of reflexive essay, simulated effect, you get kind of a rhythmic effect out of it if you have any transients, anything with attack, the attack comes back slightly but you wouldn't know it from war essays conclusion, listening to the record.” It may be easy to writing overlook the drums in a song that presents such a thrilling reinvention of the guitar, but picture 'All I Need' with a regular 4/4 indie rock beat and you'll see how well the heartbeat rhythm works. Equally rhythmically adventurous – albeit in a rather different way – is 'Instrumental Number Two' (also known as 'Instrumental B'), one of two tracks given away on a limited 7” that came with early copies of Isn't Anything . Shields apparently referred to cold war essays it as “a real acid house track”, featuring a drum track lifted (uncredited) Public Enemy's 'Security Of The First World' and has been called the california high exam essay, band's first experimentation with dance music.
Even today, the combination of sampled beat and cold conclusion eerie guitars sounds like little else. Shields told BrooklynVegan that the group were “a very big influence” on the band, explaining, of 'Instrumental Number Two', “it was the beginning of california exam essay rubric, this Public Enemy track, 'Security Of The First World', which is on It Takes A Nation Of Millions… , and we made a loop out of cold, it and put some guitar over it.” And Public Enemy weren't the only hip hop act they were listening to. Resume Service. Shields told Reynolds that it was “the weird sampling in cold war essays conclusion, hip hop records” that inspired the band to make “eerie” guitar effects in the first place. It is worth mentioning at this point the musical environment in which Isn't Anything , My Bloody Valentine's great leap forward, was recorded and reflexive essay released. 1988, for many people, is synonymous with acid house and war essays innovative dance singles, such as A Guy Called Gerald's 'Voodoo Ray' or Baby Ford's 'Oochy Coochy', which suggested a British musical scene running wild with new technological tools. But guitar music at the time was still largely stuck in the world of live instrumentation: notable releases that year included Pixies' Surfer Rosa , Morrissey's Viva Hate and Sonic Youth's Daydream Nation , all great records, but with little in dissertation, the way of rhythmic innovation. In fact, one or two important exceptions aside – Happy Mondays' Bummed and New Order's Technique (released in January 1989, but recorded in 1988) – the worlds of sample-based dance music and indie rock had little connection back in 1988, which makes My Bloody Valentine's experimentation with drum machines and cold war essays sampling all the more revelatory. Two years after Isn't Anything , the Glider EP appeared on Creation, marking another landmark for the band.
The EP kicks off with 'Soon', a song that Brian Eno said “set a new standard for pop”, and which is california school exit essay rubric driven by cold war essays conclusion, a purring breakbeat. This crossover between dance music drums and guitars might not have been entirely revelatory at the time – Primal Scream's 'Loaded' came out two months earlier, in February 1990 – but 'Soon' makes the synthesis sound utterly seamless, in a way that the thousands of stuttering baggy bands would soon do their best to disprove. A year later came Loveless , the band's second album proper and a release that is still talked about in hushed tones some 22 years later. Among the integrated service delivery coordination a literature review, hazy, gliding guitars was another tale of rhythmic invention: Mike McGonigal's 33 1/3 book on Loveless explains that all but two of the tracks ('Only Shallow' and 'Touched') are made up of samples performed by cold war essays, regular drummer Colm O Ciosoig, who was suffering from physical and personal problems at your, the time. “[I]t's exactly what Colm would have done, it just took longer to do,” Shields explained, rather modestly. The effect may have been indistinguishable from live recordings on most tracks – rather the point, you suspect – but it proved another example of the band's willingness to experiment. In the Tape Op interview, Shields explained how the drums were put together for 'To Here Knows When', one of Loveless ' finest moments, combining drum machines with live tambourine. “There's programmed drums and cold they're put through this TC unit, I forget what it's called, but it does dynamics and delay and it's just adds this weird sort of feel to it.
A live tambourine.” The comparison with Primal Scream here is instructive. Thesis Tiac. There is a great deal to connect the cold war essays conclusion, two bands: both were on Creation Records, both came from a background of guitar noise and gmu thesis both made landmark albums of the cold, early 90s in Loveless and Screamadelica . Submission. But these two albums are typically viewed in very different ways: the latter is seen as the record that brought together rock and dance, using sampling and cut and paste techniques to re-define what rock music could be. Loveless , meanwhile, is typically seen as a “guitar album” – albeit a very innovative one. Without wishing to denigrate Screamadelica one bit, much of the war essays, album has its roots in collaboration, kicked off by reflexive essay, Andrew Weatherall's remix work on rocky ballad 'I'm Losing More Than I'll Ever Have', which he turned it into war essays conclusion, rave anthem 'Loaded'. Loveless , however, was largely the work of one man, Shields, who therefore arguably managed to do more to integrate sampling into rock music than any member of federal resume writing service, Primal Scream. This point is underlined by listening to the Andrew Weatherall remix of 'Soon', from the second Glider 12.
In remixing the track Weatherall lifts the cold war essays conclusion, drums from integrated delivery and regional, Westbam's 'Alarm Clock', a popular club track at cold conclusion, the time, creating something that is service and regional a literature review more conventionally dance-ish than the original. His remix is cold not, however, a transformation of the kind that birthed 'Loaded'. It is reflexive essay more of a finesse and war essays the drums are, in fact, equally danceable and interesting on the original song. Whether My Bloody Valentine or Primal Scream contributed more to bringing together the rhythmic revolutions of dance music and reflexive essay the guitar-based world of rock is not really the point. Nevertheless, examining My Bloody Valentine's innovation with rhythm helps us to make sense of the enigma of the band and above all that of leader Kevin Shields.
And this is important. Suddenly, certain things in the history of My Bloody Valentine add up: Shields' love of drum bass and conclusion hip hop, the writing your conclusion, Weatherall remixes, his work with Primal Scream, his re-master job on Screamadelica … “I love when things bend out of shape,” Shields told Pitchfork this summer. “There's a sense of freedom when you hear music like that. Conclusion. That's why I love drum bass music.” Shields is not just a guitar fanatic and submission innovator. He's a musical moderniser, guitars, drums and all. War Essays. And if you miss that, you only get half the story. Correction: the Simon Reynolds interview referenced was originally cited as being published in 2008, but was actually published in 1995; the piece has since been amended. If you enjoy The Quietus, please consider supporting what we do with a one-off or regular donation.
If you love our features, news and reviews, please support what we do with a one-off or regular donation. Year-on-year, our corporate advertising is federal dc down by around 90% - a figure that threatens to conclusion sink The Quietus. Hit this link to find out exam, more and keep on Black Sky Thinking. Jan 13, 2014 2:39pm. In fact, one or two important exceptions aside – Happy Mondays' Bummed and conclusion New Order's Technique (released in January 1989, but recorded in 1988) – the thesis tiac, worlds of sample-based dance music and conclusion indie rock had little connection back in 1988, which makes My Bloody Valentine's experimentation with drum machines and sampling all the more revelatory.
There was a little bit more indie-meets-dance going on than that: PWEI, the reflexive essay, Age of Chance, the Shamen, AR Kane's involvement in MARRS and cold conclusion their own work as ARK, That Petrol Emotion ('Groove Check'), World Domination Enterprises ('I Can't Live Without My Radio') - all these were definitely from the indie guitar world but at least flirting with sampling and dance music, and in integrated review, some cases fully embracing it and abandoning guitars altogether in conclusion, the years to service review come. And don't forget that although they were aimed squarely at an indie-leaning readership, the weekly music press (and Melody Maker in particular) were pretty omnivorous in their coverage at that time and war essays would give a good deal of coverage to reflexive essay industrial, hip hop, funk, house and soul amongst all the war essays, guitar bands, so I'm not sure that too many minds were blown that MBV were using Public Enemy beats (to take nothing away from the great job that MBV did). Jan 13, 2014 4:07pm. That quote from reflexive essay, Kevin about drum and bass rhythms inverting on cold conclusion, themselves, that was actually from writing your, 1995 not 2008. That was me recycling from a piece I did for Alternative Press, titled Where the Fuck Are My Bloody Valentine. Yes three and a half years without a new album felt like a huge gap, like they'd disappeared. fans were getting impatient, anxious by 1995. Subsequently, as the years mounted, it would seem like nothing. I think the first rhythmically interesting thing they did was as far back as 'Slow' on the You Made Me Realise EP, which has a real rolling low end thing going on with the cold conclusion, bass. Submission. they tried to reprise the idea with even more overt nods to hip hop with Soft As Snow (but warm inside) on Isn't Anything , but with less successful results. Jan 13, 2014 6:01pm. I really don't buy it. They were not rhythmical innovative.
The sampled Public Enemy beat had already been snatched by Madonna. Cold. If your looking for intricate rhythms + guitars from the time your talking post-hardcore the beginnings of post rock. It's pretty evident that the drums on Loveless are sequenced, hint: no drummer plays 100% quantized rhythms. Jan 13, 2014 6:05pm. As for Drum Bass + live guitar, Bowie 1997 - Little Wonder. Jan 14, 2014 2:24am.
Soft As Snow (but warm inside) - the sound of the bass during the verses on that track has always amazed me. It sounds as if it's been played slower and time stretched up crudely, warping the submission, the notes in the process. It's something that most people wouldn't leave on a record as it would sound like a mistake to most sound engineers. I love this about Shields' approach to sound. The drum programming on that track is cold war essays kinda influenced Ciccone Youth in a way don't you think? Jan 14, 2014 3:55am. prepared to be corrected, but think justify my love was 1990, and instrumental b came out 88 or 89? Jan 14, 2014 12:16pm.
so they turned up the echo effects pedal on everything then? Jan 14, 2014 3:18pm. nope, don't get this at resume writing service, all. Listening right now to mbv and can't hear any particular rhythmic invention other than a ton of cold war essays conclusion, looping, echo and layering. Don't get me wrong, I like it, it works, it's just not that clever. Jan 14, 2014 3:30pm. mbv's music has drums in it. Jan 14, 2014 3:44pm. I don't buy this either. MBV rhythms aren't particularly interesting - they all fit neatly on gmu thesis, a grid, usually what on an old drum machine would be a 16-beat preset. Cold War Essays. Sonically, though, they're lovely.
If nit-picking rhythmic invention could perhaps be replaced with invention in rhythmic treatments but I'm not even sure that would be true. Jan 16, 2014 11:23am. like most articles about my bloody valentine on the quietus this is thesis tiac total bollocks. what about the beats on the whitey album for example? Jan 16, 2014 11:48am. Not so much rhythmic innovation here but it seems instead to either be using drums in war essays conclusion, a way that plays less of a rhythmic beat role, just adding to reflexive essay the soup of the cold, sound or confusing whether guitars or drums play the rhythm. However shoegaze music since i've first heard it uses simply 'fast over integrated delivery and regional a literature review, slow', its what gives it such a floating feelin, usually having fast dance beats or tremolo effects where the cold, chords and vocal melody are progressing through at snails pace then slowed down more by heaps of california school essay, reverb and the kind of drive that removes note attack. MBV is the contrast between this really.
Plus the cold war essays, use of tunings that purposefully create beating of notes. Jan 16, 2014 4:44pm. you forgot to gmu thesis submission mention that kevin shields invented sliced bread and the wheel while simultaneously discovering america and building the pyramids. this mbv worshipping is getting ridiculous and boring. Jan 17, 2014 5:24pm. Ok, so the programming on some of the MBV tracks-mostly the cold war essays conclusion, slow floaty ones. Service And Regional Coordination Review. see 'Swallow', 'Moon Song'-is somewhat inventive, and Colm's punky drumming on the early Creation stuff is interesting in its Grant Hart-esque intensity (something which I thought would be mentioned in the article) but MBV rhythms are, for cold war essays, the most part, reeealll stiff and california high school exam unfunky, mostly variations on cold conclusion, the Velvet Underground/Neu! motorik thing. which works fine for this kind of music, but isn't exactly the 'Bitches Brew' like cornucopia of polyrhythmic tribal groove this article would seem to imply. Gmu Thesis. That being said M B V did show a greater variety of rhythms than its predecessors. Jan 17, 2014 8:06pm. Great article. As far back as the You Made Me Realise EP, I 'd always considered the rhythms on cold, mbv's records to be a massively important part of their sound and am surprised it's rarely noticed.
Obviously most people just can't hear past the gmu thesis submission, guitars. Simon Reynolds has certainly mentioned it in the past but I would disagree with his comment that Soft As Snow is somehow 'less successful' than Slow. Cold War Essays Conclusion. I've alway considered it to reflexive essay be Slow's equal and still feel it's one of cold war essays, their most groundbreaking tracks. One frequent misconception is federal service dc that rhythmic invention seems be just a case of incorporating elements of dance/electronic music. War Essays Conclusion. I really don't think this is federal resume dc always the case. Drums on tracks like You Made me Realise (and some others on the Feed Me With Your Kiss EP and Isn't Anything) are undoubtedly 'rock' but are still far more rhythmically interesting than 90% of 4 to the floor dance music. Cold Conclusion. I can definitely see a similarity between Colm's skittering drum patterns and the way drum bass producers used rhythms a few years later (so Shield's love of DB makes perfect sense). Jan 19, 2014 11:48pm. I enjoy their lack of generic drum rolls, that's for sure. When I first listened to 'mbv' I thought the gmu thesis submission, drumming/programming was a bit a challenging.
Dec 5, 2016 3:18pm. Or Pitch Shifter on cold, Infotainment in high school essay rubric, '96, and use of guitars and samplers in cold war essays, industrial music generally back to reflexive essay the mid-80s (eg Ministry). I don't see MBV as particularly innovative. Best Of September '17. Best Of September '17. A September Despatch. A September Despatch. The Foundation Of Pop. The Foundation Of Pop. LPs Of 2017 Thus Far.
LPs Of 2017 Thus Far. Make a Contribution. Make a Contribution. Rave Culture Jon Hassell. Dream Theory In Malaya (Fourth World Volume Two) Unsane. Sterilize David Grubbs. Creep Mission Wand.
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Conclusion - Short History - Department History - Office of the Historian
Yeats and 'The Symbolism of war essays, Poetry' One of the writing dissertation, greatest poets of the 20th century and a recipient of the Nobel Prize, William Butler Yeats spent his early childhood in Dublin and Sligo before moving with his parents to London. His first volumes of poetry, influenced by the symbolism of William Blake and Irish folklore and myth, are more romantic and dreamlike than his later work, which is generally more highly regarded. Composed in 1900, Yeats's influential essay The Symbolism of war essays conclusion, Poetry offers an extended definition of resume dc, symbolism and a meditation on the nature of poetry in cold conclusion general. Symbolism, as seen in the writers of our day, would have no value if it were not seen also, under one disguise or another, in school exam rubric every great imaginative writer, writes Mr. Arthur Symons in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, a subtle book which I cannot praise as I would, because it has been dedicated to me; and he goes on to show how many profound writers have in cold the last few years sought for gmu thesis submission a philosophy of cold war essays, poetry in the doctrine of symbolism, and how even in countries where it is reflexive essay almost scandalous to seek for conclusion any philosophy of poetry, new writers are following them in their search. We do not know what the writers of ancient times talked of gmu thesis submission, among themselves, and one bull is all that remains of Shakespeare's talk, who was on the edge of cold war essays conclusion, modern times; and the journalist is convinced, it seems, that they talked of and regional, wine and cold women and resume dc politics, but never about their art, or never quite seriously about their art. He is certain that no one who had a philosophy of his art, or a theory of how he should write, has ever made a work of art, that people have no imagination who do not write without forethought and cold war essays conclusion afterthought as he writes his own articles. He says this with enthusiasm, because he has heard it at so many comfortable dinner-tables, where some one had mentioned through carelessness, or foolish zeal, a book whose difficulty had offended indolence, or a man who had not forgotten that beauty is an accusation. Those formulas and generalisations, in which a hidden sergeant has drilled the ideas of journalists and through them the ideas of all but all the modern world, have created in their turn a forgetfulness like that of soldiers in battle, so that journalists and their readers have forgotten, among many like events, that Wagner spent seven years arranging and explaining his ideas before he began his most characteristic music; that opera, and with it modern music, arose from certain talks at the house of one Giovanni Bardi of Florence; and that the Pleiade laid the foundations of modern French literature with a pamphlet. Goethe has said, a poet needs all philosophy, but he must keep it out of his work, though that is not always necessary; and almost certainly no great art, outside England, where journalists are more powerful and service delivery and regional a literature ideas less plentiful than elsewhere, has arisen without a great criticism, for its herald or its interpreter and protector, and it may be for this reason that great art, now that vulgarity has armed itself and multiplied itself, is perhaps dead in England.
All writers, all artists of any kind, in so far as they have had any philosophical or critical power, perhaps just in so far as they have been deliberate artists at cold conclusion, all, have had some philosophy, some criticism of thesis tiac, their art; and it has often been this philosophy, or this criticism, that has evoked their most startling inspiration calling into cold conclusion, outer life some portion of the divine life, or of the buried reality, which could alone extinguish in the emotions what their philosophy or their criticism would extinguish in the intellect. They have sought for no new thing, it may be, but only to understand and to copy the pure inspiration of early times, but because the divine life wars upon our outer life, and must needs change its weapons and its movements as we change ours, inspiration has come to them in beautiful startling shapes. The scientific movement brought with it a literature, which was always tending to lose itself in externalities of all kinds, in opinion, in declamation, in picturesque writing, in word-painting, or in what Mr. Symons has called an attempt to build in your dissertation brick and mortar inside the covers of a book; and new writers have begun to dwell upon the element of cold war essays, evocation, of federal resume dc, suggestion, upon what we call the symbolism in great writers. In Symbolism in Painting, I tried to conclusion, describe the element of symbolism that is in pictures and sculpture, and described a little the symbolism in poetry, but did not describe at all the continuous indefinable symbolism which is the substance of thesis tiac, all style.
There are no lines with more melancholy beauty than these by Burns: The white moon is setting behind the conclusion, white wave, And Time is setting with me, O! and these lines are perfectly symbolical. Take from them the whiteness of the moon and your dissertation of the wave, whose relation to the setting of Time is too subtle for the intellect, and you take from them their beauty. But, when all are together, moon and wave and whiteness and war essays setting Time and the last melancholy cry, they evoke an emotion which cannot be evoked by any other arrangement of reflexive essay, colours and sounds and forms.
We may call this metaphorical writing, but it is better to call it symbolical writing, because metaphors are not profound enough to be moving, when they are not symbols, and when they are symbols they are the most perfect of all, because the war essays, most subtle, outside of pure sound, and through them one can the best find out what symbols are. If one begins the reverie with any beautiful lines that one can remember, one finds they are like those by gmu thesis submission, Burns. Begin with this line by Blake: The gay fishes on the wave when the moon sucks up the dew or these lines by Nash: Brightness falls from the air, Queens have died young and fair,
Dust hath closed Helen's eye or these lines by Shakespeare: Timon hath made his everlasting mansion. Upon the beached verge of the salt flood; Who once a day with his embossed froth. The turbulent surge shall cover
or take some line that is quite simple, that gets its beauty from its place in conclusion a story, and see how it flickers with the light of the many symbols that have given the story its beauty, as a sword-blade may flicker with the exit exam essay, light of war essays conclusion, burning towers. All sounds, all colours, all forms, either because of their preordained energies or because of school rubric, long association, evoke indefinable and yet precise emotions, or, as I prefer to think, call down among us certain disembodied powers, whose footsteps over our hearts we call emotions; and when sound, and war essays conclusion colour, and form are in a musical relation, a beautiful relation to one another, they become, as it were, one sound, one colour, one form, and reflexive essay evoke an emotion that is made out of their distinct evocations and yet is one emotion. The same relation exists between all portions of every work of art, whether it be an cold conclusion epic or a song, and the more perfect it is, and the more various and numerous the elements that have flowed into its perfection, the more powerful will be the emotion, the power, the god it calls among us. Because an exam essay emotion does not exist, or does not become perceptible and active among us, till it has found its expression, in cold war essays colour or in sound or in form, or in all of your dissertation conclusion, these, and because no two modulations or arrangements of these evoke the same emotion, poets and conclusion painters and musicians, and in a less degree because their effects are momentary, day and night and cloud and reflexive essay shadow, are continually making and cold war essays unmaking mankind. It is indeed only those things which seem useless or very feeble that have any power, and thesis tiac all those things that seem useful or strong, armies, moving wheels, modes of architecture, modes of government, speculations of the reason, would have been a little different if some mind long ago had not given itself to war essays conclusion, some emotion, as a woman gives herself to her lover, and shaped sounds or colours or forms, or all of these, into a musical relation, that their emotion might live in other minds. Gmu Thesis! A little lyric evokes an emotion, and this emotion gathers others about it and melts into their being in the making of some great epic; and at last, needing an always less delicate body, or symbol, as it grows more powerful, it flows out, with all it has gathered, among the blind instincts of daily life, where it moves a power within powers, as one sees ring within ring in the stem of an conclusion old tree.
This is maybe what Arthur O'Shaughnessy meant when he made his poets say they had built Nineveh with their sighing; and I am certainly never certain, when I hear of some war, or of integrated service delivery coordination a literature review, some religious excitement or of some new manufacture, or of anything else that fills the ear of the world, that it has not all happened because of something that a boy piped in Thessaly. Cold War Essays Conclusion! I remember once telling a seer to ask one among the gods who, as she believed, were standing about her in their symbolic bodies, what would come of a charming but seeming trivial labour of a friend, and writing dissertation conclusion the form answering, the devastation of peoples and the overwhelming of cities. I doubt indeed if the crude circumstance of the world, which seems to create all our emotions, does more than reflect, as in multiplying mirrors, the emotions that have come to solitary men in moments of cold conclusion, poetical contemplation; or that love itself would be more than an animal hunger but for the poet and his shadow the priest, for unless we believe that outer things are the reality, we must believe that the gross is the shadow of the subtle, that things are wise before they become foolish, and secret before they cry out in the market-place. Solitary men in moments of integrated service delivery review, contemplation receive, as I think, the creative impulse from the lowest of the Nine Hierarchies, and so make and unmake mankind, and even the cold war essays, world itself, for integrated service delivery a literature does not the cold conclusion, eye altering alter all? Our towns are copied fragments from our breast; And all man's Babylons strive but to impart.
The grandeurs of his Babylonian heart. The purpose of rhythm, it has always seemed to me, is to prolong the moment of contemplation, the moment when we are both asleep and awake, which is the one moment of creation, by hushing us with an alluring monotony, while it holds us waking by variety, to keep us in that state of perhaps real trance, in which the mind liberated from the pressure of the will is unfolded in symbols. If certain sensitive persons listen persistently to the ticking of writing your dissertation, a watch, or gaze persistently on the monotonous flashing of a light, they fall into the hypnotic trance; and rhythm is but the ticking of a watch made softer, that one must needs listen, and various, that one may not be swept beyond memory or grow weary of listening; while the patterns of the artist are but the cold conclusion, monotonous flash woven to delivery coordination review, take the eyes in a subtler enchantment. I have heard in meditation voices that were forgotten the moment they had spoken; and I have been swept, when in more profound meditation, beyond all memory but of those things that came from beyond the cold conclusion, threshold of waking life. I was writing once at a very symbolical and abstract poem, when my pen fell on thesis tiac the ground; and as I stooped to cold war essays conclusion, pick it up, I remembered some phantastic adventure that yet did not seem phantastic, and then another like adventure, and when I asked myself when these things had happened, I found, that I was remembering my dreams for many nights. Submission! I tried to remember what I had done the cold war essays conclusion, day before, and reflexive essay then what I had done that morning; but all my waking life had perished from cold war essays me, and it was only after a struggle that I came to remember it again, and as I did so that more powerful and startling life perished in its turn. Had my pen not fallen on the ground and so made me turn from the images that I was weaving into verse, I would never have known that meditation had become trance, for I would have been like one who does not know that he is passing through a wood because his eyes are on gmu thesis the pathway.
So I think that in the making and in the understanding of a work of cold war essays, art, and the more easily if it is full of reflexive essay, patterns and symbols and music, we are lured to the threshold of sleep, and it may be far beyond it, without knowing that we have ever set our feet upon the steps of horn or of ivory. Besides emotional symbols, symbols that evoke emotions alone,--and in this sense all alluring or hateful things are symbols, although their relations with one another are too subtle to delight us fully, away from rhythm and pattern,--there are intellectual symbols, symbols that evoke ideas alone, or ideas mingled with emotions; and outside the very definite traditions of mysticism and cold conclusion the less definite criticism of certain modern poets, these alone are called symbols. Most things belong to one or another kind, according to the way we speak of them and the companions we give them, for symbols, associated with ideas that are more than fragments of the shadows thrown upon federal writing service dc the intellect by the emotions they evoke, are the playthings of the allegorist or the pedant, and cold war essays conclusion soon pass away. If I say white or purple in an ordinary line of poetry, they evoke emotions so exclusively that I cannot say why they move me; but if I bring them into the same sentence with such obvious intellectual symbols as a cross or a crown of submission, thorns, I think of purity and sovereignty. Furthermore, innumerable meanings, which are held to war essays conclusion, white or to purple by bonds of subtle suggestion, and alike in the emotions and in the intellect, move visibly through my mind, and gmu thesis submission move invisibly beyond the threshold of sleep, casting lights and cold war essays shadows of an indefinable wisdom on coordination a literature review what had seemed before, it may be, but sterility and noisy violence.
It is the intellect that decides where the reader shall ponder over the procession of the symbols, and if the symbols are merely emotional, he gazes from amid the accidents and destinies of the world; but if the symbols are intellectual too, he becomes himself a part of pure intellect, and he is himself mingled with the procession. If I watch a rushy pool in the moonlight, my emotion at its beauty is mixed with memories of the cold, man that I have seen ploughing by its margin, or of the lovers I saw there a night ago; but if I look at the moon herself and service dc remember any of war essays, her ancient names and federal service dc meanings, I move among divine people, and things that have shaken off our mortality, the tower of ivory, the queen of cold conclusion, waters, the shining stag among enchanted woods, the gmu thesis, white hare sitting upon the hilltop, the fool of faery with his shining cup full of dreams, and it may be make a friend of one of these images of wonder, and meet the Lord in the air. So, too, if one is moved by Shakespeare, who is content with emotional symbols that he may come the nearer to cold war essays, our sympathy, one is mixed with the whole spectacle of the reflexive essay, world; while if one is war essays moved by thesis tiac, Dante, or by the myth of Demeter, one is mixed into the shadow of cold, God or of a goddess. So too one is high school exit exam rubric furthest from symbols when one is busy doing this or that, but the soul moves among symbols and cold war essays conclusion unfolds in symbols when trance, or madness, or deep meditation has withdrawn it from every impulse but its own. Integrated Service Delivery! I then saw, wrote Gerard de Nerval of his madness, vaguely drifting into form, plastic images of antiquity, which outlined themselves, became definite, and cold war essays conclusion seemed to represent symbols of which I only seized the idea with difficulty. Federal Service Dc! In an earlier time he would have been of that multitude, whose souls austerity withdrew, even more perfectly than madness could withdraw his soul, from hope and memory, from desire and regret, that they might reveal those processions of symbols that men bow to before altars, and woo with incense and cold war essays conclusion offerings. But being of our time, he has been like Maeterlinck, like Villiers de I'Isle-Adam in submission Axel , like all who are preoccupied with intellectual symbols in our time, a foreshadower of the new sacred book, of which all the arts, as somebody has said, are beginning to cold conclusion, dream. How can the arts overcome the slow dying of men's hearts that we call the progress of the writing your dissertation conclusion, world, and lay their hands upon men's heartstrings again, without becoming the garment of religion as in old times?
If people were to accept the theory that poetry moves us because of its symbolism, what change should one look for in the manner of our poetry? A return to the way of our fathers, a casting out of descriptions of nature for the sake of nature, of the moral law for the sake of the moral law, a casting out of war essays conclusion, all anecdotes and of that brooding over scientific opinion that so often extinguished the central flame in Tennyson, and of that vehemence that would make us do or not do certain things; or, in other words, we should come to understand that the beryl stone was enchanted by our fathers that it might unfold the pictures in exam its heart, and not to mirror our own excited faces, or the boughs waving outside the window. With this change of substance, this return to imagination, this understanding that the laws of art, which are the hidden laws of the world, can alone bind the imagination, would come a change of style, and cold war essays conclusion we would cast out of serious poetry those energetic rhythms, as of a man running, which are the invention of the will with its eyes always on something to be done or undone; and we would seek out california school essay rubric, those wavering, meditative, organic rhythms, which are the cold, embodiment of the imagination, that neither desires nor hates, because it has done with time, and only wishes to gaze upon some reality, some beauty; nor would it be any longer possible for anybody to deny the importance of form, in all its kinds, for although you can expound an gmu thesis opinion, or describe a thing, when your words are not quite well chosen, you cannot give a body to something that moves beyond the senses, unless your words are as subtle, as complex, as full of mysterious life, as the body of a flower or of a woman. Cold Conclusion! The form of sincere poetry, unlike the form of the popular poetry, may indeed be sometimes obscure, or ungrammatical as in some of the your conclusion, best of the Songs of cold war essays, Innocence and Experience, but it must have the federal service, perfections that escape analysis, the war essays, subtleties that have a new meaning every day, and it must have all this whether it be but a little song made out of a moment of integrated and regional coordination, dreamy indolence, or some great epic made out of the dreams of one poet and cold of a hundred generations whose hands were never weary of the sword. The Symbolism of reflexive essay, Poetry by William Butler Yeats first appeared in The Dome in conclusion April 1900 and was reprinted in writing your conclusion Yeats' Ideas of cold war essays, Good and integrated delivery and regional coordination Evil, 1903.
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Essay on the Cold War: it s Origin, Causes and Phases
Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. By: Janna • Essay • 1,431 Words • May 24, 2010 • 576 Views. Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Aesthetics and the philosophy of conclusion, art. It is not uncommon to find aesthetics used as a synonym for the philosophy of art, although it is also not uncommon to find thinkers insisting that we distinguish these two closely related fields. Reflexive Essay? In practice we distinguish between aesthetic and artistic judgements, one refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), whilst the other refers to the appreciation or criticism of an art work.  What counts as art? How best to define the term “art” is a subject of much contention; many books and journal articles have been published arguing over even the basics of war essays, what we mean by the term “art”. Theodor Adorno claimed in 1969 “It is self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident any more.” Artists, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists and programmers all use the notion of art in their respective fields, and give it operational definitions that are not very similar to each other. Further it is clear that even the basic meaning of the term art has changed several times over the centuries, and has changed within the 20th century as well. The main recent sense of the word “art” is roughly as an gmu thesis, abbreviation for creative art or “fine art.” Here we mean that skill is cold war essays conclusion, being used to integrated and regional a literature express the artist’s creativity, or to engage the cold audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to federal writing service draw the audience towards consideration of the cold conclusion “finer” things.
Often, if the skill is being used in a lowbrow or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art, a suggestion which is integrated service review, highly disputed by cold, many Contemporary Craft thinkers. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way it may be considered design instead of art, or contrariwise these may be defended as art forms, perhaps called applied art. Some thinkers, for california high instance, have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. Even as late as 1912 it was normal in the West to assume that all art aims at beauty, and thus that anything that wasn't trying to cold be beautiful couldn't count as art. The cubists, dadaists, Stravinsky, and many later art movements struggled against this conception that beauty was central to the definition of art, with such success that, according to Danto, Beauty had disappeared not only from the advanced art of the thesis tiac 1960’s but from the advanced philosophy of art of that decade as well. Perhaps some notion like expression (in Croce’s theories) or counter-environment (in McLuhan’s theory) can replace the previous role of beauty. Brian Massumi brought back beauty into consideration together with expression. Another concept, as important to the philosophy of art as beauty, is cold, that of the sublime, elaborated upon in the twentieth century by federal service, the postmodern philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard. Perhaps (as in Kennick's theory) no definition of war essays, art is possible anymore. Reflexive Essay? Perhaps art should be thought of as a cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion (as in Weitz or Beuys). Another approach is to cold war essays say that “art” is basically a sociological category, that whatever art schools and dissertation museums and artists get away with is considered art regardless of formal definitions.
This institutional definition of art (see also Institutional Critique) has been championed by George Dickie. Most people did not consider the depiction of a Brillo Box or a store-bought urinal to be art until Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp (respectively) placed them in the context of art (i.e., the art gallery), which then provided the association of these objects with the values that define art. Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by cold war essays, which a work of writing your dissertation conclusion, art is conclusion, created or viewed that makes it art, not any inherent feature of an object, or how well received it is by dc, the institutions of the art world after its introduction to society at large. Whereas if exactly the same set of words was written by a journalist, intending them as shorthand notes to help him write a longer article later, these would not be a poem. Leo Tolstoy, on the other hand, claims that what makes something art or not is how it is experienced by its audience, not by the intention of its creator. Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what function it plays in a particular context; the war essays same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context (carrying wine), and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the beauty of the service and regional a literature human figure). War Essays Conclusion? ' Art Galley Last Friday, when I finished my sociology class I went to see the art exhibition by an artist named Mary Beth Heffernan.
Her. Philosophy is a vast field. It examines and probes many different fields. Virtue, morality, immortality, death, and gmu thesis the difference between the psyche (soul) and the. Philosophy of Art Van Gogh Painting. Art is something that can cause difference of opinion, controversy, and many other contemporary issues. Art can also been viewed in conclusion, many different mediums; such.
Philosophy of Art : Art . It is not just one particular thing to one particular person. It comes in various forms, shapes, and service sizes. Forms such. Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and war essays Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and thesis tiac Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and war essays conclusion Research Papers.
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Conclusion - Short History - Department History - Office of the Historian
essay on attachment R. Chris Fraley | University of conclusion, Illinois. Research on submission adult attachment is guided by cold war essays conclusion, the assumption that the gmu thesis same motivational system that gives rise to war essays conclusion, the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and service a literature, a sampling of some of the cold research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in service delivery and regional coordination review learning more about research on adult attachment. Background: Bowlby's Theory of Attachment.
The theory of conclusion, attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1907 - 1990), a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths (e.g., crying, clinging, frantically searching) to prevent separation from their parents or to reestablish proximity to a missing parent. At the integrated delivery and regional a literature review time of Bowlby's initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of war essays conclusion, immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an submission, evolutionary function. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to cold war essays conclusion, separation from a primary attachment figure --someone who provides support, protection, and care. Writing! Because human infants, like other mammalian infants, cannot feed or protect themselves, they are dependent upon the care and cold war essays, protection of older and wiser adults. Bowlby argued that, over the course of evolutionary history, infants who were able to maintain proximity to an attachment figure via attachment behaviors would be more likely to survive to a reproductive age. School Exit Rubric! According to Bowlby, a motivational system, what he called the cold attachment behavioral system , was gradually designed by natural selection to regulate proximity to california exit essay rubric, an attachment figure.
The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conclusion conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and california essay, modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. According to Bowlby, the attachment system essentially asks the following fundamental question: Is the attachment figure nearby, accessible, and cold conclusion, attentive? If the child perceives the answer to this question to be yes, he or she feels loved, secure, and confident, and, behaviorally, is likely to explore his or her environment, play with others, and be sociable. Gmu Thesis! If, however, the child perceives the answer to this question to be no, the child experiences anxiety and, behaviorally, is likely to exhibit attachment behaviors ranging from cold war essays conclusion, simple visual searching on the low extreme to active following and resume service dc, vocal signaling on the other (see Figure 1). These behaviors continue until either the child is able to reestablish a desirable level of physical or psychological proximity to the attachment figure, or until the child wears down, as may happen in the context of a prolonged separation or loss. In such cases, Bowlby believed that young children experienced profound despair and depression. Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Patterns. Although Bowlby believed that the basic dynamics described above captured the normative dynamics of the attachment behavioral system, he recognized that there are individual differences in the way children appraise the accessibility of the attachment figure and how they regulate their attachment behavior in response to threats. However, it wasn't until his colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1913 – 1999), began to systematically study infant-parent separations that a formal understanding of these individual differences was articulated.
Ainsworth and cold war essays conclusion, her students developed a technique called the strange situation --a laboratory paradigm for studying infant-parent attachment. In the strange situation, 12-month-old infants and their parents are brought to the laboratory and, systematically, separated from and reunited with one another. In the strange situation, most children (i.e., about 60%) behave in reflexive essay the way implied by Bowlby's normative theory. They become upset when the parent leaves the room, but, when he or she returns, they actively seek the war essays parent and are easily comforted by him or her. Children who exhibit this pattern of behavior are often called secure . Other children (about 20% or less) are ill-at-ease initially, and, upon separation, become extremely distressed. Importantly, when reunited with their parents, these children have a difficult time being soothed, and often exhibit conflicting behaviors that suggest they want to be comforted, but that they also want to punish the submission parent for cold war essays, leaving. These children are often called anxious-resistant . The third pattern of attachment that Ainsworth and her colleagues documented is writing your dissertation conclusion, called avoidant . Avoidant children (about 20%) don't appear too distressed by the separation, and, upon reunion, actively avoid seeking contact with their parent, sometimes turning their attention to play objects on the laboratory floor. Ainsworth's work was important for at least three reasons. First, she provided one of the first empirical demonstrations of war essays conclusion, how attachment behavior is patterned in both safe and frightening contexts. Second, she provided the first empirical taxonomy of individual differences in infant attachment patterns. Integrated Service Delivery Coordination A Literature Review! According to her research, at conclusion, least three types of children exist: those who are secure in their relationship with their parents, those who are anxious-resistant, and those who are anxious-avoidant.
Finally, she demonstrated that these individual differences were correlated with infant-parent interactions in the home during the first year of life. And Regional Review! Children who appear secure in the strange situation, for war essays conclusion, example, tend to reflexive essay, have parents who are responsive to their needs. Cold! Children who appear insecure in the strange situation (i.e., anxious-resistant or avoidant) often have parents who are insensitive to their needs, or inconsistent or rejecting in the care they provide. In the reflexive essay years that have followed, a number of researchers have demonstrated links between early parental sensitivity and responsiveness and attachment security. Although Bowlby was primarily focused on understanding the nature of the infant-caregiver relationship, he believed that attachment characterized human experience from the cradle to the grave.
It was not until the mid-1980's, however, that researchers began to take seriously the possibility that attachment processes may play out in adulthood. War Essays! Hazan and Shaver (1987) were two of the first researchers to explore Bowlby's ideas in the context of romantic relationships. According to Hazan and Shaver, the emotional bond that develops between adult romantic partners is partly a function of the same motivational system--the attachment behavioral system--that gives rise to the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers. Gmu Thesis Submission! Hazan and Shaver noted that the relationship between infants and caregivers and the relationship between adult romantic partners share the following features: both feel safe when the other is nearby and responsive both engage in close, intimate, bodily contact both feel insecure when the other is inaccessible both share discoveries with one another both play with one another's facial features and exhibit a mutual fascination and preoccupation with one another both engage in baby talk On the basis of these parallels, Hazan and Shaver argued that adult romantic relationships, like infant-caregiver relationships, are attachments, and that romantic love is a property of the cold attachment behavioral system, as well as the motivational systems that give rise to caregiving and sexuality. Three Implications of Adult Attachment Theory. The idea that romantic relationships may be attachment relationships has had a profound influence on thesis tiac modern research on close relationships. There are at least three critical implications of this idea.
First, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then we should observe the same kinds of individual differences in adult relationships that Ainsworth observed in cold war essays infant-caregiver relationships . We may expect some adults, for example, to be secure in their relationships--to feel confident that their partners will be there for them when needed, and open to depending on others and having others depend on them. We should expect other adults, in contrast, to be insecure in their relationships. Writing Service Dc! For example, some insecure adults may be anxious-resistant : they worry that others may not love them completely, and be easily frustrated or angered when their attachment needs go unmet. Others may be avoidant : they may appear not to care too much about cold war essays conclusion close relationships, and gmu thesis, may prefer not to cold, be too dependent upon other people or to have others be too dependent upon them. Second, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then the way adult relationships work should be similar to the way infant-caregiver relationships work . In other words, the same kinds of factors that facilitate exploration in children (i.e., having a responsive caregiver) should facilitate exploration among adults (i.e., having a responsive partner). Reflexive Essay! The kinds of things that make an attachment figure desirable for infants (i.e., responsiveness, availability) are the kinds of factors adults should find desirable in romantic partners. In short, individual differences in attachment should influence relational and personal functioning in adulthood in the same way they do in cold war essays conclusion childhood.
Third, whether an adult is secure or insecure in his or her adult relationships may be a partial reflection of gmu thesis submission, his or her experiences with his or her primary caregivers . Bowlby believed that the mental representations or working models (i.e., expectations, beliefs, rules or scripts for behaving and thinking) that a child holds regarding relationships are a function of his or her caregiving experiences. For example, a secure child tends to believe that others will be there for him or her because previous experiences have led him or her to war essays, this conclusion. Once a child has developed such expectations, he or she will tend to essay, seek out relational experiences that are consistent with those expectations and perceive others in a way that is colored by those beliefs. According to Bowlby, this kind of cold war essays conclusion, process should promote continuity in california high essay rubric attachment patterns over the life course, although it is possible that a person's attachment pattern will change if his or her relational experiences are inconsistent with his or her expectations. Conclusion! In short, if we assume that adult relationships are attachment relationships, it is possible that children who are secure as children will grow up to be secure in their romantic relationships. Or, relatedly, that people who are secure as adults in school exit exam their relationships with their parents will be more likely to forge secure relationships with new partners. In the sections below I briefly address these three implications in light of early and contemporary research on war essays conclusion adult attachment. Do We Observe the Same Kinds of Attachment Patterns Among Adults that We Observe Among Children? The earliest research on adult attachment involved studying the association between individual differences in adult attachment and the way people think about their relationships and federal writing service, their memories for what their relationships with their parents are like. Hazan and Shaver (1987) developed a simple questionnaire to measure these individual differences. (These individual differences are often referred to as attachment styles , attachment patterns , attachment orientations , or differences in the organization of the cold conclusion attachment system .) In short, Hazan and Shaver asked research subjects to read the gmu thesis three paragraphs listed below, and indicate which paragraph best characterized the way they think, feel, and behave in conclusion close relationships: A. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to thesis tiac, others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them.
I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. B. I find it relatively easy to get close to cold war essays conclusion, others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. And Regional A Literature! I don't worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to cold war essays conclusion, me. C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. Federal Resume! I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. Based on this three-category measure, Hazan and cold war essays conclusion, Shaver found that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of federal resume service, adults classified themselves as secure (paragraph B), about 20% described themselves as avoidant (paragraph A), and conclusion, about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant (paragraph C).
Although this measure served as a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis that the same kinds of individual differences observed in reflexive essay infants might be manifest among adults. (In many ways, the Hazan and Shaver measure assumed this to cold, be true.) Subsequent research has explored this hypothesis in a variety of thesis tiac, ways. For example, Kelly Brennan and her colleagues collected a number of statements (e.g., I believe that others will be there for me when I need them) and studied the way these statements hang together statistically (Brennan, Clark, Shaver, 1998). Brennan's findings suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns (see Figure 2). One critical variable has been labeled attachment-related anxiety . Cold War Essays Conclusion! People who score high on dissertation this variable tend to cold war essays conclusion, worry whether their partner is available, responsive, attentive, etc. People who score on the low end of this variable are more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners. The other critical variable is writing service, called attachment-related avoidance . People on the high end of this dimension prefer not to war essays conclusion, rely on others or open up to others. Thesis Tiac! People on cold war essays conclusion the low end of this dimension are more comfortable being intimate with others and are more secure depending upon and having others depend upon them. California School Exit Essay! A prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions. Brennan's findings are critical because recent analyses of the statistical patterning of behavior among infants in cold conclusion the strange situation reveal two functionally similar dimensions: one that captures variability in the anxiety and resistance of the child and another that captures variability in the child's willingness to gmu thesis, use the parent as a safe haven for support (see Fraley Spieker, 2003a, 2003b). Functionally, these dimensions are similar to the two-dimensions uncovered among adults, suggesting that similar patterns of conclusion, attachment exist at different points in the life span. In light of service delivery and regional review, Brennan's findings, as well as taxometric research published by Fraley and Waller (1998), most researchers currently conceptualize and measure individual differences in attachment dimensionally rather than categorically.
That is, it is assumed that attachment styles are things that vary in degree rather than kind. The most popular measures of conclusion, adult attachment style are Brennan, Clark, and Shaver's (1998) ECR and Fraley, Waller, and resume dc, Brennan's (2000) ECR-R--a revised version of the cold war essays ECR. Integrated And Regional Coordination Review! [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to cold war essays, determine your attachment style based on these two dimensions.] Both of these self-report instruments provide continuous scores on thesis tiac the two dimensions of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance. [Click here to learn more about self-report measures of individual differences in adult attachment.] Do Adult Romantic Relationships Work in the Same Way that Infant-Caregiver Relationships Work? There is conclusion, now an increasing amount of writing, research that suggests that adult romantic relationships function in ways that are similar to infant-caregiver relationships, with some noteworthy exceptions, of war essays, course. Naturalistic research on adults separating from their partners at dissertation conclusion, an airport demonstrated that behaviors indicative of attachment-related protest and caregiving were evident, and that the regulation of these behaviors was associated with attachment style (Fraley Shaver, 1998).
For example, while separating couples generally showed more attachment behavior than nonseparating couples, highly avoidant adults showed much less attachment behavior than less avoidant adults. In the sections below I discuss some of the parallels that have been discovered between the way that infant-caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships function. Cross-cultural studies suggest that the secure pattern of attachment in infancy is universally considered the cold conclusion most desirable pattern by mothers (see van IJzendoorn Sagi, 1999). For obvious reasons there is no similar study asking infants if they would prefer a security-inducing attachment figure. Adults seeking long-term relationships identify responsive caregiving qualities, such as attentiveness, warmth, and sensitivity, as most attractive in potential dating partners (Zeifman Hazan, 1997). California School Exam Essay Rubric! Despite the cold attractiveness of secure qualities, however, not all adults are paired with secure partners. Some evidence suggests that people end up in relationships with partners who confirm their existing beliefs about thesis tiac attachment relationships (Frazier et al., 1997).
Secure base and safe haven behavior. In infancy, secure infants tend to conclusion, be the most well adjusted, in the sense that they are relatively resilient, they get along with their peers, and gmu thesis, are well liked. Similar kinds of patterns have emerged in cold war essays conclusion research on thesis tiac adult attachment. Overall, secure adults tend to be more satisfied in their relationships than insecure adults. Their relationships are characterized by greater longevity, trust, commitment, and interdependence (e.g., Feeney, Noller, Callan, 1994), and they are more likely to cold conclusion, use romantic partners as a secure base from which to explore the world (e.g., Fraley Davis, 1997). A large proportion of research on adult attachment has been devoted to uncovering the behavioral and psychological mechanisms that promote security and secure base behavior in reflexive essay adults. There have been two major discoveries thus far.
First and in accordance with attachment theory, secure adults are more likely than insecure adults to war essays conclusion, seek support from their partners when distressed. Furthermore, they are more likely to provide support to their distressed partners (e.g., Simpson et al., 1992). Second, the attributions that insecure individuals make concerning their partner's behavior during and following relational conflicts exacerbate, rather than alleviate, their insecurities (e.g., Simpson et al., 1996). Avoidant Attachment and Defense Mechanisms. Recent research on adult attachment has revealed some interesting complexities concerning the california high exit relationships between avoidance and conclusion, defense. Although some avoidant adults, often called fearfully-avoidant adults, are poorly adjusted despite their defensive nature, others, often called dismissing-avoidant adults, are able to use defensive strategies in reflexive essay an adaptive way. For example, in an experimental task in which adults were instructed to discuss losing their partner, Fraley and Shaver (1997) found that dismissing individuals (i.e., individuals who are high on the dimension of attachment-related avoidance but low on the dimension of attachment-related anxiety) were just as physiologically distressed (as assessed by skin conductance measures) as other individuals. When instructed to suppress their thoughts and cold war essays conclusion, feelings, however, dismissing individuals were able to do so effectively. That is, they could deactivate their physiological arousal to some degree and minimize the attention they paid to attachment-related thoughts.
Fearfully-avoidant individuals were not as successful in suppressing their emotions. Are Attachment Patterns Stable from Infancy to Adulthood? Perhaps the most provocative and controversial implication of your, adult attachment theory is that a person's attachment style as an adult is shaped by his or her interactions with parental attachment figures. Although the idea that early attachment experiences might have an influence on attachment style in romantic relationships is relatively uncontroversial, hypotheses about the conclusion source and degree of overlap between the two kinds of service review, attachment orientations have been controversial. There are at least two issues involved in considering the question of stability: (a) How much similarity is there between the cold war essays conclusion security people experience with different people in their lives (e.g., mothers, fathers, romantic partners)? and (b) With respect to any one of these relationships, how stable is security over time? With respect to this first issue, it appears that there is a modest degree of overlap between how secure people feel with their mothers, for example, and how secure they feel with their romantic partners. Fraley, for california exam essay rubric, example, collected self-report measures of cold, one's current attachment style with a significant parental figure and a current romantic partner and found correlations ranging between approximately .20 to .50 (i.e., small to moderate) between the integrated delivery and regional coordination a literature review two kinds of war essays conclusion, attachment relationships. [Click here to service and regional coordination a literature review, take an on-line quiz designed to cold war essays conclusion, assess the similarity between your attachment styles with different people in your life.]
With respect to the second issue, the california high essay stability of one's attachment to one's parents appears to war essays conclusion, be equal to a correlation of service and regional review, about .25 to conclusion, .39 (Fraley, 2002). There is only one longitudinal study of which we are aware that assessed the federal dc link between security at age 1 in the strange situation and security of the same people 20 years later in cold war essays their adult romantic relationships. This unpublished study uncovered a correlation of .17 between these two variables (Steele, Waters, Crowell, Treboux, 1998). The association between early attachment experiences and adult attachment styles has also been examined in retrospective studies. Hazan and dissertation, Shaver (1987) found that adults who were secure in their romantic relationships were more likely to recall their childhood relationships with parents as being affectionate, caring, and cold conclusion, accepting (see also Feeney Noller, 1990). Based on submission these kinds of studies, it seems likely that attachment styles in war essays the child-parent domain and attachment styles in the romantic relationship domain are only moderately related at best. What are the reflexive essay implications of such findings for adult attachment theory? According to conclusion, some writers, the most important proposition of the theory is that the integrated delivery coordination review attachment system, a system originally adapted for the ecology of cold, infancy, continues to influence behavior, thought, and feeling in gmu thesis submission adulthood (see Fraley Shaver, 2000). This proposition may hold regardless of whether individual differences in the way the system is organized remain stable over cold war essays conclusion, a decade or more, and stable across different kinds of intimate relationships.
Although the social and cognitive mechanisms invoked by attachment theorists imply that stability in attachment style may be the rule rather than the exception, these basic mechanisms can predict either long-run continuity or discontinuity, depending on the precise ways in integrated and regional coordination review which they are conceptualized (Fraley, 2002). Cold! Fraley (2002) discussed two models of continuity derived from attachment theory that make different predictions about long-term continuity even though they were derived from the same basic theoretical principles. Each model assumes that individual differences in attachment representations are shaped by variation in experiences with caregivers in early childhood, and that, in writing your dissertation conclusion turn, these early representations shape the quality of the individual's subsequent attachment experiences. However, one model assumes that existing representations are updated and revised in light of new experiences such that older representations are eventually overwritten. Mathematical analyses revealed that this model predicts that the long-term stability of individual differences will approach zero. The second model is similar to the first, but makes the additional assumption that representational models developed in the first year of life are preserved (i.e., they are not overwritten) and continue to influence relational behavior throughout the cold conclusion life course. Analyses of this model revealed that long-term stability can approach a non-zero limiting value. The important point here is submission, that the principles of attachment theory can be used to derive developmental models that make strikingly different predictions about the long-term stability of individual differences.
In light of cold war essays, this finding, the existence of long-term stability of individual differences should be considered an empirical question rather than an assumption of the theory. Outstanding Questions and Future Directions for Research on gmu thesis Adult Attachment. There are a number of questions that current and future research on attachment needs to address. For example, it is probably the case that, while some romantic relationships are genuine attachment relationships, others are not. War Essays! It will be necessary for future researchers to find ways to better determine whether a relationship is actually serving attachment-related functions. Second, although it is clear why attachment behavior may serve an important evolutionary function in infancy, it is not clear whether attachment serves an important evolutionary function among adults. Third, we still don't have a strong understanding of the california high precise factors that may change a person's attachment style.
In the interest of improving people's lives, it will be necessary to learn more about the factors that promote attachment security and cold conclusion, relational well-being.