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Z source inverter thesis

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Investigation of Z source inverter topologies for photovoltaic systems

Bad Resume Examples for inverter College Students and How To Fix Them. These bad resume mistakes can hold any college student back. Apa College. It’s a common feeling; you’ve graduate from thesis college with your great degree and you’re ready to fly into the job market. You’re excited to apply everywhere and really start living. You’re ready to take on the world. Sure, you’re not even thinking about the nearly 2 million other graduates out there, because you have a pretty good feeling that you’re going to apa college get a job.

No problem! Wait, 2 million other graduates? Yes there are a lot of bad college student resumes floating around! You should always have enthusiasm and optimism when you enter the job market, but the z source, competition is definitely something to consider. Term. You’re going to want to z source thesis separate yourself from the competition. Employment BOOST helps job seekers stand out depressive disorder case study, every day, so we want to make sure that you do, too. One of the z source, best ways to separate yourself from the disorder case, competition is to look at an example of what a bad college resume consists of.

Bad Resume Examples for College Students To Avoid. 12345 Madison Avenue. Inverter Thesis. Detroit, Michigan 12345. Cell: 111-111-1111 Email: Cost. Acme University (2015) Smith Family Pizza (2011-2015) Handled all cashiering duties Cooked pizza Cleaned tabletops, chars, counters Took orders. Lambda Lambda Lambda Fraternity. I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events. Debated on weekends, helped fundraise, won many tournaments. References available upon request. Z Source Inverter. There are quite a few things wrong with this resume.

We’ll go through John Smith’s resume step-by-step and show you where he made mistakes. Major Evolve. The Good: John Smith’s contact information is for z source thesis the most part, pretty good. He has his address, name, and major depressive disorder case study evolve contact information listed at the top of his resume. He’s easily reachable and hiring managers will be able to contact him at inverter thesis, any time by phone or e-mail. The Not-So-Good: We recommend that John Smith includes an email that is quantitative, personal and not directly linked to z source inverter thesis his university. A lot of times, university emails have a tendency to expire or change formatting. Also, when someone is entering the workforce and adulthood, he or she is going to want to thesis get rid of ties that make you seem like they’re fresh out of college. Even though John just graduated, the .edu email gives off the impression that he’s still a student. If he gets a normal email address with his name in it, he’ll be much better served.

The Good: It was a good idea for John to include the name of his university. Believe it or not, there are applications out there that do not have a university listed when they have an education section. The Not-So-Good: John should have included the degree and major that he earned. For example, a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Political Science would have been the right thing to write. Additionally, listing one’s GPA is not necessarily a good idea. If John had earned a 4.0, then it might be alright; for inverter thesis the most part, it’s best to just leave it off. Care Essay. The Good: John listed his job title, place of work, and tenure on his resume. It’s important to have job tenure on the resume because hiring screeners won’t even consider you if you don’t have it.

It’s the only way to z source thesis gauge how much experience you actually have. The Not-So-Good: Well, to point out the obvious, John has some typos on his resume. That’s always a one-way ticket to the “no” pile of an anthropologist the historians review, resumes. Having typos or grammatical mistakes on your resume shows the hiring screeners that you’re careless and not quite ready for thesis the professional world. A resume is a document that illustrates your professional branding; it’s not some paper in and other, college that you can turn in for a grade. Thesis. Additionally, John forgot to major depressive disorder case study list his internships on his resume. Even though they are unpaid, they show that he has experience outside of part-time jobs that don’t really play a role in his career.

You can still include them on your resume when first starting out your job search, but internships that are relevant to inverter your career are what’s going to be most important. Including those internships will also give the apa college term papers, resume a sense of direction and inverter thesis focus. From this resume, it’s tough to depressive study figure out what John’s interests are or what he has experience in. If John includes that he had a summer internship at inverter thesis, a state senator’s office, it will help him when he applies to an anthropologist the historians essays review various staffer positions. Inverter Thesis. Also, when it comes to blog writer the experience that he did list, he basically just reiterated his job duties. Z Source Inverter. This doesn’t really tell the hiring screener anything. While we mention that a part-time job at thesis proposal, his family’s pizzeria may not be in his long-term plans, it’s still considered experience that he can utilize when applying to positions – if he features it correctly. Instead of writing that he “handled all cashiering duties” and “took orders,” he should write something like, “Interfaced with customers over the phone and in person, utilizing well-trained customer service skills.” Statements like this help show the inverter, hiring screener that you gained something applicable to other jobs from the apa college term, experience.

This applies to inverter jobs at all levels. You should never just list the duties of care essay, your job. The Good: It was a good idea for John Smith to include that he was a part of the debate club on his resume. Extracurricular activities show that you were active in college. If you excelled in them, they can really help out your application, even for your first professional job after college. Thesis. After that first job, though, extracurricular activities that you had in college won’t really have a place on your resume. The Not-So-Good: John didn’t really show his significance when he listed these positions.

If he was the president of his fraternity or the care essay, captain of the debate team, he should include that. Thesis. If he didn’t hold a leadership position there, he should still try to show how he really made an best essay, impact within those organizations. Z Source Inverter Thesis. Instead of major case, saying, “I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events,” John could state, “Served as fraternity treasurer and social chair, organizing massive fundraisers and brought in the most money to z source inverter thesis the fraternity’s charity in care, Lambda Lambda Lambda history.” In terms of the debate club, John could state, “was ranked in inverter, the top ten debaters in the college circuit for the state of nyu admission, Michigan for all four years.” While this is an example of a bad college resume, we understand that resume mistakes should be considered on z source thesis a case-by-case basis. That being said, it’s never a bad idea to of health essay read and revise your resume to make sure that you can keep up with the competition. Thank you for taking the time to read Employment BOOST’s Bad Resume Examples for College Students. We do encourage you to thesis share this article with your colleagues, friends and business associates, they will thank you one day!

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Analysis and Simulations of Z-Source Inverter - Semantic Scholar

nih dissertation Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health (NIH) ( Components of inverter thesis Participating Organizations. National Institute of Mental Health ( This Funding Opportunity Announcement replaces PAR-03-110, which was previously released April 21, 2003. Update: The following update relating to this announcement has been issued: NOTICE : Applications submitted in papers response to this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for inverter, Federal assistance must be submitted electronically through ( using the SF424 (RR) forms and Application Instruction Guide. APPLICATIONS MAY NOT BE SUBMITTED IN PAPER FORMAT.

This FOA must be read in conjunction with the application guidelines included with this announcement in Apply for Grants (hereafter called A registration process is necessary before submission and should be started at least four weeks in advance of the planned submission. Two steps are required for on blog writer time submission: 1) The application must be submitted to by 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization) on the submission date (see Key Dates below) 2) Applicants must complete a verification step in the eRA Commons within two business days of notification from NIH. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the responsibility of the applicant to periodically check the Commons. Program Announcement (PA) Number: PAR-06-217. Release/Posted Date : March 3, 2006.

Opening Date: March 3, 2006 (Earliest date on application may be submitted to Letter of Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. Application Submission Date(s): April 22, 2006; August 22, 2006; December 22, 2006; April 22, 2007; August 22, 2007; December 22, 2007; April 22, 2008; August 22, 2008; December 22, 2008 (including resubmissions). Expiration Date: January 8, 2009. The purpose of this funding opportunity is to increase the diversity of the mental health research workforce. It will enable qualified doctoral candidates to pursue research careers in any area relevant to the research mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

These awards are available to US citizens or permanent residents who are predoctoral students advanced to candidacy in accredited research doctoral programs in the United States (including Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories or possessions). The total amount to be awarded and the number of z source anticipated awards will depend upon the quality, duration, and costs of the thesis, applications received as determined by the peer review process, available funds, and program priorities. This funding opportunity will use the NIH Dissertation Research Award (R36) mechanism. Grants to inverter, support dissertation research will provide up to $35,000 per year in nyu admission essay direct costs for a maximum period of two years. Eligible principal investigators are (a) students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups who have been determined by the grantee institution to be underrepresented in biomedical or behavioral science; (b) individuals with disabilities; or (c) individuals from z source inverter socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Eligible organizations include domestic, public or private colleges, universities or professional schools with an accredited doctoral degree-granting programs. Applicants may not submit more than one application to the awarding Institute for this mechanism. Applicants may not simultaneously submit an major study evolve, application for a National Research Service Award (NRSA) fellowship. Only one resubmission is z source inverter thesis, allowed in response to this FOA. See Section IV.1 for application materials.

The SF424 (RR) Application Guide for this FOA is located at these Web sites: (MS Word) For general information on SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission, see these Web sites: SF424 (RR) Application and Electronic Submission Information: General information on Electronic Submission of Grant Applications: Special Receipt/Submission dates are listed under “Key Dates.” The initial merit review group is of health care essay, convened by the Division of Extramural Activities, NIMH. Telecommunications for the hearing impaired is available at: TTY 301-451-5936. Table of Contents. 1. Z Source Inverter? Research Objectives. 1. Mechanism of Support. 2. Funds Available. 1. Eligible Applicants.

A. Eligible Institutions. B. Eligible Individuals. 2.Cost Sharing or Matching. 3. Cost Care? Other - Special Eligibility Criteria. 1. Request Application Information. 2. Content and Form of Application Submission. 3. Z Source Inverter Thesis? Submission Dates and Times. A. Submission, Review and Anticipated Start Dates.

1. Letter of Intent. B. Sending an Application to the NIH. C. Application Processing. 4. Apa College? Intergovernmental Review. 5. Funding Restrictions. 6. Other Submission Requirements.

2. Review and Selection Process. A. Thesis? Additional Review Criteria. B. Additional Review Considerations. C. Blog Writer? Sharing Research Data. D. Sharing Research Resources. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. 2. Administrative and inverter National Policy Requirements. 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s) 2. Peer Review Contact(s)

3. Financial/ Grants Management Contact(s) Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Objectives. The primary objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), is to increase the diversity of the mental health research workforce by stimulating and supporting the dissertation research of: students from essay racial and ethnic populations that are underrepresented in biomedical and z source thesis behavioral science; students with disabilities; or students from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Eligible students must have the objective of becoming successful investigators in areas of biomedical or behavioral science relevant to the mission of the cost of health care essay, NIMH. A dissertation represents the most extensive research experience formulated and carried out by doctoral candidates, with the advice and guidance of mentors. Dissertation research involves a major investment of the doctoral student's time, energy, and interest and z source inverter thesis its substance is an anthropologist among and other, often the basis for launching a research career. Lack of financial support during this phase of z source thesis training can delay completion of the dissertation project. The Mental Health Dissertation Research grant will provide full-time salary support and research funds for up to two years for eligible students to facilitate completion of their doctoral research project and dissertation in a research area relevant to the NIMH mission and research priorities.

The NIMH, as part of the NIH, recognizes a unique and compelling need to promote diversity in best nyu admission essay the biomedical, behavioral, clinical and z source inverter thesis social sciences research workforce. The NIH expects efforts to diversify the workforce to lead to: the recruitment of the most talented researchers from all groups; an improvement in thesis proposal the quality of the educational and training environment; a balanced perspective in the determination of research priorities; This dissertation research award announcement is intended to stimulate the participation of individuals from the following groups: A. individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups; B. individuals with disabilities; and. C. individuals from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in z source inverter health-related research. The NIMH is organized in five scientific divisions.

Each division’s research priorities can be found on major depressive disorder case the following web pages: Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science (DNBBS); Division of Adult Translational Research and Treatment Development (DATR); Division of Pediatric Translational Research and Treatment Development (DPTR): Division of AIDS and Health and Behavior Research (DAHBR); and Division of Services and Intervention Research (DSIR). Inverter? Potential applicants are encouraged to visit these Web and to contact the Scientific/Research Contact listed in Section VII to gain more information on the relevance of the proposed dissertation research topic to the NIMH mission. 1. Mechanism of Support. This funding opportunity uses the just-in-time budget concepts. It also uses the non-modular budget format.

This budget is found in the SF424 (RR) Budget Component described in the SF424 (RR) Application Package and Instructions Guide. Dissertation awards are not renewable nor may they be transferred to among, another PD/PI. 2. Funds Available. A project period of up to two years and a budget for direct costs of up to z source thesis, $35,000 per year may be requested. The sponsoring institution should provide salary and fringe benefits to the graduate student, consistent with its own established policy for funding individuals in similar positions, regardless of the source of funds. Funds may also be use for relevant travel to scientific meetings, as well as research costs of the dissertation in accordance with institutional policies. No funds may be used to pay tuition or fees associated with completion of doctoral studies.

Likely start dates for awards are December 2006, July 2007, December 2007, July 2008 and December 2008. Best Nyu Admission Essay? Award periods are for one or two years. Although the financial plans of the inverter, NIMH provides support for this program, awards pursuant to this funding opportunity are contingent upon the availability of funds and the receipt of apa college a sufficient number of meritorious applications. Facilities and administrative costs requested by consortium participants are not included in the direct cost limitation, see NOT-OD-05-004. 1. Eligible Applicants. Public or private institutions, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, and laboratories Eligible agencies of the Federal Government Domestic Institutions.

In addition, eligible institutions must have an accredited doctoral degree-granting program in the candidate’s area of study. A. Individuals from inverter racial and term ethnic groups that have been shown by the National Science Foundation to z source inverter thesis, be underrepresented in health-related sciences on thesis proposal a national basis (see In addition, it is inverter thesis, recognized that underrepresentation can vary from setting to setting and apa college papers individuals from racial or ethnic groups that can be convincingly demonstrated to be underrepresented by the applicant institution are eligible for support under this program. B. Individuals with disabilities, who are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. C. Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who are defined as: 1. Individuals who were raised in a family with an z source, annual income below established low-income thresholds.

These thresholds are based on family size; published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census; adjusted annually for changes in the Consumer Price Index; and adjusted by the Secretary of nyu admission Health and Human Services for use in all health professions programs. The Secretary periodically publishes these income levels at For individuals from z source thesis low income backgrounds, the papers, institution must be able to demonstrate that such candidates have qualified for Federal disadvantaged assistance or that they have received any of the thesis, following student loans: Health Professions Student Loans (HPSL), Loans for Disadvantaged Student Program, or they have received scholarships from the U.S. Quantitative Proposal? Department of Health and Human Services under the Scholarship for Individuals with Exceptional Financial Need. 2. Come from a social, cultural, or educational environment such as that found in certain rural or inner-city environments that have demonstrably and recently directly inhibited the individual from obtaining the inverter, knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to develop and participate in a research career. Eligibility related to predoctoral and blog writer dissertation-eligible status. Provided that you meet the eligibility criterion just above, you are eligible to apply for this award if: you are registered in an accredited research doctoral degree program; you are in good-standing in that program; you will have completed all non-dissertation requirements for z source, your degree by the anticipated start date of the award (except a clinical internship where that is required to an anthropologist the historians and other review, follow the dissertation phase); your doctoral committee has approved your dissertation proposal; you are a U.S. citizen, non-citizen national (e.g., residents of U.S. territories), or permanent resident by the time of award. The applicant must be a citizen or non-citizen national of the United States or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence (i.e., in possession of an Alien Registration Receipt Card) at the time of award. Individuals on student or temporary visas are not eligible to apply. Academic institutions are encouraged to facilitate submission of z source inverter thesis applications from major depressive disorder case qualified doctoral candidates.

Eligible individuals with the thesis, skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research are invited to work with their institution to develop an application for support. Of Health Care? A student applying for a Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant must be enrolled in an accredited doctoral degree program in an area or discipline relevant to the mission of the inverter, NIMH, and must be conducting dissertation research relevant to that mission. The student applicant must be a doctoral student who has advanced to candidacy and who has completed all requirements for and other essays, the doctoral degree (excluding the clinical internship requirement) other than the dissertation by the time of the award. Documentation of the applicant’s advancement to candidacy for the doctoral degree and an approved dissertation project must be provided at the time of application (see section IV.2 and IV.6). Applicants for the Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant are expected to pursue full-time research and career development activities directly relevant to z source, the mission of the NIMH. Applications with marginal or no relevance to the NIMH mission will be considered unresponsive and case will not be accepted for review. Therefore, prior to preparing and submitting an application, it is imperative that prospective applicants contact the NIMH staff listed under section VII. to discuss this program and their dissertation research project.

Note that individuals supported under Ruth Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) mechanisms including F30 and inverter F31 predoctoral fellowships and among essays review predoctoral trainees on NIH institutional research training grants are eligible to apply for an NIMH dissertation award. Such candidates may not receive concurrent support from an NRSA fellowship or traineeship and a R36 Dissertation Award. The dissertation award may only z source be used when NRSA eligibility has been exhausted or is no longer available. 2. Study? Cost Sharing or Matching. Section IV. Z Source? Application and Submission Information. Registration and Instructions for Submission via To download an Application Package and Application Guide for completing the depressive study evolve, SF424 (RR) forms for this FOA, link to and follow the directions provided on that Web site. PD/PIs should work with their institutions/organizations to make sure they are registered in the NIH eRA Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an applicant institution/organization can submit an electronic application, as follows: 1) Organization/Institutional Registration in z source inverter Started. Your organization will need to quantitative thesis, obtain a Data Universal Number System (DUNS) number and register with the Central Contractor Registration (CCR) as part of the registration process. Z Source Thesis? If your organization does not have a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or Employer Identification Number (EIN), allow for extra time. A valid TIN or EIN is necessary for CCR registration.

The CCR also validates the EIN against Internal Revenue Service records, a step that will take an additional one to two business days. Direct questions regarding registration to: Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726. Business Hours: M-F 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Direct questions regarding the Commons registration to: eRA Commons Help Desk.

Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Business hours M-F 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. 3) Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) Registration in the NIH eRA Commons: Refer to the NIH eRA Commons System (COM) Users Guide . The individual designated as the care essay, PD/PI on thesis the application must also be registered in the NIH eRA Commons. It is blog writer, not necessary for z source thesis, PDs/PIs to nyu admission essay, register with The PD/PI must hold a PD/PI account in inverter thesis the Commons and must be affiliated with the blog writer, applicant organization. This account cannot have any other role attached to it other than the PD/PI. This registration/affiliation must be done by the Signing Official (SO) or their designee who is z source inverter thesis, already registered in the Commons. Both the PD/PI and SO need separate accounts in the NIH eRA Commons since both are required to verify the application.

Note that if a PD/PI is also an NIH peer-reviewer with an Individual DUNS and CCR registration, that particular DUNS number and CCR registration are for the historians essays, the individual reviewer only. Inverter Thesis? These are different than any DUNS number and CCR registration used by care essay an applicant organization. Individual DUNS and CCR registration should be used only for the purposes of personal reimbursement and should not be used on any grant applications submitted to the Federal Government. Several of the steps of the registration process could take four weeks or more. Thesis? Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their institution is already registered in both and the Commons. Quantitative Proposal? The NIH will accept electronic applications only from organizations that have completed all necessary registrations.

1. Request Application Information. For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 710-0267, Email: The SF424 (RR) Application Guide is critical to submitting a complete and accurate application to thesis, NIH. There are fields within the quantitative, SF424 (RR) application components that, although not marked as mandatory, are required by NIH ( e.g., the z source inverter, “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component must contain the major depressive case study, PD/PI’s assigned eRA Commons User ID ). Agency-specific instructions for such fields are clearly identified in the Application Guide. For additional information, see “Tips and Tools for Navigating Electronic Submission” on the front page of z source inverter thesis “Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” The SF424 (RR) application is comprised of data arranged in separate components. Some components are required, others are optional. Essays Review? The forms package associated with this FOA in z source inverter thesis will include all applicable components, required and essay optional. Thesis? A completed application in response to this FOA will include the following components: SF424 (RR) (Cover component) Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations.

Research Related Other Project Information. Research Related Senior/Key Person. Research Related Budget. PHS398 Cover Page Supplement. PHS398 Research Plan (Including Letters of an anthropologist among essays review Support, Letter of Certification of Applicant Eligibility, and Academic Transcript attachments) R R Subaward Budget Attachment (s)Form.

Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations Component: Respond to z source, all required fields. This section identifies the primary site(s) where the depressive study evolve, research will be carried out. If multiple sites are involved, each location must be identified . Research Related Other Project Information Component: Respond to all required fields. This is z source, where Human/Animal subject information is given; and where the Abstract, Project Narrative, Bibliography References Cited, Facilities and Other Resources and Equipment information are attached. The information in Items 9 and 10 must include descriptions of the research setting(s), the facilities, resources, tools and equipment available to the investigator. Provide in disorder study adequate detail, descriptions of the z source inverter thesis, research environment, including unique or special resources, experimental organisms, patient/subject populations, tools, or instrumentation that are relevant to the feasibility of the project.

Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile(s) Component: This section will be automatically populated with information provided in previous components. Blog Writer? Check each section to make sure all required information is provided. The “Credential, e.g. agency login” refers to your eRA Commons Login ID. Your application will be rejected if this element is not provided for you, the PD/PI.

The Key Persons for whom Profiles must be provided include the Doctoral Candidate (the PD/PI), the Faculty Advisor, Dissertation Committee Chair and/or Supervisor. Other committee members and individuals who contribute significantly to the development or execution of the proposed research should be listed as “Other Significant Contributors (OSCs)”. A biographical sketch must be provided as attachments for each Senior/Key Person. Follow the recommended format in the 424 RR Guide. For the “doctoral candidate” the attached Biographical Sketch must also contain a scientific autobiography that states her/his career goals, including reference to his/her interest in the specific area of mental health/mental disorders-related research, and that describes their intended career trajectory. Research Related Budget Component: ***Level of Effort: It is expected that students will devote 12 calendar months to the dissertation.

Any level of z source thesis effort that is less than full time must be fully justified, and the student's salary must be prorated accordingly. FA costs are limited to eight percent of essay approved direct costs, less any equipment costs. PHS 398 Components. Cover Page Supplement Component: This is required. Follow the z source thesis, instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide. PHS 398 Research Plan Component: Do not exceed a total of 10 pages for items 2 to 5 of the Research Plan. It is blog writer, recommended that sections 2-5 be prepared as one document and then subsequently split into a separate PDF for each item. Plans for Instruction in inverter thesis the Responsible Conduct of Research (see Section IV.6 Other Submission Requirements) should immediately follow the Research Plan and should be submitted as part of the Research Plan component.

The items of the Research Plan are as follows: Item 1. Introduction to Application, Limited to one (1) page (For Resubmission Only) Item 2. Specific Aims. This section must identify the research questions to be answered or hypotheses to be tested by apa college term papers the project and must also address the relevance of the project to inverter, NIMH research priorities. This section must identify the questions to be answered or the hypotheses to be tested by the project. Item 3. Background and Significance. Of Health? This section must provide a summary of related published research that addresses the identified problem(s)

Item 4. Preliminary Studies/Progress Report. This section may include descriptions of ongoing work conducted in the laboratory or section in which the student is inverter, based and which is relevant to the proposed project. The doctoral candidate does not have to have been involved directly in this prior work for it to be described here. The candidate should indicate their level of involvement in such work and their accomplishments in the specific research setting, especially as they relate to the dissertation project. Item 5. Of Health Care Essay? Research Design and Methods. Inverter Thesis? Describe the experimental design and methodological procedures to be followed and, whenever applicable, provide information on such matters as sampling procedures, including the size and composition of the population to be studied and the size and major case study evolve composition of the sample and control groups, as well as a description of the types and sources of data to z source, be gathered, methodological problems that may be encountered, specific statistical analyses to be made, expected and alternative outcomes and their interpretation, and steps that will be taken to protect human subjects or research animals as appropriate. In addition, the management of the project, including a schedule or time-line of the main steps of the proposed investigation should be provided. Items 6-10. Human Subjects Sections: If Human Subjects will be involved in the project, follow the instructions in cost care the Supplemental Instructions for Preparing the Human Subjects Section of the Research Plan that are included in the PHS 424 RR Guide (Section II). Add appropriate attachments.

Other Research Plan Sections: follow the z source thesis, instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide to complete the sections relevant to the dissertation project. Item 11. Vertebrate Animals Section. Item 12. Consortium/Contractual Arrangements. Item 13. Letters of Support: A letter from the faculty advisor, dissertation committee chair or university official directly responsible for papers, supervising the dissertation research must be submitted with the application to demonstrate the PD/PI has advanced to candidacy.

The letter must (a) list the z source, members of the best, dissertation committee and certify their approval of the dissertation proposal; (b) certify that the applicant is eligible for this grant mechanism and that all requirements for z source, the doctoral degree, except the best nyu admission, dissertation and, if necessary, the clinical internship, are completed or will be completed by the time the award starts; (c) confirm that the university official or faculty committee expects the doctoral candidate to z source inverter, proceed with the approved project proposal with or without NIMH support and that the supervisor will provide time as needed to the student to allow timely completion of the dissertation; (d) certify that the institution's facilities and general environment are adequate to conduct the cost of health, proposed research; and (e) describe the z source inverter, advisor’s or committee’s role in advising, guiding, training or mentoring the doctoral student in conducting the quantitative thesis proposal, project. The faculty advisor and at least one other member of the dissertation committee must submit letters that address (a) their perceptions of the doctoral candidate’s progress to date; and (b) the candidate’s commitment to mental health-related research and her/his prospect of becoming an independent investigator in z source thesis this area. All letters must be submitted in one attachment. Item 14. Apa College Papers? Resource Sharing Plan. Item 15. Appendix: The doctoral candidate must provide an academic transcript of her/his record in the doctoral program to date. Z Source Inverter? The appendix may include photographs or color images of of health gels, micrographs, etc. provided that the image (may be reduced in size) is also included within the inverter thesis, 10-page limit of Items 2 -5 of the Research Plan. No images may be included in the Appendix that are not also represented within the Research Plan.

No publications or other printed material, with the exception of preprinted questionnaires or surveys, may be included in the Appendix. PHS 398 Checklist Component: This is a Required Component. Follow the instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide. PHS 398 Cover Letter File : This is an case evolve, optional but recommended component. Z Source? Follow the depressive evolve, instructions in the PHS 424 RR Guide to attach a cover letter. Note: While each section of the Research Plan needs to z source inverter, be uploaded separately as a PDF attachment, applicants are encouraged to construct the Research Plan as a single document, separating sections into distinct PDF attachments just before uploading the files. This approach will enable applicants to apa college term papers, better monitor formatting requirements such as page limits. All attachments must be provided to NIH in PDF format, filenames must be included with no spaces or special characters, and a .pdf extension must be used.

The NIH requires the PD/PI to fill in his/her Commons User ID in inverter thesis the “PROFILE – Project Director/Principal Investigator” section, “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component. The applicant organization must include its DUNS number in its Organization Profile in the eRA Commons. This DUNS number must match the DUNS number provided at CCR registration with For additional information, see “Tips and Tools for blog writer, Navigating Electronic Submission” on the front page of “Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” 3. Submission Dates and Times. Application Submission Date(s): April 22, 2006; August 22, 2006; December 22; 2006; April 22, 2007; August 22, 2007; December 22; 2007; April 22, 2008; August 22, 2008; December 22; 2008 (including resubmissions). Letter of z source inverter thesis Intent Receipt Date(s): Not applicable. A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity. PAPER APPLICATIONS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.

There will be an acknowledgement of receipt of applications from and the Commons. Information related to the assignment of an application to apa college papers, the Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons. Renewa l (formerly “competing continuation” or “Type 2”) applications are not permitted. Resubmissions: If the first submission is not awarded the applicant may submit one resubmission. The submission dates for resubmissions are the same as for new applications. The resubmission must include an Introduction (limited to 1 page) that addresses the concerns and criticisms raised in the summary statement. Refer to specific instructions on the preparation of an Introduction to a revised application in the SF424 Instruction Guide. The Introduction page is not included in the 10-page limit for the Research Plan narrative for the Dissertation Research Grant Application. Scope of thesis Awards : A Mental Health Dissertation Research Grant will be awarded for best nyu admission, a period of up to 24 months.

Within this time frame the applicant may request support for the amount of time necessary to complete the dissertation. Expenses usually allowed under PHS research grants will be covered by the NIMH dissertation research grant but may not exceed $35,000 per year in direct costs for the project for a maximum period of two years. An application that exceeds this period and cost will not be accepted for z source inverter thesis, review. Additional Required Material: As noted in the Research Plan instructions above, s pecific information must be included as Appendix attachments to the Research Plan. The following items are required documents for a Dissertation Research Award. Letter of Certification: A letter from the faculty advisor, dissertation committee chair or university official directly responsible for supervising the dissertation research certifying that the applicant meets the eligibility criteria for this award. An Anthropologist Among And Other? Letters of z source inverter thesis Support. Best Nyu Admission Essay? The transcript of the applicant's graduate school record.

Instructions in inverter the Responsible Conduct of Research : Applications must include the student-PD/PI’s plans for obtaining instruction in term papers the responsible conduct of research, including the rationale, subject matter, appropriateness, format, frequency and duration of inverter thesis instruction. The amount and an anthropologist the historians review nature of faculty participation must be described. No award will be made if an inverter, application lacks this component. Plan for Sharing Research Data. 1. Criteria ( Update: Enhanced review criteria have been issued for proposal, the evaluation of z source inverter thesis research applications received for potential FY2010 funding and thereafter - see NOT-OD-09-025). Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by an appropriate review group convened by the NIMH in accordance with the quantitative thesis proposal, review criteria stated below. Undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to have the highest scientific merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will be discussed and assigned a priority score. Z Source? Receive a written critique. The goals of NIH supported research are to cost of health care, advance our understanding of biological systems, to thesis, improve the control of disease, and to enhance health. In their written critiques, reviewers will be asked to comment on each of the cost essay, following criteria in order to judge the likelihood that the proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of these goals. Each of z source thesis these criteria will be addressed and considered in assigning the overall score, weighting them as appropriate for each application.

Note that an application does not need to an anthropologist the historians and other, be strong in z source all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score. For example, an investigator may propose to carry out apa college term papers, important work that by its nature is not innovative but is z source inverter thesis, essential to move a field forward. Significance: Does the major depressive disorder case study, proposed project address an thesis, important problem relevant to the NIMH mission and blog writer research priorities? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge or clinical practice be advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services or interventions that drive this field? Will the results have heuristic value? Innovation: Within the context of thesis dissertation research, does the proposed project employ or develop novel concepts, approaches or methods? Within the same context, are the aims original and innovative?

Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research : Quality and appropriateness of proposed training in the responsible conduct of blog writer research. Budget: The reasonableness of the proposed budget and the requested period of support in relation to the proposed research may be assessed by the reviewers. Is the effort listed for the PD/PI appropriate for the work proposed? Is each budget category realistic and justified in terms of the aims and z source thesis methods? 2.D. Sharing Research Resources. 1. Thesis Proposal? Award Notices. If the application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General. A formal notification in the form of a Notice of Award (NoA) will be provided to the applicant organization. The NoA signed by z source inverter thesis the grants management officer is the authorizing document.

Once all administrative and programmatic issues have been resolved, the NoA will be generated via email notification from the awarding component to the grantee business official. Selection of an application for award is not an apa college term papers, authorization to begin performance. Any costs incurred before receipt of the z source inverter, NoA are at the recipient's risk. These costs may be reimbursed only to the extent considered allowable pre-award costs. See Also Section IV.5., “Funding Restrictions.” 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements. Continuation of support without additional funds: under expanded authorities, the grantee institution may extend this grant up to one year without additional funds. However, notification of an extension to the NIMH staff must include information documenting the progress of the awardees during the proposal, first two years of support and the circumstances leading to the extension. Inverter? The grantee institution may provide a one-year extension of the care, grant, without additional funds, only if there is evidence of inverter thesis acceptable progress and the need for additional time. This report requires the principal investigator to provide a review of the progress made towards completing the objectives of the dissertation grant, including important or significant findings and list any publications submitted for review or published that were directly supported by the grant.

Confirmation of completion, filing and acceptance of the best essay, dissertation constitutes the final report of the grant. As a part of the closeout process, documentation of the z source inverter, filing and acceptance of the dissertation must be submitted to the NIMH within 90 days of the termination of the major case study, grant. Documentation of acceptance of the dissertation must include the signatures of the faculty committee or university official responsible for the candidate's dissertation, and z source inverter the Dissertation Abstracts citation. The final report should also indicate where the care, doctoral recipient is continuing their research career. Section VII. Agency Contacts. We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and z source thesis welcome the best nyu admission essay, opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. Inquiries may fall into three areas: scientific/research, peer review, and financial or grants management issues: 2. Peer Review Contacts: Division of Extramural Activities. National Institute of thesis Mental Health.

6001 Executive Blvd, Room 6138, MSC 9609. Bethesda , MD 20892-9609. Telephone: (301) 443-3534. 3. Financial or Grants Management Contacts: Grants Management Branch. Division of the historians Extramural Activities. National Institute of Mental Health. 6001 Executive Blvd , Room 6122, MSC 9605.

Bethesda , MD 20892-9605. Section VIII. Other Information. Required Federal Citations. Recipients of PHS support for z source, activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ( as mandated by of health care the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (, and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations ( as applicable.

Federal regulations (45CFR46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to z source, the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the quantitative, research to the subjects and others, and the importance of the inverter, knowledge gained or to be gained ( The Office of an anthropologist the historians review Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to z source, provide access to research data through the apa college papers, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are (1) first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds and (2) cited publicly and officially by a Federal agency in support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to z source inverter, understand the basic scope of this amendment. Apa College Term Papers? NIH has provided guidance at Applicants may wish to place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of time. Z Source? If so, the blog writer, application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about how to structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for z source thesis, wider use of data collected under this award.

NIH is committed to best nyu admission essay, support efforts that encourage sharing of important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for thesis, biomedical research (see At the same time the NIH recognizes the rights of grantees and contractors to elect and retain title to subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to among the historians and other review, the Bayh Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement All investigators submitting an z source thesis, NIH application or contract proposal, beginning with the October 1, 2004 receipt date, are expected to include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible. This will permit other researchers to benefit from the resources developed with public funding. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and is expected to be included in all applications where the development of essay model organisms is anticipated. It is the z source, policy of the NIH that women and members of an anthropologist among the historians and other essays review minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the z source inverter, purpose of the major depressive, research. This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of z source thesis 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of an anthropologist among the historians Women and Minorities as Subjects in z source Clinical Research (; a complete copy of the updated Guidelines is quantitative thesis proposal, available at The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of inverter clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (RR); and updated roles and apa college papers responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to inverter, require for all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of thesis 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and ethical reasons not to include them. NIH policy requires education on the protection of human subject participants for all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is available at Criteria for federal funding of research on z source inverter thesis hESCs can be found at disorder and at Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding ( It is the z source inverter, responsibility of the blog writer, applicant to provide in the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for z source, the hESC line(s)to be used in the proposed research. Applications that do not provide this information will be returned without review. NIH-funded investigators are requested to submit to the NIH manuscript submission (NIHMS) system ( at quantitative thesis PubMed Central (PMC) an electronic version of the author's final manuscript upon acceptance for publication, resulting from research supported in whole or in thesis part with direct costs from NIH.

The author's final manuscript is defined as the final version accepted for journal publication, and includes all modifications from the publishing peer review process. The Department of Health and blog writer Human Services (DHHS) issued final modification to the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Privacy Rule, on August 14, 2002. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the inverter thesis, protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and blog writer enforced by the DHHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. Unless otherwise specified in an NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to provide information necessary to the review because reviewers are under no obligation to view the Internet sites. Z Source Inverter? Furthermore, we caution reviewers that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly access an Internet site. The Public Health Service (PHS) is cost care essay, committed to achieving the health promotion and inverter thesis disease prevention objectives of Healthy People 2010, a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.

This PA is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2010 at This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at and is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review. Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and 405 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. Of Health Care? All awards are subject to the terms and z source inverter thesis conditions, cost principles, and blog writer other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . The NIH Grants Policy Statement can be found at NIH encourages applications for educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas. The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to recruit and retain the next generation of researchers by providing the thesis, means for term, developing a research career unfettered by z source thesis the burden of student loan debt. Note that an NIH grant is not required for eligibility and thesis proposal concurrent career award and LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the LRP recipient with the required commitment of time and effort, as LRP awardees must commit at least 50% of their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for z source inverter, two years to the research. For further information, please see: 9000 Rockville Pike.

Bethesda, Maryland 20892. and Human Services (HHS) Note: For help accessing PDF, RTF, MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Audio or Video files, see Help Downloading Files.

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Sample Essay on The Importance of Obeying Laws and Commands. Even before 300 B.C, the importance of law and command in the society baffled many thinkers. This was when Plato came up with the right republic and z source thesis, wrote about obligation and justice to the state. Laws and commands are very important if a society is to achieve order, justice and security. In the place where the laws do not exist, insecurity and chaos are the norm. What’s more, civilization cannot occur in a world that is lawless (Hobbes 256). Law however is not absolute and it can be amended or revised based on societal needs. This means that laws and commands to a large extend depend on the societal values. It is also an indication that laws cannot be effective if the society does not enforce and blog writer, obey the laws.

Law by definition means a set of rules that are prescribed by a given authority with an objective of maintaining law, order and peace in the society. Law is also made up of different rules that are applied in administration of justice (Hussain 1). Enforcement of laws and commands can also take many forms including sanctions, penalties and other punishments forms depending on the nature of the offense. Punitive norm of inverter laws and disorder study evolve, commands also make them binding. However, Hobbes (254) states the difference between moral and thesis, coercive authority. Moral authority refers to apa college correlative duty to obesity and coercive authority means having the right to coerce. This also indicates that laws and commands do not mainly occur because of fear of sanctions or punishments but due to thesis moral considerations. There are also two types of laws including formal and informal laws. Cates and McIntosh (15) believe that formal laws are deliberate and are documented to facilitate compliance, enforcement and interpretation. Informal laws on the other hand just like natural and apa college term, customary law exist based on shared understanding of how people should behave under different situations. To appreciate the importance of laws and commands, it is thesis essential to understand their classification.

In the US, law is thesis structured under five different categories including federal law, constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and state law. Federal laws are also applied to the entire country and are supreme laws of the land as stipulated by the American constitution. Therefore, the law is applicable to all American citizens and residents as well as businesses based and operated within the borders of the United States of America. State laws on inverter thesis, the other hand are confined to quantitative different matters within the state. Z Source Thesis! However, within the cost, state and federal level, constitutional laws are applicable because each state in the US has a constitution that serves as supreme law as long as it is z source inverter consistent with Federal law (Melvin 6).

Civil law on the other hand is very useful in different circumstances especially those related to domestic disputes such as divorce, breach of contract issues, accidents and ownership cases. Finally, criminal law is quite similar to civil law based on the fact that they are both processed and reviewed within the judicial arm of the government. However, in cost care, cases related to inverter thesis crime, criminal law is applicable especially if crime is committed against the state. As a result, individuals and businesses are ordered after prosecution to serve a jail term or pay a fine when found guilty. The main purpose of laws and commands is based on their ability to major depressive case maintain peace and order in the society. It is essential to inverter thesis note that societal order can be achieved only of the set laws and commands focus on enhancing discipline (Cates and McIntosh 15). For instance, criminal laws often deter individuals from creating disorder and chaos amongst them. Law protects every citizen from the other as well as from threats by foreigners. Those who attempt to create distress and social disorder are prosecuted through criminal law. Secondly, laws and depressive case study evolve, commands maintain stability.

As mention earlier, laws are not absolute bit in changes in law often occur gradually. Laws are additionally governed by rules and they rely on past verdicts that accord them specific performance level unless they are overruled. Similarly, laws create a balance between individual freedom and social order. If every person is accorded unlimited freedom, the z source inverter thesis, society will degenerate into chaos. On the other hand, giving social order preference can easily infringe liberties and individual rights. People have a major obligation to obey. There are different obligation types and it can be defined as a moral tie through which a person is expected to do or avoid doing something. Therefore, it follows that obeying laws and commands has a moral foundation. Obligation can also be grouped into two including imperfect and perfect obligation. Imperfect obligation is concerned with equity while perfect obligation binds a person to another in order to refrain from or do something or to give out something as stated in a country’s constitution.

For example, constitution of the land needs obedience from all citizens. Individuals are subjected to sanctions in the event of noncompliance. This is an indication of attracting punishment for failing to obey laws and apa college term papers, commands. Secondly, following laws and commands is socially important. Z Source Inverter Thesis! For example, obeying traffic signs and rules is essential in preserving life and property. Apa College Term Papers! Legal rules also tend to impose a moral duty on citizens. For example, a person is sanctioned by the legal system when he or she steals. The purpose of criminal law in particular is to build an orderly society.

Order in the society can be achieved or maintained if individuals are permitted to anything they want without necessarily taking into account the rights of z source inverter thesis other people in blog writer, the community. If all humans were to live in isolation from other people, there would be no reason to z source inverter thesis have criminal or any law in an anthropologist among the historians essays, place. As they say, no human being is an z source thesis island, we live in a society that is very complex and it needs close interaction with other people and on daily basis. In such a society as a result, every person must understand what he or she can do or not do legally in their regular interaction and contacts with other people. Obeying laws and cost of health essay, commands is additionally a very significant step in governing human activities and in preserving societal values. In a complex society like in today’s age and era, there would be no need of laws if everyone did the inverter, right thing and quantitative thesis proposal, related with the other well. However, the society is thesis characterized with many individuals who want to blog writer steal the property of other people, violate right to life, acquire liberty and property by force, cause fear and fraud and oppress the weak. Crime on the other hand violates societal controls and as a result, criminal law is needed to thesis deal with the people who are determined to disrupt normal society functioning and to prevent misconduct. Failing to obey the laws makes citizens lack redress in the event where they are wronged. Nyu Admission Essay! For the society to enjoy protection from the laws, members of the z source inverter, society must also be ready to sacrifice a small portion of their freedom to engage in whatever they wish for at any given time.

This is particularly very important when a person’s activities interfere with the rights of other people. Theories on Why Citizens Should Obey Laws and Commands. There are three major theories in regards as to why it is imperative to obey laws. Blog Writer! These include utilitarianism argument, contact argument and principle of z source inverter thesis fairness theory. Thomas Hobbes introduced social contract as a solution to best nyu admission essay state of nature. He defined the state of nature as a situation where people can comfortably live without being protected by the state and its laws. Without laws and lack of obedience to the laws, people will live under constant fear, there will be insecurity, they will fight and there will be no peace. Therefore, it is clear that to avoid state of thesis nature by Hobbes, human beings have to obey law based on the assumption that other people will obey them. According to Thomas Hobbes, the means for enforcing social contract was through creation of a state with given unconditional powers (Hobbes 249). The existence of such a state also allows people to keep up with their normal operations in a secure and peaceful manner.

Hobbes also argues that hypothetical consent exists between the state and individual citizens. The relationship between the state and an individual is as a result, similar to a contract. The state is committed to cost of health care offering security among other benefits and because citizens often enjoy benefits from the state, they also have an obligation to comply with state laws. Utilitarianism argument states the rightness or wrongness of a given action depends on z source thesis, the wellbeing it produces. Care! Citizens therefore have an inherent obligation to z source obey laws with regard to the importance of obeying laws and commands of the land because they ensure their happiness and wellbeing compared to other alternatives. The wellbeing and happiness that citizen’s experience under a state as well as its laws is also great than if the laws were not in existence at all. What’s more, with the fact that disobedience leads to less utility overall highlights the need for blog writer citizens to obey laws and commands.

According to Edmundson (220), citizens attempt to maximize their utility by moving towards happiness in z source inverter thesis, general. Quantitative Thesis! As a result, availability of laws requires that citizens obey the laws to help reduce pain and to maximize on the good. If a person fails to obey the law, other people in z source thesis, the society can be affected negatively. Nyu Admission! This is also a factor that is inverter thesis more likely to endanger maintenance of security and order across the state. Failure to obey the nyu admission essay, laws can also be detrimental to the society’s welfare because the government is forced to spend a lot of resources on prosecutions, training law enforcers, building jails, funding the whole judicial system and on trials. The resources could have been used to reduce suffering and maximize on happiness.

Therefore, failure to obey laws and commands not only increases spending but also leads to disutility to the society as a whole. The Principle of Fairness Argument. According to the principle of fairness, citizens of a country have a duty to obey the state, its laws and commands based on the fact that they offer specific benefits including security, order and public services just because they live within the territories of the state. It is simply a question of fairness and z source thesis, each citizen owes the cost of health care, other to carry out thesis his or her own part to enjoy the benefits. This also means that citizens of a state enjoy protection and are serviced by disorder case study evolve, the laws of the state. Therefore, they have a responsibility to obey state laws. It is a responsibility that can be likened to payment for an offered service. Role of Law in inverter thesis, Business and Society. Law performs four different functions and each is of great importance to the society’s welfare as a whole.

First of all, laws defend the people from any form of evil. The law is designed to protect residents and citizens of a country from the people who are out to blog writer cause harm to thesis them without any reason. Secondly, the law enhances the common good. Laws bring perpetrators of various injustices to book so that they can account for their actions. A community or a society of cost of health individuals with no will against the other person are also concerned with pursuit of their self-interest and should at all times respect the laws. This is because if every person decides to pursue personal interest, the situation will be worse compared to if the case was vice versa. As a result, a society that is full of individuals who are self-centered requires laws especially when it comes to distribution of private property that could be exploited ordinarily by everybody thus resulting in tragedy of commons.

Thirdly, laws help in resolution of disputes over limited resources. Such situations need laws and commands to be solved amicably. Finally, laws encourage and ensure good conduct amongst the people. It was also argued in a classical era that laws were important because they enabled people to act correctly and inverter thesis, accordingly. Best Essay! Countries including the z source, United Kingdom have many moral laws in their legal system. Laws were mainly used to prevent immoral behaviors amongst the people. However, the harm principle was introduced in the 20 th century, under which, the law is not to punish people for their immoral behaviors unless the conduct harms other people. It is also still quite debatable as to whether the law encourages people to do right or wrong. Even so, with regard to the importance of law, it is clear that it is essential in carrying out the cost care essay, first three roles outlined above. There is z source inverter also a consensus that many wealth and healthy nations are to a large extent dependent on blog writer, the level at z source inverter which, the rule of law is applied, upheld and respected in the countries.

Obeying laws and an anthropologist among the historians essays review, commands is therefore not important to individuals only but also to businesses. Businesses have to obey given laws and z source, failure to nyu admission do so can easily lead to negative consequences. Without proper laws to act as guidelines that direct actions and behaviors of individuals, the society could be uncountable. This makes it highly impossible to undertake business relations even in a single country, let alone across the globe. Law foundation is based on the concept that the society requires an organization and a good structure for it to thrive. Laws are also enacted to help preserve hierarchy of authority as well as integrity of the inverter, economy, enhancing ethics and ensuring consistency in individual and business relationships.

This also promotes equity and fairness, conflict resolution and it helps to safeguard liberties provided by the constitution. To the society, laws and cost care, commands offer a path of behaviors that are socially acceptable, encourage social interaction and permits good character. Perhaps, one of the z source inverter, benefits that one enjoys for obeying laws and blog writer, commands is ability to z source exercise individual rights as stated in the constitution. As far as businesses are concerned, laws protect them from ethical discrimination, crimination conduct and ensures their success by guaranteeing documents and contracts that are binding legally and are upheld at all times to promote business operations internationally and locally. Obeying laws at nyu admission essay place of work is very important because they direct daily operations and influence hiring process. Z Source Inverter! State and federal laws exist to regulate employment conditions and to protect individuals rights thus, ensuring equal treatment and to protect employees from practices that are discriminative based on gender, color, race and quantitative thesis, religion. It is due to existence of law that many employees and employers sign employment contract at the onset of employment. The contracts contain conditions and terms that all employees must obey in the course of z source inverter their employment to ensure a peaceful and secure working environment for apa college all that are involved. In conclusion, social and economic development begins with the people.

Respect for the rule of law is z source inverter consequently very important in any country. Many countries including Singapore is best known to obey rules, laws and commands hence, it has progressed much faster compared to other countries. Laws and commands also define individual rights and provide obligations. Lack of respect for the law, set rules and commands is no doubt insignificant. It is also essential to note that in z source inverter, a place where there is no rule of law, there will be no public order, and it shuts down investment opportunities. In this globalization era, a country with citizens that do not respect the law is doomed to fail. In cases where the people highly regard laws and commands, there is quantitative proposal also order and where there is order, investors flock in, growing the economy and builds the nation. The rule of law is therefore, a very important factor in national development and peace.

There is need for everyone to improve his or her understanding and z source thesis, enhance respect for laws and commands. This can be comfortably achieved through public education on the importance of obeying the laws. is the best place for your academic assignments to be completed.Our support team and qualified writers work around the globe to ensure you get the best ever.Place your assignments with us and enjoy academic success. Cates, Cynthia L., and Wayne V, Mcintosh. Law and the Web of blog writer Society . Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2001. Print. Edmundson, William. Z Source Inverter Thesis! State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the Law ,Md.: Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2004.

Print. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print. Hussain, A. General Principles and Commercial Law of Kenya . East African Publishers. 2003. Print. Melvin, Sean.

The Legal Environment of Business . New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. Print.

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Development and design of a Z-Source Inverter for Electric Vehicle

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VBA Error Handling – A Complete Guide. “Abort, Retry, Fail?” – MS-DOS error message circa 1986. If you are looking for a particular topic on VBA Error Handing then check out the table of contents below(if it’s not visible click on the post header). If you are new to z source inverter thesis VBA Error Handling , then you can read the post from start to finish as it is laid out in logical order. This allows us to handle the blog writer, error. (Only useful if you need to check a specific error occurred.) Error Handling refers to code that is written to inverter handle errors which occur when your application is running. These errors are normally caused by something outside your control like a missing file, database being unavailable, data being invalid etc.

If we think an error is likely to cost care occur at some point, it is good practice to write specific code to handle the inverter thesis, error if it occurs and deal with it. For all other errors we use generic code to apa college deal with them. This is where the VBA error handling statement comes into play. Z Source! They allow our application to cost essay deal gracefully with any errors we weren’t expecting. To understand error handling we must first understand the different types of errors in VBA. There are three types of errors in VBA. We use error handling to z source inverter thesis deal with runtime errors. Let’s have a look at each of these error types so that it is clear what a runtime error is. If you have used VBA for any length of time you will have seen a syntax error. When you type a line and press return, VBA will evaluate the syntax and if it is not correct it will display an error message.

For example if you type If and forget the best essay, Then keyword, VBA will display the following error message. Note: You can turn off the Syntax error dialog by inverter going to and other review Tools-Options and checking off “Auto Syntax Check”. The line will still appear red if there is an error but the dialog will not appear. Compilation errors occur over more than one line. The syntax is z source inverter, correct on a single line but is incorrect when all the project code is taken into account. Examples of compilation errors are: If statement without corresponding End If statement For without Next Select without End Select Calling a Sub or Function that does not exist Calling a Sub or Function with the wrong parameters Giving a Sub or Function the nyu admission, same name as a module Variables not declared( Option Explicit must be present at the top of the z source inverter thesis, module) To find compilation errors, we use Debug-Compile VBA Project from the Visual Basic menu. When you select Debug-Compile , VBA displays the first error it comes across.

When this error is fixed, you can run Compile again and VBA will then find the next error. Debug-Compile will also include syntax errors in it’s search which is very useful. If there are no errors left and you run Debug-Compile , it may appear that nothing happened. Cost Essay! However, “Compile” will be grayed out in the Debug menu. This means your application has no compilation errors at the current time. Debug-Compile finds compilation(project wide) errors. It will also find syntax errors. It finds one error each time you use it. When there are no compilation errors left the Compile option will appear grayed out in the menu. You should always use Debug-Compile before you run your code. Z Source Inverter! This ensures that your code has no compilation errors when you run it.

If you do not run Debug-Compile then VBA may find compile errors when it runs. These should not be confused with Runtime errors. Runtime errors occur when your application is running. Quantitative Proposal! They are normally outside of z source inverter thesis your control but can be caused by errors in best nyu admission your code. For example, imagine your application reads from an external workbook. If this file gets deleted then VBA will display an error when your code tries to open it. Other examples of runtime errors are. a database not being available the inverter, user entering invalid data a cell containing text instead of apa college term a number. As we have seen, the z source inverter, purpose of best essay error handling is to deal with runtime errors when they occur. Expected Versus Unexpected Errors. When we think a runtime error could occur we put code in place to handle it.

For example, we would normally put code in place to deal with a file not being found. The following code checks if the file exists before it tries to open it. If the file does not exist then a user friendly message is displayed and the code exits the z source inverter, sub. If we don’t have specific code to handle an error it is considered an quantitative thesis proposal unexpected error. We use the VBA error handling statements to handle the unexpected errors.

Runtime Errors that are not VBA Errors. Before we look at the VBA Handling there is one type of error we must mention. Some runtime errors are not considered errors by inverter VBA but only by the user. Let me explain this with an example. Imagine you have an application that requires you to add the values in the variables a and b. Let’s say you mistakenly use an asterisk instead of the plus sign.

These errors cannot be dealt with using error handling as they obviously won’t generate any error. You can deal with these errors using Unit Testing and Assertions. I have an in-depth post about using VBA assertions – see How to Make Your Code BulletProof. As we have seen there are two ways to major disorder case study evolve treat runtime errors. Expected errors – write specific code to z source inverter handle them. Unexpected errors – use VBA error handling statements to handle them. The VBA On Error statement is used for error handling. This statement performs some action when an error occurs during runtime.

There are four different ways to use this statement. On Error Goto 0 – the code stops at the line with the error and displays a message. On Error Resume Next – the major depressive disorder, code moves to thesis next line. No error message is displayed. Best Essay! On Error Goto [label] – the code moves to a specific line or label. Z Source Inverter Thesis! No error message is term papers, displayed. Z Source! This is the one we use for the historians and other review error handling. Inverter! On Error Goto -1 – clears the current error.

This is the default behavior of apa college papers VBA. In other words, if you don’t use On Error then this is the behavior you will see. When an error occurs, VBA stops on the line with the error and displays the error message. The application requires user intervention with the code before it can continue. This could be fixing the error or restarting the application. Thesis! In this scenario no error handling takes place.

If you select End then the proposal, application simply stops. If you select Debug the application stops on the error line as the screenshot below shows. This behavior is z source thesis, unsuitable for an application that you are given to nyu admission essay a user. Inverter Thesis! These errors look unprofessional and term, they make the application look unstable. An error like this is essentially the application crashing. Inverter Thesis! The user cannot continue on without restarting the application. They may not use it at all until you fix the error for them. By using On Error Goto [label] we can give the user a more controlled error message.

It also prevents the application stopping. We can get the application to cost perform in a predefined manner. Using On Error Resume Next tells VBA to ignore the error and continue on. There are specific occasions when this is useful. Most of the z source inverter, time you should avoid using it. If we add Resume Next to our example Sub then VBA will ignore the divide by zero error. It is not a good idea to do this.

If you ignore the error, then the papers, behavior can be unpredictable. The error can affect the application in multiple ways.You could end up with invalid data. The problem is inverter thesis, that you aren’t aware that something went wrong because you have suppressed the papers, error. In the code above, we continue on if there is an error. Then in the next line we check the value of the Outlook variable. If there has been an error then the value of this variable will be set to Nothing . This is an example of when Resume could be useful. The point is that even though we use Resume we are still checking for the error. Z Source Inverter Thesis! The vast majority of the time you will not need to use Resume . This is how we use Error Handling in VBA. It is the equivalent of the Try and Catch functionality you see in languages such as C# and Java. When an error occurs you send the error to a specific label.

It is nyu admission essay, normally at the bottom of the sub. VBA jumps to the eh label because we specified this in the On Error Goto line. Note 1: The label we use in the On…Goto statement, must be in the current Sub/Function. If not you will get a compilation error. Note 2: When an error occurs when using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling returns to the default behaviour i.e. Z Source! The code will stop on the line with the the historians review, error and display the error message. See the next section for z source inverter more information about this. This statement is different than the other three. It is used to clear the current error rather than setting a particular behaviour.

When an disorder case error occurs using On Error Goto [label] , the z source inverter, error handling behaviour returns to the default behaviour i.e. “On Error Goto 0”. That means that if another error occurs the major depressive disorder case study, code will stop on the current line. This behaviour only thesis, applies to best essay the current sub. Once we exit the sub, the inverter, error will be cleared automatically. Take a look at the code below.

The first error will cause the code to of health essay jump to the eh label. The second error will stop on the line with the 1034 error. If we add further error handling it will not work as the error trap has not been cleared. In the code below we have added the line. after we catch the first error. This has no effect as the error has not been cleared.

In other words the code will stop on inverter the line with the error and display the message. In the code below we add this line and the second error will now cause the code to jump to the eh_other label. Note 2: The Err Object has a member Clear . Using Clear clears the text and numbers in the Err object, but it does NOT reset the error. As we have seen, VBA will do one of three things when an error occurs. Stop and an anthropologist the historians and other review, display the error. Ignore the thesis, error and continue on. Jump to a specific line. When an error occurs you can view details of the error using the Err object. When an runtime error occurs, VBA automatically fills the Err object with details. The Err.Number is the ID number of the error e.g. the error number for “Type Mismatch” is 13.

The only time you really need this is quantitative proposal, if you are checking that a specific error occurred and this is z source thesis, only necessary on rare occasions. The Err.Source property seems like a great idea but it does not work for a VBA error. The source will return the apa college term, project name, which hardly narrows down where the error occurred. However, if you create an error using Err.Raise you can set the source yourself and this can be very useful. The Erl function is used to inverter thesis return the blog writer, line number where the error occurs. It often causes confusion. In the following code, Erl will return zero. If we change the Sub above to have line number it will now print out 20.

When you are finished working on z source inverter a project and hand it over to among review the user it can be useful to add line numbers at this point. If you use the error handling strategy in the last section of this post, then VBA will report the line where the error occurred. Err.Raise allows us to create errors. We can use it to thesis create custom errors for our application which is very useful. It is the equivalent of the Throw statement in JavaC#. The format is as follows. Let’s look at a simple example.

Imagine we want to ensure that a cell has an entry that has a length of 5 characters. Depressive Disorder Study! We could have a specific message for this. Err.Clear is used to clear the text and numbers from the Err.Object. In other words, it clears the description and number. It is z source inverter, rare that you will need to use it but let’s have a look at an example where you might. In the code below we are counting the of health care, number of z source inverter thesis errors that will occur. Among The Historians Review! To keep it simple we are generating an error for thesis each odd number.

We check the error number each time we go through the loop. Depressive Disorder! If the number does not equal zero then an error has occurred. Once we count the error we need to set the inverter, error number back to zero so it is ready to check for the next error. Logging means writing information from your application when it is nyu admission essay, running. When an error occurs you can write the inverter, details to a text file so you have a record of the error. The code below shows a very simple logging procedure. Below is an apa college papers example of z source inverter logging.

How you implement logging really depends on major study the nature of the application and how useful it will be. This section covers some of the other Error Handling tools that VBA has. Inverter! These items are considered obsolete but I have included them as they may exist in legacy code. The Error Function is proposal, used to print the error description from z source a given error number. It is included in cost of health essay VBA for backward compatibilty and z source thesis, is not needed because you can use the Err.Description instead. Below are some examples.

The Error statement allows you to simulate an error. It is included in VBA for backward compatibility. You should use Err.Raise instead. In the following code we simulate a “Divide by essay zero” error. With all the different options you may be confused about how to use error handling in z source thesis VBA.

In this section, I’m going to show you how to among the historians and other essays implement a simple error handling strategy that you can use in all your applications. This is a simple overview of our strategy. Place the On Error Goto Label line at the start of our topmost sub. Place the error handling Label at the end of our topmost sub. If an expected error occurs then handle it and continue. If the z source inverter thesis, application cannot continue then use Err.Raise to essay jump to the error handling label. If an unexpected error occurs the code will automatically jump to the error handling label. The following code shows a simple implementation of this strategy. We don’t need to add error handling code to every sub. If an error occurs then VBA exits the application gracefully.

A Complete Error Handling Strategy. The strategy above has one drawback. It doesn’t tell you where the error occurred. VBA doesn’t fill Err.Source with anything useful so we have to inverter do this ourselves. In this section I am going to introduce a more complete error strategy. I have written two subs that perform all the heavy lifting so all you have to do is add them to your project. The purpose of this strategy is to the historians and other essays review provide you with the Stack* and line number when an error exists. *The Stack is the list of sub/functions that were currently in z source inverter use when the error occurred. This is our strategy. Place error handling in all the subs.

When an error occurs, the error handler adds details to the error and raises it again. Among The Historians And Other Essays! When the error reaches the topmost sub it is displayed. The only messy part to this is formatting the inverter thesis, strings correctly. I have written two subs that handle this, so it is taken care of for you. These are the best, two helper subs. An Example of inverter using this strategy. Here is a simple coding that use these subs.

In this strategy, we don’t place any code in the topmost sub. We only best, call subs from it. If your project has line numbers the result will include the line number of the error. Error Handling is z source, used to handle errors that occur when your application is running. You write specific code to handle expected errors. You use the an anthropologist among the historians and other essays, VBA error handling statement On Error Goto [label] to send VBA to a label when an unexpected error occurs.

You can get details of the error from Err.Description . You can create your own error using Err.Raise . Using one On Error statement in the top most sub will catch all errors in subs that are called from inverter thesis here. If you want to record the name of the Sub with the error, you can update the of health essay, error and rethrow it. You can use a log to record information about the application as it is running. If you want to read about more VBA topics you can view a complete list of my posts here. I also have a free eBook(see below) which you will find useful if you are new to VBA. If you are serious about mastering VBA then you may want to check out The Excel VBA Handbook.

Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to my eBook, How to inverter thesis Ace the 21 Most Common Questions in nyu admission essay VBA which is full of examples you can use in your own code. I learned a lot in a couple of weeks, I’m very grateful, best regards! You’re welcome Victor. Hi Paul, this is a very useful and thesis, informative post. As one who did not employ any error handling in my VBA and simply discarded hours of cost of health essay work when it did function as expected – that is until I undertook you VBa training course. The error routine in this post is excellent and for one will employ it for future VBA procedures. Thanks very much – much appreciated. You’re welcome John. Glad you found it useful. Nice post and a solid dose of knowledge again.

Now my question is on the part with the logging procedure. I’ve noticed things that were unknown to me like: Open sFilename For Append As #filenumber. After searching the web resources, it seemes to z source thesis me, that they are similar to thing I do with these statements (they are just examples, so don’t try to an anthropologist essays review seek any bigger logic there): Dim fso as New FileSytsemObject. Dim report as TextStream. Set report = fs.CreateTextFile(“kermitlogisticsreportslog_rotation.txt”) report.WriteLine(‘something stupid here’) ok, so am I right, that these things can basically do the same? Are there any reasons why someone should prefer one method over inverter thesis, the other – maybe it depends on quantitative thesis proposal a situation?

FileSystemObject is an external library where as the other commands are part of VBA. They do perform the same tasks. Which one you use depends on your own preferences and possibly the situation at hand. Thanks Paul, explained with nice examples and in a simple terms anyone can understand. Help and useful. Thanks for the detailed writeup, Paul; I have bookmarked this site. In the example on raising errors, the error is raised in an IF block, following which is code demarcated by the comment “continue on if cell has valid data.” I don’t see why the z source inverter, code won’t continue on if the cell has INvalid data — will the best nyu admission, Error.Raise statement effectively exit the function? Thanks for your comment. The Err.Raise statement generates an inverter error. Essay! When we use “On Error Goto [Label]” the Err.Raise will go searching for the Label. I’ve updated the code to include the “On Error Goto” and label to make the example clearer.

Hi Paul, thanks for your post! I’m tryng to handle error raised in a Sub that is called with the “Application.Run” statement and that is located on an external workbook than the caller sub. I write a sample code of this: [ The caller sub in Module1 in File1.xls ] On Error GoTo EH. ‘Call ExternalSub ‘(This line is temporarly commented out) ‘(some lines to inverter thesis handle error) ‘[Called sub in Module1 in blog writer File2.xls] On Error GoTo 0 ‘(that means no error handling in z source thesis this sub) Err.Raise 600, “Description of custom error” The result is that the error handler of the Main_Sub is ignored, so the running code breaks on the “Err.Raise 600, …” line inside the ExternalSub.

If, instead, I write the best, ExternalSub in a module the thesis, same File1.xls of the Main_Sub (and, to call it from the Main_Sub, I comment out the blog writer, Application.Run line and uncomment the z source, “Call ExternalSub” line), the error is correctly handled by the Main_Sub and the code runs after the EH label. Could you, please, confirm that the error handling hierarchy fails because I try to use it across macros that are located in different workbooks? Thanks in advance. The error handling will not work across workbooks. When you call external subs they are running from within the other workbook process and not as part of the current one. Quantitative Proposal! You can think of them as different applications. How do we identify and uncheck missing objects in runtime via code? It should be the same code for Excel except for using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject instead of ActiveDocument.VBProject. First of all, I’ll take this opportunity to inverter thank you for your excellent posts. I’ve learned a lot from them! Using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject gives me the error “Method ‘VBProject’ of object ‘_workbook’ Failed.

This error can be taken care of by providing some permission for Macros. But that would have to be per user setting. Is there way to use your error-handling pattern without having to change this setting so each user does not have to change this setting. The user has to set permissions for the Macros for and other review security reasons. If you could set them with code then by definition they would be unnecessary. However, these permissions need to be only z source thesis, set once by the user. The best you can do is check for depressive study that particular error number. If the error occurs then display instructions on how to set the permissions. Well, Paul, your site is definitely my favorite pub.

I come back every time I can and I stay until I fall under the desk #128521; Thank so much for all the z source inverter thesis, stuff you post and gratulate for the top quality of didactic. Thank Curzio, Glad you like it. You bring us to among the historians and other essays review the Eldorado… Question: what is your opinion about the z source thesis, concept below, is it good/bad/usable, should I change something? Description: this seems to works for cost my purpose, even though of course it means that most of times processes goes on after an error has been raised.

These 2 procedures are actually the simplified version. In my apps I then have a module named dp (as keyword for debug.print) dedicated to the log of every start, end, error and values for z source thesis every Sub/Function/Property to the immediate and to a text file. Quantitative Thesis Proposal! I wrote it before you brought me to the Watch and z source thesis, Local windows, as well the major disorder evolve, debug.assert method (again I’m deeply grateful). Finally the result is very handy and I would like to keep it in addition with Watch/Local/Assert: I run a process and z source, then I look in the Log File for nyu admission errors and values. After development the log file can help debugging if other users reports some issues. In the sub testErrorHandling errors are not expected, whereas in the sub testCatchError they are and handled automatically or with user interaction.

I tried to add a On Error GoTo -1 (excluded in code as comment), but then it runs in to a error loop (20 Resume without error) Private Sub testErrorHandling() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Private Sub testCatchError() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Dim xPath As String. Dim xDirectory As String. Dim xErr As Integer. xPath = ThisWorkbook.Path .PathSeparator “vbLogFolder” xDirectory = Dir(xPath, vbDirectory)

If xErr = 68 Then. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Thanks and kind regards. I’m not 100 percent clear on your concept but I will cover a few points that you raised. Logging is z source thesis, a great idea and is part of most professional software applications. Logging to the Immediate Window can be useful but it is limited because using the debug tools are better to fix the care essay, problem. The best use of Logging is when we give the application to a user. We can log both errors, warnings and information to z source thesis a text file.

If there is an error we can look in the log file to see what occurred. Using Resume Next to handle a general error is not a good idea. Depressive Disorder Study Evolve! Once an z source thesis error has occurred your application is invalid and cost of health essay, it may result in further errors or incorrect data. The only time you should use Resume Next is when you know the error will not affect the rest of the code. In other words, the error is one that you expected may happen and inverter, know how to blog writer handle it. I hope this helps. Thanks Paul, this helps a lot. I have some improvements to z source inverter thesis do… #128578; I’ve been trying your code for the complete error handling but I just can’t get it to quantitative work properly. Going through it line by inverter line, it runs fine until the “Err.Raise” in the “RaiseError” helper sub, which simply displays the error and thesis proposal, gives the options of debugging or ending.

I assume that it’s intended to have raised the z source inverter thesis, error in the higher level sub, which would then handled by its “On Error Goto EH” command, but it seems like it simply raises it within the helper function and stops the code right then and there instead. I’ve tried this in Excel 2003 and 2016 and it’s the same thing. Is there something I’m missing here? How does the error raising go on to the higher level sub instead of term just showing the error when Err.Raise is called in the helper sub? Please ignore my earlier comment about code not working. I just realized the problem – when testing, I was running the actual sub with the error instead of the topmost. . . . . . . . . . Z Source Inverter Thesis! . Wow, I can’t believe how long it took me to realize that.

Thank you for the excellent tutorial by the way, this methodology really works great! Thank’s Peter. Glad you like it. I typically use error handling as you describe where I have an term error handler in my main function and most subs’s messages get caught there. However, I run into trouble when I need to turn on Resume Next for the sake of checking for nothing, because my ErrorHandler is now out of scope. What’s the thesis, solution for that?

I have a simple example below. On Error GoTo ErrorHandler. On Error Resume Next. Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile(fileLocation fileName, 1) On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ‘ Fails to compile, out of scope. If objFile Is Nothing Then.

Call Err.Raise(2009, , “Out File doesn’t exist.”) You can use the thesis, Dir function to check if a file exists. It won’t find other file errors though. Superb Post. got a clear idea on how to z source inverter handle errors and types of quantitative thesis proposal errors in VBA… thanks Paul.

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Essay:Counter to If God Created Everything, Who Created God. It does not necessarily reflect the views expressed in RationalWiki's Mission Statement, but we welcome discussion of a broad range of ideas. Unless otherwise stated, this is original content, released under CC-BY-SA 3.0 or any later version. See RationalWiki:Copyrights. Feel free to make comments on the talk page, which will probably be far more interesting, and might reflect a broader range of RationalWiki editors' thoughts. This is a rebuttal to If God Created Everything, Who Created God by Evidence for z source inverter thesis God from Science (retrieved 15 August 2009). Richard Dawkins, among other atheists, thinks he has the ultimate proof that God doesn't exist. If God created a complex universe, wouldn't it take an even more complex entity to have created God? However, such logic assumes that time has always existed, rather than being merely a construct of this universe. Few atheists believe that this is the ultimate proof that God does not exist.

Who created God? It is an age-old question that has plagued all those who like to disorder think about the big questions. Having grown up as an agnostic non-Christian, it provided me with a potential reason why there might not be any god. Various religions tend to solve the problem in different ways. The LDS church (Mormonism) says that the God (Elohim) to whom we are accountable had a father god, then grew up on a planet as a man, and z source thesis, progressed to become a god himself. Many other religions have claimed that gods beget other gods. Of course the problem with this idea is how did the first god get here? This problem of infinite regression invalidates such religions. Christianity claims that God has always existed. Is this idea even possible? Does science address such issues?

The passage assumes that all religions have Gods begetting Gods, but this is best nyu admission essay not necessarily true. In many religions there was one (or a few) God(s) that have always existed that sired other Gods. For example, in Greek Mythology (depending on inverter the account) there was Chaos, who has always existed. Chaos begot a few other such Gaia, Nyx, Erebus, etc. Christianity is not unique in cost essay its aspect of saying that its God has existed forever, or before time. Christianity answers the question of who created God in the very first verse of the very first book, Genesis: In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1) This verse tells us that God was acting before time when He created the z source thesis, universe.

Many other verses from the New Testament tells us that God was acting before time began, and so, He created time, along with the other dimensions of our universe: No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and depressive, that God destined for our glory before time began. (1 Corinthians 2:7) This grace was given us in z source Christ Jesus before the beginning of cost of health care, time (2 Timothy 1:9) The hope of eternal life, which God. promised before the z source, beginning of time (Titus 1:2) To the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and blog writer, now and forever. Z Source Thesis. Amen. (Jude 1:25) The idea that God created time, along with the physical universe, is not just some wacky modern Christian interpretation of the an anthropologist among review, Bible. Thesis. Justin Martyr, a second century Christian apologist, in cost care his Hortatory Address to the Greeks, said that Plato got the idea that time was created along with the universe from Moses: And from what source did Plato draw the z source, information that time was created along with the heavens? For he wrote thus: “Time, accordingly, was created along with the heavens; in an anthropologist among and other order that, coming into being together, they might also be together dissolved, if ever their dissolution should take place.” Had he not learned this from the divine history of Moses? [1] I would again like to re-iterate that this is inverter thesis not unique to Christianity. Beyond that, the verse in Genesis that he sites says nothing about God existing before time; it only states that God existed before the material universe. Accepting these quotes for among and other essays review a moment, how are they stating that Plato’s ideas came from Moses? Judaism was not a popular religion at the time; it is unlikely that Plato ever had contact with any Jewish text. This is a transparent attempt to try to inverter thesis give their theory an term papers ounce of inverter thesis, credibility.

God exists in timeless eternity [ edit ] How does God acting before time began get around the problem of God's creation? There are two possible interpretations of blog writer, these verses. One is that God exists outside of time. Z Source Thesis. Since we live in a universe of cause and of health essay, effect, we naturally assume that this is the z source inverter thesis, only way in which any kind of existence can function. Quantitative Thesis. However, the premise is false. Without the dimension of time, there is no cause and effect, and all things that could exist in z source such a realm would have no need of being caused, but would have always existed. Therefore, God has no need of being created, but, in fact, created the time dimension of our universe specifically for a reason - so that cause and apa college term, effect would exist for us. Z Source Inverter. However, since God created time, cause and effect would never apply to His existence. I have never heard of the apa college term, “God exists outside of time” argument before! Wow this is a shock! Now, I could just say that Occam’s razor applies, for it is possible that time is an internal property of our universe and not an external, from that it is inverter thesis possible that our universe does not need a cause.

Since our universe not needing a cause is a simpler explanation than God creating it we can remove God from the equation. I think I just disproved his point, but I will continue in blog writer another vein. While it is generally accepted that time started after the z source thesis, Big Bang, it is major depressive case study evolve also noted that any event occurring before (what is the meaning of before without time?) the Big Bang could have no effect on our universe. So, if a God existed before time, it would have no effect on z source inverter thesis the present universe. God exists in blog writer multiple dimension of time [ edit ] The second interpretation is z source inverter that God exists in more than one dimension of time. Best Nyu Admission. Things that exist in z source inverter thesis one dimension of major depressive study evolve, time are restricted to time's arrow and are confined to cause and z source inverter, effect. However, two dimensions of time form a plane of apa college term papers, time, which has no beginning and z source inverter thesis, no end and is not restricted to any single direction. Blog Writer. A being that exists in at least two dimension of time can travel anywhere in time and yet never had a beginning, since a plane of time has no starting point.

Either interpretation leads one to the conclusion that God has no need of inverter thesis, having been created. This is actually very interesting, but has one major flaw: there are no theories that predict multiple dimensions of time. Time is separate from the other spatial dimensions, and while there has been work with producing theories with more dimensions in space, no work has seemed to go into quantitative proposal, theorizing about extra dimensions in time. This means that we have no idea how multiple temporal dimensions work. It might work like a spatial plan, but we have no evidence for inverter this.

In fact, saying that time only flows forwards only because they exist in one dimension of time is completely fallacious. There is some debate about an anthropologist essays what the underlying cause of the z source thesis, arrow of time is, but most agree it is, at least, in part due to the Second Law of major depressive case evolve, Thermodynamics. Once again, we have no idea how a second temporal dimension would respond to a first or how the Second Law of Thermodynamics would affect it. Why can't the universe be eternal? [ edit ] The idea that God can be eternal leads us to the idea that maybe the universe is inverter eternal, and, therefore, God doesn't need to exist at all. Actually, this was the prevalent belief of atheists before the observational data of the 20th century strongly refuted the idea that the universe was eternal. This fact presented a big dilemma for atheists, since a non-eternal universe implied that it must have been caused. Maybe Genesis 1:1 was correct!

Not to disorder case evolve be dismayed by the facts, atheists have invented some metaphysical science that attempt to explain away the existence of God. Hence, most atheistic cosmologists believe that we see only the z source, visible part of a much larger multiverse that randomly spews out universes with different physical parameters. [2] Since there is no evidence supporting this idea (nor can there be, according to the laws of the universe), it is quantitative really just a substitute god for atheists. Inverter. And, since this god is non-intelligent by of health care essay, definition, it requires a complex hypothesis, which would be ruled out if we use Occam's razor, which states that one should use the simplest logical explanation for any phenomenon. Purposeful intelligent design of the universe makes much more sense, especially based upon what we know about the design of the universe. This section has multiple flaws.

First, he states that a non-eternal universe needs to be caused, that is z source inverter a temporal statement. If time began with the blog writer, Big Bang, than nothing needs to z source thesis have happened before it. Nothing needs to cause it. God does not need to quantitative thesis have caused it. Second, it is just lovely how the person who believes that God created all the life forms on this planet is calling a scientific explanation metaphysical. Now, the inverter thesis, multiverse explanation has not been proven, although the many worlds interpretation has gained quite a bit of support. Most scientists agree that what happened before one Planck time will remain speculation, so while it is possible that God did create the universe, it is equally as possible that God did not. Now, he seems to be claiming that a multiverse is more complex than God, for some reason. I must wonder how an intelligent entity is simpler than a non-intelligent entity.

For an term intelligent entity one has to postulate how said came into thesis, existence, effected the universe/laws of physics. Cost Care. If this entity is the Christian God than one must determine how it is capable of interfering with the existing world. One must postulate quite a bit. If anything, the unintelligent entity seems simpler, and it would be this intelligent entity that would be removed by Occam’s razor. Third, the current four-level system to classify multiverses does not state that the multiverse is eternal. Levels one and two are affects of cosmic inflation, and thesis, require the Big Bang. Cost Essay. Level theory is an z source thesis effect of Quantum Mechanics and requires the Big Bang. Level four states that any mathematical universe is best essay possible, so some may be eternal, but not all.

So, the “multiverse is just the way for thesis atheist to apa college term papers not accept God” statement is invalid. If he had done any research he would have known that. What does science say about time? [ edit ] When Stephen Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose extended the equations for general relativity to include space and time, the inverter, results showed that time has a beginning - at the moment of creation (i.e., the Big Bang). Depressive Case Evolve. [3] In fact, if you examine university websites, you will find that many professors make such a claim - that the universe had a beginning and that this beginning marked the beginning of time (see The Universe is Not Eternal, But Had A Beginning). Such assertions support the Bible's claim that time began at the creation of the inverter thesis, universe. Stephen Hawking has actually made a few different statements about time before the Big Bang. The first was: Since events before the Big Bang have no observational consequences, one may as well cut them out major study evolve, of the theory, and say that time began at z source inverter the Big Bang. Events before the Big Bang, are simply not defined, because there's no way one could measure what happened at them. Essays. This kind of beginning to the universe, and of time itself, is very different to the beginnings that had been considered earlier. The second (in the same speech): The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago.” He has also consistently said that asking what happened before the Big Bang is meaningless, just as asking what is North of the North Pole.

I would also like to z source inverter thesis note that the assertions of many physicists do not support the Christian concept of creation. Again, if time and space came into an anthropologist and other essays, existence with the Big Bang, than there is no need for them to have been caused, for cause and effect only inverter thesis exist within time. God has no need to have been created, since He exists either outside time (where cause and effect do not operate) or within multiple dimensions of time (such that there is no beginning of disorder, God's plane of z source inverter, time). Hence God is eternal, having never been created. Although it is best nyu admission possible that the universe itself is eternal, eliminating the need for z source inverter thesis its creation, observational evidence contradicts this hypothesis, since the essays, universe began to exist a finite. 13.7 billion years ago.

The only possible escape for the atheist is the invention of a kind of super universe, which can never be confirmed experimentally (hence it is z source inverter metaphysical in blog writer nature, and not scientific). The universe has no need to have been created for time is an artifact of the universe, ergo there is no before the universe. We have no idea how multiple dimensions of time would interact and making the assumption that they would act like a plane is foolish. The statement that the universe needs to be eternal for God not to exist is foolish. As I have outlined above, if time began with the universe there is no before it. There would not be any need for a creator.

We do not need a super-universe, unlike the author's need for a super-being.